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Exploring American History Unit X – Modern America Chapter 30– Searching for Order Section 2 – America in the 1970s.

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Presentation on theme: "Exploring American History Unit X – Modern America Chapter 30– Searching for Order Section 2 – America in the 1970s."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exploring American History Unit X – Modern America Chapter 30– Searching for Order Section 2 – America in the 1970s

2 FACTS about this decade. n Population: 204,879,000 Unemployed in 1970: 4,088,000 National Debt: $382 billion Average salary: $7,564 Food prices: milk, 33 cents a qt.; bread, 24 cents a loaf; round steak, $1.30 a pound Life Expectancy: Male, 67.1; Female, 74.8 n Watergate forced a president to resign or be impeached. SALT I, the first series of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, extended from November 1969 to May During that period the United States and the Soviet Union negotiated the first agreements to place limits and restraints on some of their central and most important armaments. SALT I, the first series of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, extended from November 1969 to May During that period the United States and the Soviet Union negotiated the first agreements to place limits and restraints on some of their central and most important armaments.

3 Education n Social movements, particularly the anti-war movement, were highly visible on college and university campuses. n The Kent State massacre was the most devastating event, with four students gunned down by Ohio National Guardsmen attempting to stem the anti-war demonstrations. n Mandatory busing to achieve racial school integration, particularly in Boston and other Northeastern cities, often led to violence and a disruption of the educational process. n On a positive educational note, Congress guaranteed equal educational access to the handicapped with the Education of All Handicapped Children Act of Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Bd. of Ed. (1971)- busing can be used as a tool to desegregate schools

4 Fads n Mood rings, lava lamps, Rubik's cube, Sea Monkeys, smiley face stickers, and pet rocks all captured the imagination of Americans during this decade. The wildest fad surely was streaking nude through very public places! Families vacationed in station wagons and everyone wanted an RV.

5 Fashion n The men sported shoulder length hair. n Non-traditional clothing became the rage, including bellbottom pants, hip huggers, colorful patches, hot pants, platform shoes, earth shoes, clogs, T-shirts, and gypsy dresses. Knits and denims were the fabrics of choice. n Leisure suits for men became commonplace, and women were fashionable in everything from ankle-length grandmother dresses to hot pants and micro-miniskirts. n The movie Annie Hall (1977) even inspired a fashion trend with women sporting traditional men's clothing such as derby hats, tweed jackets, and neckties worn with baggy pants or skirts.

6 The movies n The Seventies was the decade of the big comeback for the movies. After years of box office erosion caused by the popularity of television, a combination of blockbuster movies and new technologies such as Panavision and Dolby sound brought the masses back to the movies. The sci-fi adventure and spectacular special effects of George Lucas's Star Wars made it one of the highest grossing films ever. n Other memorable movies were the disaster movies, Towering Inferno, Earthquake, Poseidon Adventure, and Airport. Sylvester Stallone's Rocky reaffirmed the American dream and gave people a hero with a "little guy comes out on top" plot. The Godfather spawned multiple sequels. There also was the terror of Steven Spielberg's Jaws, the chilling Exorcist, and the moving Kramer vs. Kramer. There was a definite public yearning for simpler, more innocent times as evidenced by the popularity of the movies, American Graffiti and Grease, which both presented a romanticized view of the Fifties. Saturday Night Fever with John Travolta fueled the "disco fever" already sweeping the music and dance club scenes; and the nation's experience in the Vietnam War and its aftermath influenced the themes of several movies, including Coming Home, The Deer Hunter, and Apocalypse Now.

7 Television and the movies n Television came of age in the Seventies as topics once considered taboo were broached on the airwaves for the first time. Leading the way was the humorous social satire of All in the Family which had plots on many controversial issues such as abortion, race, and homosexuality. Saturday Night Live also satirized topics and people once thought of as off limits for such treatment, such as sex and religion. Nothing was considered sacred. Television satellite news broadcasts from the frontlines of the conflict in Vietnam continued to bring the horrors of war into the homes of millions of Americans and intensified anti-war sentiment in the country. The immensely popular TV miniseries Roots fostered an interest in genealogy, a greater appreciation of whites for the plight of blacks, and an increased interest in African American history. Happy Days, which followed the lives of a group of fifties-era teenagers, was TV's primary nod to nostalgia, while The Brady Bunch comically presented the contemporary family. The relatively new publicly funded Corporation for Public Broadcasting gained viewers and stature with such fare as Sesame Street for children, and live broadcasts of the Senate Watergate hearings. Television satellite news broadcasts from the frontlines of the conflict in Vietnam continued to bring the horrors of war into the homes of millions of Americans and intensified anti-war sentiment in the country. The immensely popular TV miniseries Roots fostered an interest in genealogy, a greater appreciation of whites for the plight of blacks, and an increased interest in African American history. Happy Days, which followed the lives of a group of fifties-era teenagers, was TV's primary nod to nostalgia, while The Brady Bunch comically presented the contemporary family. The relatively new publicly funded Corporation for Public Broadcasting gained viewers and stature with such fare as Sesame Street for children, and live broadcasts of the Senate Watergate hearings.

8 Technology n The floppy disc appeared in 1970, and the next year Intel introduced the microprocessor, the "computer on a chip." n Apollo 17, the last manned craft to the moon, brought back 250 samples of rock and soil. Unmanned space probes explored the moon, Jupiter, Mars, Saturn, Uranus, and Venus. n The U.S. Apollo 18 and the USSR's Soyuz 19 linked up in space to conduct joint experiments. n Atari produced the first low-priced integrated circuit TV games, and the videocassette recorder (VCR) changed home entertainment forever. J n Jumbo jets revolutionized commercial flight, doubling passenger capacity and increasing flight range to 6,000 miles. n The neutron bomb, which destroys living beings but leaves buildings intact, was developed. In medicine, ultrasound diagnostic techniques were developed. The sites of DNA production on genes were discovered, and the fledging research in genetic engineering was halted pending development of safer techniques. The first test tube baby was born, developed from an artificially inseminated egg implanted in the mother's womb. In medicine, ultrasound diagnostic techniques were developed. The sites of DNA production on genes were discovered, and the fledging research in genetic engineering was halted pending development of safer techniques. The first test tube baby was born, developed from an artificially inseminated egg implanted in the mother's womb.

9 Music n This decade saw the breakup of the Beatles and the death of Elvis Presley, robbing rock of two major influences. n Pop music splintered into a multitude of styles: soft-rock, hard rock, country rock, folk rock, punk rock, shock rock -­ and n The dance craze of the decade, disco! n Among the top names in popular music were Aerosmith, the Bee Gees, David Bowie, Jackson Browne, Alice Cooper, Eagles, Electric Light Orchestra, Emerson, Lake & Palmer, Fleetwood Mac, Billy Joel, Elton John, Led Zeppelin, John Lennon, Pink Floyd, Bob Seger, Bruce Springsteen, Rod Stewart,Three Dog Night, and The Who. "Easy listening" regained popularity with groups such as the Carpenters, and Bob Marley gained a huge core of fans in the U.S. performing Jamaican reggae music. "Easy listening" regained popularity with groups such as the Carpenters, and Bob Marley gained a huge core of fans in the U.S. performing Jamaican reggae music.

10 The end of the Vietnam War n The U.S. had always had u a definite reason to fight a war u Declared war on its enemies u a plan or strategy for fighting and winning u Signed a peace treaty that ended the war. n most powerful- second march on Washington and My Lai Massacre n Bombing of Cambodia, Kent State and the Pentagon Papers. n War Hawks, Doves, Draft evasion. n Vietnamization and Domino Theory n Cease Fire- January 1973 u Cease fire in Vietnam u People of South Vietnam to choose own government. u Release of all American POWs. u Rest of U.S. troops to withdrawn in 60 days u 150,000 North Vietnamese troops to remain in South Vietnam

11 Oil Embargo n October 17, 1973, when Arab members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), in the midst of the Yom Kippur War, announced that they would no longer ship petroleum to nations that had supported Israel in its conflict with Egyptthat is, to the United States and its allies in Western Europe. At around the same time, OPEC- member states agreed to use their leverage over the world price- setting mechanism for oil to quadruple world oil prices At around the same time, OPEC- member states agreed to use their leverage over the world price- setting mechanism for oil to quadruple world oil prices

12 Environment n What is Love Canal? Simply put, it is an incomplete canal, or just a trench, built in western New York state in the 1890s. From the 1930s through the 1950s, it was used as a chemical waste dump. The surrounding land was then sold and used for residential purposes, and soon people began complaining about strange odors and possible health problems. Since the late 1970s, many studies have been done to ascertain whether any health problems can be traced to the waste dumped into Love Canal. n Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant is just outside Harrisburg, Penn. n A failed valve, and a miss reading by a worker caused the reactor to be exposed and radiation to escape. No deaths or illnesses. 1/2 hour away from a meltdown.

13 Patty Hearst and the SLA n SLA was an American paramilitary group and was a proponent of radical ideology. Members of the group were accused and convicted of committing murders, bank robberies, and acts of violence between 1973 and Even though they never had more than 13 members, they became the top ongoing media story during their underground fugitive period. More than anything else, this was generated by their spectacular kidnapping of wealthy media heiress Patty Hearst, making them household names. On Feb. 4, 1974, the SLA carried out its most notorious crime the kidnapping of 19-year-old newspaper heiress Patricia Campbell Hearst, the granddaughter of publisher William Randolph Hearst and an art history major at Berkeley, it was a national media event. n A SLA communiqué to a local newspaper said the group had "served an arrest warrant" on Hearst, daughter of the "corporate enemy of the people. n SLA's first demand: that every poor person in California be given $70 in free food.The estimated cost of such a food distribution would be $400 million. Instead a food donation program was set that provided $2 million in food. n SLA's first demand: that every poor person in California be given $70 in free food. The estimated cost of such a food distribution would be $400 million. Instead a food donation program was set that provided $2 million in food. n The SLA robbed a Hibernia Bank branch in San Francisco. Two surveillance cameras captured Hearst carrying a carbine and shouting orders at terrified bank customers. Two bystanders were shot during the robbery, which netted the SLA $10,692.Urban Guerilla or Brainwashed? It seemed to all that she had become more and more sympathetic with the aims of the SLA and eventually joined the group, taking part in their illegal activities, including bank robberies. n The SLA robbed a Hibernia Bank branch in San Francisco. Two surveillance cameras captured Hearst carrying a carbine and shouting orders at terrified bank customers. Two bystanders were shot during the robbery, which netted the SLA $10,692. Urban Guerilla or Brainwashed? It seemed to all that she had become more and more sympathetic with the aims of the SLA and eventually joined the group, taking part in their illegal activities, including bank robberies. n When she went on trial for bank robbery, she claimed the SLA had brainwashed her into believing the FBI would kill her if she tried to return to her parents. A jury rejected Hearst's claim and she spent two years in prison before President Carter commuted her sentence.

14 Jim Jones and the Peoples Temple. n The charismatic leader of Jonestown, was Jim Jones, a preacher who set up the Peoples Temple in San Francisco and ultimately moved his followers to a more clandestine site in Guyana. n While Jones was preaching in San Francisco, he helped out many local and even national campaigns and was seen as a healer which much power in the community. n However, once he had all of his members in Jonestown, his personality changed. Away from the constraints of American soil, Jonestown and its members became very cultish.. n In 1978, 913 followers of Jim Jones and the Peoples Temple committed a mass suicide in northern Guyana at a site called, Jonestown. After making all 276 children at Jonestown drink the punch, all the adults proceeded. In the end, after Jones apparently killed himself with a gunshot to the head.

15 America in the 1970s The Big Idea Americans faced major challenges both at home and around the world in the 1970s. Main Ideas American society debated key social issues during the 1970s. Jimmy Carter was elected president in Carter had successes as well as failures in foreign policy during his administration.

16 Main Idea 1: American society debated key social issues during the 1970s. n The American population was changing in the 1970s. u Most immigrants came from Latin America and Asia. u Birth rate declined u By 1970, Americans 65 and older became one of the fastest growing population groups. n America faced new challenges in finding ways to balance the views of all Americans. u The Equal Rights Amendment caused national debate, but failed. u 1972 law known as Title IX banned discrimination on basis of sex in federally funded educational programs. u In 1973 the Supreme Court legalized abortion in Roe v. Wade.

17 Affirmative Action Americans debated affirmative action, the practice of giving special consideration to nonwhites or women to make up for past discrimination. Supporters argued it was needed to improve educational and job opportunities for minorities and women. Opponents insisted that any race- or gender-based preferences were unfair. Issues of the 1970s Environment Biologist Rachel Carson brought attention to environmental issues such as pollution in the 1970s. April 22, 1970, was the first celebration of Earth Day. Congress passed new laws to limit the release of pollutants. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established in 1970 to enforce environmental legislation. Debates on balancing business and environmental concerns.

18 Main Idea 2: Jimmy Carter was elected president in n Democratic nominee Jimmy Carter defeated Republican nominee Gerald Ford in a close 1976 election. n Carter faced many challenges. u Economy sluggish, high unemployment and inflation u High oil prices u Had a difficult time convincing Congress to support his proposals n Carter hoped to use nuclear energy to help solve energy crisis. u Accident at Three Mile Island nuclear power plant caused new worries about safety of nuclear energy. u No new reactors would be built until the mid-1980s.

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20 Environment n What is Love Canal? Simply put, it is an incomplete canal, or just a trench, built in western New York state in the 1890s. From the 1930s through the 1950s, it was used as a chemical waste dump. The surrounding land was then sold and used for residential purposes, and soon people began complaining about strange odors and possible health problems. Since the late 1970s, many studies have been done to ascertain whether any health problems can be traced to the waste dumped into Love Canal. n Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant is just outside Harrisburg, Penn. n A failed valve, and a miss reading by a worker caused the reactor to be exposed and radiation to escape. No deaths or illnesses. 1/2 hour away from a meltdown.

21 President Jimmy Carter n 39th President Democrat n Who was Jimmy Carter? n Foreign Problems u Human Rights u Russians + SALT II u Panama Canal Treaties (2) u Developed Nations and Underdeveloped Nations u Middle East- Arabs (PLO) v. Israel u Camp David Accords - Peace Treaty 1976 u Hostages in Iran u Nicaragua and the Sandanistas u Soviets Invade Afghanistan and the Olympic Boycott.

22 Main Idea 3: Carter had successes as well as failures in foreign policy during his administration. n Carter favored policies that promoted human rights– the basic rights and freedoms of all people. u Reduced U.S. aid to former allies that committed human rights violations u Worked to pressure South African government into ending apartheid, a system of laws requiring racial segregation u Called for sanctions, or economic penalties, to encourage reform

23 Human Rights Basic ideas outlined in the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights Carter expected friends and enemies alike to uphold the highest standards in the treatment of their citizens. Soviet Relations Carter wrote to Brezhnev about his concerns with Soviet human rights issues. Brezhnev politely said that each country should mind their own business. Concluded SALT II talks in 1979 that limited nuclear weapons Carters Foreign Policy Recognizing China Formally recognized the government of the Communist Peoples Republic of China Ended recognition of the Republic of China on Taiwan

24 Latin America and the Soviet Union n Policy in Latin America u In 1977 Carter signed treaties that would transfer control of Panama Canal to Panama by the year n Relations with the Soviet Union u Détente broke down when Carter criticized the Soviet Union for committing human rights abuses. u When the Soviets invaded Afghanistan in 1979, Carter broke off arms talks and refused to allow athletes to participate in 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow.

25 Panama Canal Treaties n Why- u The U.S. had been in control of Canal since 1903 and could be forever. u Riots in Panama demanding control of canal, the biggest industry in Panama. u Panamanian Dictator Omar Torrijos threatened to blow up the canal if the U.S. didn't get out. n 1st Treaty u U.S. hands over Canal to Panama on Dec. 31, 1999 n 2nd Treaty u Canal to be neutral waterway u U.S. has permanent right to protect and defend that neutrality.

26 Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan n U.S. embargoes grain sales and technology, and culture exchanges to USSR. n U.S. and 61 other nations boycott the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow n The Soviet stay in Afghanistan until April 14, Soviet Vietnam.

27 Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan :15 min.

28 The Middle East n Carter worked to ease tensions in the Middle East. u In 1978, he helped Egypt and Israel reach a peace agreement in the Camp David Accords. n In 1979, rebels overthrew the shah, or king, of Iran and established an Islamic fundamentalist dictatorship. n On November 4, 1979, a group of Iranian students attacked the U.S. embassy in Tehran, the capital of Iran, and seized about 90 hostages. u The Iran hostage crisis lasted for more than a year. u After a failed rescue attempt in 1980, many Americans lost confidence in Carters leadership.

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30 Camp David Accords n Camp David Accords u Anwar Sadat- new President of Egypt- wants peace with Israel. u Prime Minister Menachem Begin of Israel u President Jimmy Carter of U.S.A u All three meet at Camp David, the presidential retreat. u Sept peace agreement reached. u Other Arab nation objected and said Egypt acts alone. Arabs put a economic boycott on Egypt.

31 Iran and the United States n Shah of Iran u Improved education u Womens rights u Improved public health u U.S. ally u but was a dictator, corrupt, and used torture to westernize n Islamic revolution u Overthrew the Shah. Shah goes to US for Cancer treatment u Ayatollah Khomeini- New Fanatical Muslim leader of Iran u Fundamental Islam n U.S. Embassy in Teheran u Our interest were oil based. u Islamic fundamentalist mob invades embassy and siezed the Americans there. u Demand return of Shah and unfreeze Iranian assets u Carter refuses the demands n Hostage Crisis- 52 for 444 days Kathryn L. Koob, 42 - Embassy Cultural Officer; one of two female hostages Kathryn L. Koob, 42 - Embassy Cultural Officer; one of two female hostages.

32 Iran and the United States - 5:30 min.

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