Presentation on theme: "Persuasion Essay To dream is heaven-like, but to act is heaven itself. English 112 Mrs. O."— Presentation transcript:
Persuasion Essay To dream is heaven-like, but to act is heaven itself. English 112 Mrs. O
What Is a Persuasive Essay? A persuasive essay presents the writers position on a certain issue, usually a controversial one. The purpose of the persuasive essay is to convince the reader that the writers opinion on the issue is valid whereas the opponents opinion is not.
How to Write a Persuasive Essay In order to be successful, a persuasive essay should use evidence and logic. If the writer neglects either evidence or logic, then he will fail to win the reader over to his or her side. The following are three ways to argue and persuade: 1. Use emotional appeal Touch the heart of the audience. 2. Use rational appeal a. Use logical reasoning, and let the facts speak; b. Point out whats wrong with opponents opinion. 3. Use ethical appeal Be fair; no personal attacks.
Emotional appealTouch the heart of the audience Homeless people should be sheltered and attended with health programs. Many homeless people are on the streets because of mental illness or other health conditions that prevent them from joining the work force. Our government should fund programs that provide these people with a decent home environment and medical treatment. Without these programs, we are going to see homeless people daily lingering on street corners, with hungry faces and shabby clothing, shivering in cold rain or dehydrated by the burning sun.
Rational appealUse logical reasoning, use facts We should not legalize drugs because drugs are dangerous to our health. If we legalize drugs, the easy access would encourage more people to take drugs, and as a result, we would have more people with health problems. As it stands now, an estimated 30 million Americans have used cocaine, and some 5 million use it regularly. Because of the increase in cocaine abuse, greater numbers of emergency-room visits, cocaine- related heart problems, and sudden deaths have been reported. If we make drugs legal, we wont be surprised to hear that more strokes, heart attacks, and sudden cardiac deaths occur in the near future.
Rational appealPoint out whats wrong with opponents opinion There are people who believe that school uniforms should not be adopted. They believe uniforms will decrease diversity and prevent students from expressing their personalities. This argument is not accurate because it neglects other aspects of diversity and other ways of expressing personalities. Diversity is not only defined by ones dress, but it is also by ones ethnicity and religious belief. As long as the school allows difference in ethnicity and religion, diversity will not be blocked out. As for personality, students can show their personalities by the way they socialize with fellow students and by how they express their ideas in the classroom. What is more important is the students education, and school uniforms will help students concentrate on the education they need.
Ethical appealBe fair: no personal attacks Martin Luther King addressing his opponents in his Letter from Birmingham Jail: If I have said anything in this letter that overstate the truth and indicates an unreasonable impatience, I beg you to forgive me. If I have said anything that understates the truth and indicates my having a patience that allows me to settle for anything less than brotherhood, I beg God to forgive me. I hope this letter finds you strong in faith. I also hope that circumstances will soon make it possible for me to meet each of you, not as an integrationist or a civil-rights leader, but as fellow clergyman and Christian brother. Let us all hope that the dark clouds of racial prejudice will soon pass away and the deep fog of misunderstanding will be lifted from our fear-drenched communities, and in some not too distant tomorrow the radiant stars of love and brotherhood will shine over our great nation with all their scintillating beauty.
Avoid Fallacies The following are logical fallacies we need to avoid when writing a persuasive essay. Either-or Thinking: Either-or thinking is when someone views a particular reality in only one extreme or another. However, sometimes a reality can have various views, gray area or it could have neither extreme. Fallacy: Unless all school districts require uniforms, students will not perform well academically. Better: In many cases, requiring students to wear uniforms can impact students academic performance positively. Fallacy: Requiring students to wear uniforms will make all students angry. Better: Implementing a uniform policy can possibly anger many students.
Continuation of fallacies Attacking the Person This occurs when the writer attacks the opponent as a person instead of refuting the argument. A writer has attacked the person if what was said hurts the feelings or reputation of the person. Fallacy: Laura Lopez, the school superintendent, dresses provocatively; therefore, she cant effectively preside over the meeting regarding the uniform issue. Better: Laura Lopez, although known to dress provocatively, can un-biasly preside over the meeting regarding the uniform issue. Fallacy: Laura Lopez dresses inappropriately for work; therefore, she must not be an effective superintendent. Better: Laura Lopez can not be an effective superintendent if she doesnt have leadership skills or interpersonal skills.
Hasty Conclusion: This occurs when a writer selects one conclusion out of two or more possible ones without good reasons for doing so. Fallacy: Uniforms should be required for public school children because the fashion industry is corrupting our youth. Better: If schools require uniforms, our students would not dress in ways that are distractive. Fallacy: The fashion industry advertises and promotes sexy dresses, which results in teenage pregnancy. Better: The fashion industry advertises and promotes sexy dresses, which is not recommendable in our schools
Arguing Off Point: This occurs when writers engage in tactics designed to avoid the key issue Fallacy: Abortion should not be allowed because Church people are against abortion. They, as well as physicians, are out there to save lives, not to destroy them. Better: Abortion should not be allowed because medical research proves that human life is formed from the very beginning of the conception; performing abortion is like murdering a human life. Fallacy: Men should not be given custody rights because they fool around with women. Better: Men should not be given custody rights because many of them are not skilled in taking care of childrens needs.
Faulty Analogy: This occurs when the writer suggests that things which are alike in one respect are also alike in other respects, when, in fact, they are not. Although in some cases two things may be similar in certain respects, there may be areas in which they are not the same. Fallacy: The Chinese students do well in school because of the adoption of uniforms; therefore, American schools should also require uniforms. Better: One factor determining the success of students in China has been the adoption of school uniforms; therefore, if Americans adopt uniforms, they might improve student success as well. Fallacy: Requiring uniforms in California has helped reduce the school violence; therefore, Texas school district should require school uniforms too. Better: Since school uniforms have had positive impact on students academic performance and social behavior in California, Texas should pilot school uniforms in some school districts to see how effective the school uniforms can be.
Introduction These are the first two paragraphs where you list your attention-getter, or lead-in, give background on your topic, state your thesis in a strong, clear manner, and give three reasons (which will be your three topic (body) paragraphs for your belief.
Body Body Paragraph 1 1. Topic Sentence: (Restate your position and restate 1st reason) 2. Explanation: (why and how) / Examples (who/what/how/when/where) & Statistics 3. Closing Remarks: relating the examples to the topic sentence Body Paragraph 2 1. Topic Sentence: (Restate your position and restate 2nd reason) 2. Explanation: (why and how) / Examples (who/what/how/when/where) & Statistics 3. Closing Remarks: relating the examples to the topic sentence Body Paragraph 3 1. Topic Sentence: (Restate your position and restate 3rd reason) 2. Explanation: (why and how) / Examples (who/what/how/when/where) & Statistics 3. Closing Remarks: relating the examples to the topic sentence
Counterargument This is the paragraph where you address your opponents opinion, and point out the faults of his/her argument.
Conclusion 1. Restate the thesis statement; 2. Point out a solution (visualization) AND call for action, giving the reader a sense of ending. 3. You WANT your audience to ACT!!!