Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11: Classroom Management"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 11: Classroom Management Objectives:1. Discuss current view of nature and scope of classroom management2. Compare three classroom management approaches3. Analyze strategies promoting an effective science learning environment4. Consider disciplinary interventions to bring about changes in behavior of student5. Discuss causes of misbehavior in adolescent students
2 Changing paradigm of classroom management Classroom management is more than disciplining misbehaviorsEncompasses all that teachers do to promote student learningShift from historical paradigm of obediencePromote responsibility of students for self-guidance (p.218)Impetus from expectation of school to address societal issuesViolence, irresponsibility, family instability increasingTeacher functions as “authoritative parent”Curriculum reform materials depend on this management shiftSmall group activities, student interactionTeacher rules and control over whole class doesn’t work wellShift to encouraging appropriate behavior rather than dealing with problems when they occurTheoretically grounded management decisionsPsychology has been applied to develop management systemsPresent ideas about motivates student behaviorsIdentify strategies for maintaining successful learning environment“Assertive Discipline”, “Teacher Effectiveness Training”, etc…
3 Three accepted interpretations of child development Children are intrinsically motivated to develop their potentialChildren are molded by external forces of environmentChildren develop through interaction of intrinsic and external forcesWolfgang (1995) places management systems into classes based on which of these models they follow (p. 219)Student-Directed Management (intrinsic motivation)Teacher actions promote minimal authorityPromote classroom learning communitiesStudents work and express themselves freelyMisbehavior is due to obstacles preventing rational student thinkingRemove obstacles and students will behaveNonverbal cues and nondirective statements guide student behaviorCollaborative Management (intrinsic/external interaction)Behavioral management is shared student/teacher responsibilityTeacher must work with students to manage learning environmentUnderlying cause exists for misbehavior that can be eliminatedBoundaries set with student choices within a rangeSolutions to problems must be acceptable to other students + teacherVerbal communication includes directive statements guide students
4 The Science Learning Environment Teacher-Directed Management (external motivation)Explicit teacher controlled standards of behaviorTeacher’s responsibility to regulate behaviorTeacher does not consider student’s motives in misbehaviorPositive, negative reinforcement, or punishment usedChoosing a management approachAny of the described approaches can be successfulSystem must fit teacher’s beliefs about classroom managementTeacher-directed model may not fit new management paradigmDoesn’t teach students to manage their own behaviorStudents responding only to external stimuli, not reflecting about and consciously changing their own behaviorStudent-Directed and Collaborative approaches fit new paradigmStudent-directed model difficult in large classes: too much timeBoth models depend on communication ability of studentThe Science Learning EnvironmentA. Brophy’s description of successful learning environment (2000)
5 Classroom Setting considerations Classroom arrangement fits activities with materials in easy reachRouting movement of students requires minimal direction by teacherStudents engaged in activities know what to do and what to useClass period divided into both teacher and student directed unitsStudents pay attention, ask and answer questionTransitions between activities are brief and smoothGroup work is collaborative and self-directedClassroom Setting considerationsPosition of laboratory work stations, student desks, chalkboard, projector screensStudents need to be instructed how to arrange classroom for transition to lab workFrequently used materials readily available, specialized equipment stored until neededUse of gas and electricity must be planned forChemical materials must be safely located and dispensedEmergency exit plan should be considered
6 Procedures and Routines Classroom RulesCommunicate teacher expectations on first dayShould be simple, direct, realistic, understandable, and enforcedEmmer (1994) suggested starting pointsBring all needed materials to classBe in your seat ready to work when bell ringsRespect and be polite to everyoneListen and stay seated when someone else is talkingRespect other people’s propertyObey all school rulesStudent ownership of rules if they help establish themIt will take a few weeks for students to adjustIf a rule doesn’t work, make it more realistic and enforceableMay want to post rules or send a copy home with parentsProcedures and RoutinesSimple procedures for routine tasks (passing out papers) save time and prevent student misbehaviorsStudents should be engaged during administrative tasks (role)
7 Instructional Practices Teacher should dismiss students, not the bellStudent should know when and how to ask questions, talk to other students, sharpen pencils, go to the bathroom, etc…Grading policies should be known and in place earlyLab dress, disposal, clean-up, notebook procedures in placeInstructional PracticesOverplan (more than can be done) especially as a new teacherMisbehavior and disinterest result from poor planningTeacher can be confident and preparedChoose appropriate activities for the contentDiscussion for an STS issueLab for a visible process (precipitation, germination, etc…)Plan beginnings, endings, and transitionsBreak into multiple activitiesDon’t allow talking during transitionsTransitions should be short and smoothCurriculumCurriculum is central element and should matches ability/interestBoring or too difficult content results in misbehaviors
8 Reducing Teacher Vulnerability to Student Misbehavior Interesting and doable content results in good behaviorStandard often control curriculum, but even minor changes helpStudent SocializationTeachers influence areas outside of science contentHelp develop personal and social skillsEnjoy students and accept them as individualsTeacher must be confident, cool in a crisis, and set an exampleSkills to help socialization of studentsDevelop personal relationship with at least some studentsDeal with personal problems outside of class timeAvoid power struggles during conflictsHelp students to accept responsibility for their own actionsDevelop relationships with parentsReducing Teacher Vulnerability to Student MisbehaviorConsider the school calendarBeginning of the year checklist p. 228Extra classroom management time and effort needed at beginningGames, vacations may require adjustment of lessons/activities
9 Get to know the students Learn names as quickly as possibleShows you are interested in studentsSeating chart is invaluable; assigned seats at least to start yearOther things that are helpful to know about studentsPast academic performanceHealth problemsFamily particulars: parent occupations, brother and sisters, divorced?Extracurricular activitiesSpecial needs related to hearing or visual impairmentsVocational or educational plansSources of informationStudent filesIndividual conferences or parent-teacher conferencesDiscussion with other teachers, guidance counselors, administratorsDress professionallyAvoid being confused with students: no blue jeans, sweats, tee shirtComfortable, neat, clean, and modestMen: dress pants and shirts, possibly a tie (even on lab days)Women: dresses, business suits, or slacks
10 Become familiar with school routines Students misbehave when you don’t know what to doExamplesHow to take and keep attendance recordsHow to handle hall passes or permit students out of the roomHow to deal with tardinessChecking out texts and library booksWhat to do with injured or ill studentHow to arrange for a field tripWhen and how to send students to principal, counselor, psychologistEmergencies proceduresUsually in a handbook or some other written formatFind out before you need to do itGive encouragement and praiseVerbally praise students or classes as frequently as possibleShould not be reserved for special occasionsReward students as they achieve desirable levels of performance: go to library, project time, field trips, games, cancel homework, etc...
11 Dealing with student misbehavior Project personality and enthusiasmEnergetic, friendly, humorous teachers have students that behaveEnthusiasm for content will result in more interested studentsConsistent calmness and businesslike manner most importantDealing with student misbehaviorDisciplinary InterventionsAction taken by teacher to change nonconforming student behaviorMisbehaviors: continual disruptions, cheating, swearing, disrespect, destroying property, endangering safetyMost dealt with by teacher in classroomSome require administrative actionShrigley’s Coping Skills (1979)Ignore behavior: often stops on its ownSignal interference: body language, eye contactProximity control: stand near the studentTouch control: hand to shoulder, use discretionCurbs 40%of classroomdisruptions
12 C. Conference with student, to find out cause and how to prevent Active listening: listen to and acknowledge student frustrationI message: “I am afraid someone will get burned”Speak to the situation: “Throwing things is dangerous in lab.”Direct appeal: ask student to consider effects of his actionsInterrogative: “Will you please stop throwing things?”Glasser’s questions: “What are you doing? What should you be doing”Logical consequences: if they make a mess, make them clean it upContrived consequences: if they make a mess, give a detentionBroken record: “Put down the hamster…put it down…put it down”Compliance or Penalty: “Put down the hamster or go to the office”C. Conference with student, to find out cause and how to preventHome background, academic ability, other activities, health, personality problems, school administration, the teacherInvolve administration only as a last resortD. School ViolencePsychological problems with lack of control: treated as disabilityExternal problem prompts violence from student with controlFights: don’t try to stop alone, encourage nonviolent means
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