4Nobility in England & France About 400 families (House of Lords)Passed all lawsFranceNobles of Sword (served the king); Nobles of Robe (purchased a title)Nobles did not pay taxes!
5Bolshoi Theater, Moscow Bolshoi Ballet started as a dance school in 1700sTheater opened in 1800sBolshoi Theater, Moscow
6The Nobility & FunGambling, adultery, hunting, tennis, opera, ballet, dances & elaborate dinner parties, salons, etc.Food: Breads and wine/hard liquor & coffee; greater amounts of food were available & exotic spices
7French Nobility (Dress & Manners) Men wore wigs; 1,200 shopsCulottes (Knee breeches)The diameter of some dresses was nine feet across
8The Masses: Mortality Rates Average life expectancy: years shorter for the “Masses” than nobility (Hôtel Dieu)Disease & Accidents = biggest killersDiet was monotonous & not balanced:Staples-Black bread & beerFor most, very little meat or fresh vegetablesHospital For The Poor
9Peasant Family in France Family LifeMen/Fathers: Plowing, planting, running a shop; also became migrant workersWomen/Mothers: “Carriers,” childrearing/ raising, “Deputy Husbands; earned extra $$$Children: Laborers (age seven)25% of infants died before age one; 55% before age tenServants: Laborers, but weren’t slavesPeasant Family in France
10Cottage Industry Spinning Wheel Women set their own pace & made extra money
11Girl With A Pearl Earring She worked as a servant to help earn money for her familyOthers might work to earn money for a dowryGriet
12Women Dowry Wealth given by a bride to her husband upon marriage Women often worked 10 years to build their dowryChildbirth & Abandonment; many women worked as “wet nurses” or prostitutes (40-60,000 in Paris)“Rule of Thumb”It was legal to beat one’s wife with a stick as long as the stick was no thicker than the husband’s thumb
13Peasant Life About 75% of Europe’s population lived as peasants/serfs. Peasants “rented” land from Nobles.Peasants could be bought, sold & traded.
14Tax System In FranceNobles & Clergy-did not pay taxes; Peasants & Bourgeoisie paid taxesThose with the least wealth paid the most in taxesCorvée: Peasants worked days of unpaid labor per year for the state (roads, bridges, etc)
15Pugachev Rebellion (1773-1774) A former soldier who led a mass rebellion attacking serfdom & monarchy of Catherine the Great.Controlled a large area in eastern Russia including Kazan.He was captured, tortured and executed; ending the rebellion.Emelian Pugachev(c )
16Guild System (Early industry) Master- Shop-owner (if they had enough money & connections).Journeyman- After completing seven year apprenticeship they could receive “Journeyman Papers.” Received wage plus room & board.Apprentice-worked for room & board only (seven year term), but with a hope of advancement.Unskilled Laborer -received room & board with little or no hope of advancement.