2Learning TargetsList appropriate clothing choices for different body shapes and sizes.
3Shape & SizeKeep body height, shape, and size in mind when choosing clothing that emphasizes your best features.FrameSize RatiosGeometric Shape
4Frame The skeletal structure of the bones. SmallMediumLargeCan use wrist size to determine frame size.HeightWrist size for small frameWrist size for medium frameWrist size for large frameFM under 5’2”Less than 5.5”5.5” to 5.75”Over 5.75”FM5’2”–5’5”Less than 6”6” – 6.25”Over 6.35”over 5’5”Less than 6.25”6.25” – 6.5”Over 6.5”Males over 5’5”5.5” – 6.5”6.5” – 7.5”Over 7.5”
5Size Ratio The waist divides the upper and lower portions of the body. Two people of equal height may not have the same size ratio between the upper and lower portions of the body.Long upper body and short legs vs. short upper body and long legsVarious arm lengths
6Geometric ShapeBody shape can be thought of as triangular, rectangular, hour-glass, etc.
8Learning Targets Define the elements of design. Demonstrate the use of design elements in choosing and creating fashions.
9The Elements of DesignLineShapeSpaceTexturePattern
10Line Defined: a series of points connected to form a narrow path. Straight, Curved, or Zig-Zag3 directionsVertical, Horizontal, or DiagonalUsed for different effectsLine can emphasize or minimize portions of a person’s body.The eye naturally finds the dominant line in a garmentDirection, thickness of the lines, and the amount of space between the lines create different illusions
11Using Various Lines Straight Curved Zigzag Formal, crisp, seen in classic or conservative designsBusiness suits have clean, straight linesSeen in striped and plaid patternsCurvedGive a feeling of movementUsed to create a casual imageAdds softness and roundness to a garmentFound in necklines, lapels, ruffles, and scalloped edgesZigzagEye must change direction to follow zigzag linesGives a feeling of excitement or dramaSeen on sweaters or on a garment’s trim
12Lines and Illusions Vertical Lines Lead the eye up and down giving the illusion of more height and less widthCan be used to create a taller, thinner lookGive a feeling of strength, dignity, and formality
13Lines and Illusions Horizontal Lines Moves the eye from side-to-side Gives the illusion of width rather than heightTwo-piece outfits and contrasting belts divide body length with horizontal linesCreate a feeling of stability and restfulness
14Lines and Illusions Diagonal Lines Add movement and excitement to clothingEffect depends on the slant of the lineZigzag diagonal lines create the most excitement
15ShapeDefined: the outline that forms when one or more lines come together to enclose an area.Also known as a silhouette4 basic garment shapesNaturalTubularBellFull
16Natural Shape Follows your body’s outline Fit close to the body and emphasize the natural waistlineWorn most easily on average body sizes
17Tubular Shape Rectangular with vertical emphasis Undefined waistline Adds height and thinness to the bodyEx: t-shirt dress, straight-leg pants, and tailored business suits
18Bell Shape Moves outward from the body in a triangular shape Can add or subtract width depending on where the top and the bottom of the bell hitEx: A-line skirts & dresses and flared pants & jackets
19Full Shape Horizontal and curved lines Make the body look larger Ex: gathered skirts & dresses, full sleeves, and pants with wide legs
20Space Defined: the area inside the shape. Internal lines, either structural or decorative, that divide the space on a garmentSeams provide inner spacesDecorative stitching and trims also divide spaceEx: lace down the front of a blouse
21TextureDefined: the surface characteristics that determine the look and feel of an object.Texture results from fiber, yarn, construction, and finish used.Determines how a fabric moves when worn and can affect the overall way a garment looks on the body.Soft or crisp, smooth or nubby, dull or shiny.
22Pattern Stripes, plaids, geometrics, florals, scenics, borders, etc. Large or smallEven or unevenLight or darkSpaced or clusteredMuted or boldSmall pattern decrease in apparent size while large pattern increases itWidely spaced designs can make you seem larger as it draws the eye across the distances from one part of the pattern to the other
24Learning Targets Define the principles of design. Demonstrate the use of the principles of design in choosing and creating fashions.
25Principles of DesignProportionBalanceEmphasisRhythmHarmony
26ProportionDefined: how separate parts of a garment relate to each other and to the whole in size.Parts with somewhat unequal sizes look best together.Clothing looks best when it’s in proportion to your own sizeSmall-framed person might avoid large, overpowering details such as collars & pocketsLarge-framed person might avoid tiny details
28BalanceDefined: when the spaces on both sides of a central line, real or imagined, appear equal.A balanced design gives a feeling of stability.Can be achieved in different waysSymmetricalAsymmetrical
29Symmetrical BalanceWhen the spaces on each side of a garment look just the same.Gives a formal or tailored look.Ex: a shirt with two identical sides divided but a center front closing.Ex: a skirt with a center front seam that divides two similar sides.Symmetrical or Formal Balance is the arrangement of forms on one side of an imaginary central dividing line, axis or plane is the mirror image of the other side.Associated with the beauty of nature.Repose and dignity.
30Asymmetrical BalanceDon’t look the same on each side of the real or imagined central line.Add interest or a sense of excitementHas an informal lookOften more difficult and costly to makeEx: a wrap skirtEx: A colorful pocket on one side and two vertical stripes on the otherAsymmetrical or Informal Balance brings elements that are not matching into equilibrium.Asymmetrical balance can be achieved through placement, shapes, colors, sizes, and other aspects of objects.Uneven hem or one shoulder shirt are examples
31Emphasis Defined: the part of the design that draws attention. The focal point of the designThe part of the outfit that catches your eye firstCan be accomplished with color, line, texture, design details, trims, and accessoriesEx: a colorful belt emphasizes the waistlineEx: a contrasting color draws attention toward the face
32RhythmDefined: carries the eye through a regular pattern produced by design elements.RepetitionRadiationGradationGood rhythm is apparent when the lines of an outfit work well together.Ex: when stripes and plaids don’t match at seam lines it breaks rhythm
33Repetition Defined: a pattern repeats itself. Ex: rows of stripes, polka dots, etc.Repetition is created when a design element is repeated.Can be achieved through color, line, form, or texture.Can sometimes lead to monotony, so it must be balanced against the need for variety.
34Gradation Defined: A gradual change in pattern. Ex: change of size or color.Light to DarkThin to ThickSmall to LargeGradation: a gradual change in color value from dark to light or by a regular change from smaller to large parts that all have the same shape.Blue dress: gradation in color-dark to light.Lilac dress: Her dress does from thin sections at the top to thick sections at the bottom.
35Radiation Defined: Lines or patterns flow from a central location. Radiation: lines flow out from a central point.
36Harmony Defined: when all parts of a design blend well together. The elements relate in a unified way.Each part looks like it belongs and the result is eye-catching.This room demonstrates Unity with enough Variety to keep it from being monotonous.