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2 ... a swinger in a square world 1990s Swinging London

3 from c. 1962 (The Beatles) to 1967/8 (West-Coast Rock) dominant representation: youth-cultural rebellion

4 In one sense, this structure of feeling is the culture of a period: it is the particular living result of all the elements in the general organization.

5 ... while we may, in the study of a past period, separate out particular aspects of life, and treat them as if they were self-contained, it is obvious that this is only how they may be studied, not how they were experienced. We examine each element as a precipitate, but in the living experience of the time every element was in solution, an inseparable part of a complex whole. And it seems to be true, from the nature of art, that it is from such a totality that the artist draws; it is in art, primarily, that the effect of the totality, the dominant structure of feeling, is expressed and embodied (Williams, A Preface to Film).

6 A lusty, shock-filled new Elizabethan era sexual permissiveness and new gender relations

7 ... someone who dresses how she feels, she does what she likes, shes free, she doesnt care about conventions... shes just free, she does what she likes, has a wonderful time... probably young. Dolly Girl/Dolly Bird: fashionable, of-the-moment, epitome of Swinging London

8 The camera catches Julie Christie in motion, which she ever is (Time April 1966). Julie Christie

9 Here is a new heroine, complete with fashions specially designed for her. The collection is going on sale in retail stores so all female TV viewers can live out this fantasy - almost for real (Cosmo 1966). Diana Rigg

10'S%20BAZAAR.JPG Jean Shrimpton David Bailey

11 her arguable creation by Bailey, his continued control, and her infantilisation in many of his photographs... (Church Gibson).

12 Cathy McGowan... retailers quickly understood that if she wore a particular dress on the programme, that same dress, if available, would sell out in the shops on the following day (Church Gibson).

13 Sandie Shaw

14 Twiggy

15 Her trademark make up involved the painting on of eyelashes beneath her eyes; Davies had suggested this, too. The idea came from a real doll, a Victorian china one that he had picked up at a market (Church Gibson). Twiggy

16 Victorian v Elizabethan infantilisation, availability Patrick Macnee

17 Young people... were a demographic majority throughout the sixties and had more social and economic power than young people of any previous generation through sheer weight of numbers. So they were... carefully courted for their disposable income (Church Gibson).

18 I didn't like the way I looked, but the classic Biba dolly had all the attributes I lacked. She was very pretty and young. She had an upturned nose, rosy cheeks, and a skinny body with long asparagus legs and tiny feet... Her face was a perfect oval, her lids were heavy with long, spiky lashes.

19 While the dolly image was being so fruitfully exploited at mass market level, it exercised a real tyranny. Women struggled... to conform to this stereotype... (Church Gibson). fuelled second-wave feminism

20 Woman (unlike man) is ever required by society to make herself an erotic object. The purpose of the fashions to which she is enslaved is not to reveal her as an independent individual, but rather to offer her as prey to male desires; thus society is not seeking to further her projects but to thwart them. Christian Dior

21 disguised as a woman, to serve the pleasure of all the males and gratify the pride of her proprietor. 1940s/1950s1960s

22 Radner, Hilary. "On the Move: Fashion Photography and the Single Girl in the 1960s." Fashion Cultures: Theories, Explorations and Analysis. Ed. Stella Bruzzi and Pamela Church Gibson. London: Routledge, 2000. 128-42.... consumerism is the mechanism that replaces maternity in the construction of the feminine.... constrained by the field of consumer culture itself... of planned obsolescence and endless expenditure in the pursuit of an ever-receding ideal.

23 Church Gibson, Pamela. "The Deification of the Dolly Bird: Selling Swinging London, Fuelling Feminism." JSBC 14.2 (2007): 99-111.... 'dolly bird'... to a modern feminist ear, the phrase is disturbing; for by combining two colloquial terms used to describe a 'young girl' into one phrase, the demeaning effect of both is intensified.... the changed sexual mores of the Sixties were marked by a worrying misogyny; things did not really change until the following decade... slattern attractive young woman vacuous prettiness young girl sexually available lower class... dependence on male approval, her... status as fashionable accessory and her... lack of true independence and mobility.

24 By structure of feeling, he [Williams] means the shared values of a particular group, class or society. The term is used to describe a discursive structure which is a cross between a collective cultural unconscious and an ideology. ideology: rearrangement of gender relations, new freedoms and powers of women unconscious: persistent misogyny, escalating consumerism


26 One is not born, but rather becomes, a woman. Review structure of feeling consumerism/consumer culture gender articulation


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