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Life in the Emerging Urban Society in the Nineteenth Century

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1 Life in the Emerging Urban Society in the Nineteenth Century
Chapter 24 Life in the Emerging Urban Society in the Nineteenth Century

2 European Cities of 100,000 or More, 1800 and 1900
There were more large cities in Great Britain in 1900 than in all of Europe in A careful comparison of these historical snapshots reveals key aspects of nineteenth-century urbanization.•1 In 1800, what common characteristics were shared by many large European cities? (For example, how many big cities were capitals and/or leading ports?)•2 Compare the spatial distribution of cities in 1800 with the distribution in Where and why in 1900 are many large cities concentrated in two clusters?

3 The Decline of Death Rates in England and Wales, Germany, France, and Sweden, 1840–1913
A rising standard of living, improvements in public health, and better medical knowledge all contributed to the dramatic decline of death rates in the nineteenth century.

4 The Modernization of Paris, ca 1850–1870
Broad boulevards, large parks, and grandiose train stations transformed Paris. The cutting of the new north-south axis— known as the Boulevard Saint-Michel—was one of Haussmann’s most controversial projects. It razed much of Paris’s medieval core and filled the Île de la Cité with massive government buildings.

5 The Distribution of Income in Britain, Denmark, and Prussia in 1913
The so-called Lorenz curve is useful for showing the degree of economic inequality in a given society. The closer the actual distribution of income lies to the (theoretical) curve of absolute equality, where each 20 percent of the population receives 20 percent of all income, the more incomes are nearly equal. European society was very far from any such equality before World War I. Notice that incomes in Prussia were somewhat more equal than those in Britain. S. Kuznets, Modern Economic Growth, pp. 208–209. Copyright © 1966 by Yale University Press. Reprinted by permission of Yale University Press.

6 “A Corner of the Table” With photographic precision, the French academic artist Paul-Émile Chabas (1869– 1937) idealizes the elegance and intimacy of a sumptuous dinner party. Throughout Europe, such dinners were served in eight or nine separate courses, beginning with appetizers and ending with coffee and liqueurs. Archives Charmet/The Bridgeman Art Library

7 The Urban Social Hierarchy

8 Crinoline Dresses, Crinoline Dresses, Paris, 1859.
The Illustrated London News Picture Library

9 Summer Dress with Bustle,
Summer Dress with Bustle, England, 1875. Roy Miles, Esq./The Bridgeman Art Library

10 Loose-fitting Dress, Loose-fitting Dress, France, 1910. © Corbis

11 The Labor Aristocracy, This group of British foremen is attending the International Exhibition in Paris in Their “Sunday best” includes the silk top hats and long morning coats of the propertied classes, but they definitely remain workers, the proud leaders of laboring people. © The Board of Trustees of the Victoria & Albert Museum

12 Big City Nightlife The most famous dance hall and cabaret in Paris was the Moulin Rouge. There La Goulue (“the Glutton”), who is featured on this poster, performed her provocative version of the cancan and reigned as the queen of Parisian sensuality. This is one of many colorful posters done by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864–1901), who combined stupendous creativity and dedicated debauchery in his short life. Bridgeman-Giraudon/Art Resource, NY

13 Franziska Tiburtius, Franziska Tiburtius, pioneering woman physician in Berlin. Ullstein Bilderdienst/The Granger Collection, NewYork

14 The Decline of Birthrates in England and Wales, France, Germany, and Sweden, 1840–1913
Women had fewer babies for a variety of reasons, including the fact that their children were increasingly less likely to die before reaching adulthood. Compare with Figure 24.1 on page 783.

15 Satirizing Darwin’s Ideas
The heated controversies over Darwin’s theory of evolution also spawned innumerable jokes and cartoons. This cartoon depicts a bearded Charles Darwin and the atheistic materialist Emile Littré performing as monkeys in a circus. Musée de la Ville de Paris, Musée Carnavalet/Archives Charmet/The Bridgeman Art Library

16 Manet: Emile Zola The young novelist’s sensitivity and strength of character permeate this famous portrait by the great French painter Edouard Manet. Focusing on nuances and subtle variations, Manet was at first denounced by the critics, and after Zola lost a newspaper job defending Manet they became close friends. Manet was strongly influenced by Japanese prints, seen in the background. Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY

17 An elegant ball for upper-class youth,
An elegant ball for upper-class youth, with debutantes, junior officers, and vigilant chaperons watching in the background. State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia/The Bridgeman Art Library

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