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Chapter 24 Life in the Emerging Urban Society in the Nineteenth Century.

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1 Chapter 24 Life in the Emerging Urban Society in the Nineteenth Century

2 There were more large cities in Great Britain in 1900 than in all of Europe in 1800. A careful comparison of these historical snapshots reveals key aspects of nineteenth- century urbanization.1 In 1800, what common characteristics were shared by many large European cities? (For example, how many big cities were capitals and/or leading ports?)2 Compare the spatial distribution of cities in 1800 with the distribution in 1900. Where and why in 1900 are many large cities concentrated in two clusters? European Cities of 100,000 or More, 1800 and 1900

3 A rising standard of living, improvements in public health, and better medical knowledge all contributed to the dramatic decline of death rates in the nineteenth century. The Decline of Death Rates in England and Wales, Germany, France, and Sweden, 1840–1913

4 Broad boulevards, large parks, and grandiose train stations transformed Paris. The cutting of the new north-south axis known as the Boulevard Saint-Michelwas one of Haussmanns most controversial projects. It razed much of Pariss medieval core and filled the Île de la Cité with massive government buildings. The Modernization of Paris, ca 1850–1870

5 The so-called Lorenz curve is useful for showing the degree of economic inequality in a given society. The closer the actual distribution of income lies to the (theoretical) curve of absolute equality, where each 20 percent of the population receives 20 percent of all income, the more incomes are nearly equal. European society was very far from any such equality before World War I. Notice that incomes in Prussia were somewhat more equal than those in Britain. The Distribution of Income in Britain, Denmark, and Prussia in 1913 S. Kuznets, Modern Economic Growth, pp. 208–209. Copyright © 1966 by Yale University Press. Reprinted by permission of Yale University Press.

6 With photographic precision, the French academic artist Paul-Émile Chabas (1869– 1937) idealizes the elegance and intimacy of a sumptuous dinner party. Throughout Europe, such dinners were served in eight or nine separate courses, beginning with appetizers and ending with coffee and liqueurs. A Corner of the Table Archives Charmet/The Bridgeman Art Library

7 The Urban Social Hierarchy

8 Crinoline Dresses, Paris, 1859. Crinoline Dresses, The Illustrated London News Picture Library

9 Summer Dress with Bustle, England, 1875. Summer Dress with Bustle, Roy Miles, Esq./The Bridgeman Art Library

10 Loose-fitting Dress, France, 1910. Loose-fitting Dress, © Corbis

11 This group of British foremen is attending the International Exhibition in Paris in 1862. Their Sunday best includes the silk top hats and long morning coats of the propertied classes, but they definitely remain workers, the proud leaders of laboring people. The Labor Aristocracy, © The Board of Trustees of the Victoria & Albert Museum

12 The most famous dance hall and cabaret in Paris was the Moulin Rouge. There La Goulue (the Glutton), who is featured on this poster, performed her provocative version of the cancan and reigned as the queen of Parisian sensuality. This is one of many colorful posters done by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864–1901), who combined stupendous creativity and dedicated debauchery in his short life. Big City Nightlife Bridgeman-Giraudon/Art Resource, NY

13 Franziska Tiburtius, pioneering woman physician in Berlin. Franziska Tiburtius, Ullstein Bilderdienst/The Granger Collection, NewYork

14 Women had fewer babies for a variety of reasons, including the fact that their children were increasingly less likely to die before reaching adulthood. Compare with Figure 24.1 on page 783. The Decline of Birthrates in England and Wales, France, Germany, and Sweden, 1840–1913

15 The heated controversies over Darwins theory of evolution also spawned innumerable jokes and cartoons. This cartoon depicts a bearded Charles Darwin and the atheistic materialist Emile Littré performing as monkeys in a circus. Satirizing Darwins Ideas Musée de la Ville de Paris, Musée Carnavalet/Archives Charmet/The Bridgeman Art Library

16 The young novelists sensitivity and strength of character permeate this famous portrait by the great French painter Edouard Manet. Focusing on nuances and subtle variations, Manet was at first denounced by the critics, and after Zola lost a newspaper job defending Manet they became close friends. Manet was strongly influenced by Japanese prints, seen in the background. Manet: Emile Zola Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY

17 An elegant ball for upper-class youth, with debutantes, junior officers, and vigilant chaperons watching in the background. An elegant ball for upper-class youth, State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia/The Bridgeman Art Library

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