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Imaging Heritage as a Tool for Conservation & Sustainable Community Development Andrew P. Smith.

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Presentation on theme: "Imaging Heritage as a Tool for Conservation & Sustainable Community Development Andrew P. Smith."— Presentation transcript:

1 Imaging Heritage as a Tool for Conservation & Sustainable Community Development
Andrew P. Smith

2 Heritage Defined For the purposes of this study, the focus is on Jamaica’s tangible natural and cultural heritage. Outstanding National Value, based on UNESCO’s definition of Outstanding Universal Value. Of cultural and/or natural significance which are exceptional examples of Jamaica’s heritage and are of common importance for past, present and future generations of all Jamaicans.

3 Developing Jamaica’s Identity via Heritage
Culture is crucial for giving people a sense of identity and belonging that gives meaning to efforts to reconstruct our nation. This is central to our social and economic renewal whilst we progress towards developed country status. – Jamaica’s Vision 2030 document

4 Monymusk Public Library

5 Clydesdale

6 August Town

7 Cockpit Country

8 Dolphin Head Mountains

9 Buff Bay Valley

10 Hall’s Delight

11 Stewart Castle

12 Kramanti Dancing

13 Little Goat Island

14 Why Photography? “The value of the photograph in all conservation work is inestimable, whether represented by today’s ongoing site- record photographs or early photographs consulted for historic information.” (The Getty Conservation Institute,2007) The marketing of tourism products relies heavily on photographic images. Pictures that communicate messages of destinations, programs, and activities are the key to attracting and holding potential visitors.” (Dewar, Li &Davis, 2006).

15 Photography as a Conservation Tool
Photography functions as a tool for communication, memory & identity (Van Dijck, 2008). All are applicable in heritage conservation. Photography is used to visually communicate, educate and inform the general public and policy makers. Communicates the presence and condition of the heritage site.

16 Memory Inability to effectively communicate can lead to the lack of knowledge or memory of these sites. If they are already absent in the minds of the public and those given the task of conserving these sites – then the loss of or lack of development of these sites might not be considered important. If an unknown heritage site in Jamaica’s interior or off the mainland is destroyed, does it matter if no- one knew about it?

17 Identity Identification of & WITH sites, contributing to National Identity 1851. Prosper Mérimée, 2nd director of France’s Commission des monuments historiques, sent out a team of photographers to create a photographic inventory of the nation’s architectural heritage. According to Welch (2008), this decision “was undoubtedly an acknowledgement of the benefits photography could bring to scientific and archival endeavour; but the visualization and drawing together of the nation’s monuments through photography could also serve as an effective reminder of its history and cultural heritage”.

18 Photography & National Identity (Welch, 2008)
Since the nineteenth century, print culture has been supplemented – and arguably displaced by – visual culture in general, and by the photographic image in particular, as the primary medium through which we are encouraged to imagine the polis and our place within it. As Louis Kaplan notes, ‘photographic images have externalized and realized how we imagine community, so it does not exist in the mind’s eye alone’ (Kaplan 2005: xv). The material traces of the past gathered by the photographic survey act as visible evidence that the nation, has real historical and cultural substance.

19 Vision 2030 & Heritage Tourism
The Culture Creative Industries and Values Sector Plan of the Vision Jamaica National Development Plan Goal # 3: to create “communities with strong and diverse cultural values”. Outcomes: “communities with cultural programming and infrastructure that support transformation”. Strategy: to “strengthen community based tourism”. Specific actions being to “document, develop and promote local attractions (e.g. trails, sites of memory, historical sites, and monuments). The agencies named for implementing this strategy are the Jamaica National Heritage Trust (JNHT), Tourism Product Development Company (TPDCo) and the Jamaica Conservation & Development Trust (JCDT).

20 Jamaica National Heritage Trust
Mission is “To inspire a sense of national pride through the promotion, preservation, and development of our material cultural heritage, utilizing a highly motivated and qualified team in conjunction with all our partners”. Functions: to promote the preservation of national monuments and anything designated as protected national heritage for the benefit of the Island.

21 National Monument Any building, structure, object or, other work of man or of nature or any part or remains thereof whether above or below the surface of the land or the floor of the sea within the territorial waters of the Island.. Any site, cave or excavation, or any part or remains thereof, ...

22 Tourism Product Development Co.
A private company under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Tourism & Entertainment and mandated to facilitate the maintenance, development and enhancement of the tourism product. Has been placing emphasis on the development of cultural heritage tourism to widen the market for eco, nature based and adventure tourism.

23 Jamaica Conservation & Development Trust
An NGO whose mission is: “to promote environmental conservation and sustainable development, with particular emphasis on the Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park (BJCMNP), for the benefit of Jamaica and our people”.

24 Visual Communication of Jamaica’s Heritage
The main focus of this presentation/research will be the agency’s on-line photographs, since these images are most visible to the public and thus gives the most immediate information and impression to a global audience. All agencies have sites and Facebook pages, both of which are examined.

25 JNHT 196 designated sites according to its list of declared sites.
The Trust’s website utilises photographs to illustrate various heritage sites. The main pages (and subsequent sub-pages) with photos are the “Sites”, “Tours” and “Development” pages. Have both Facebook and website.

26 JNHT Website

27 Location of Designated Heritage Sites
Number of Sites Parish Frequency Clarendon 5 3 Hanover 6 Kingston 31 16 Manchester 10 Portland 11 St. Andrew 28 14 St. Ann 7 St. Catherine 8 St. Elizabeth 12 St. James 25 13 St. Mary St. Thomas 4 Trelawny Westmoreland Underwater (Pedro Bank) 1 SUB - TOTAL 196 100

28 Gaps Exist Gaps exist between heritage sites designated by the Jamaica National Heritage Trust (JNHT) and many other sites that have the potential to be thus designated. Gaps have also been noted by Griffith and Emmanuel (2005) who state that “....only 5-10% of Jamaica has been surveyed over the past 7 years in terms of locating historical/cultural sites in Jamaica”. This study further states that there is “inadequate knowledge on heritage” and adds “there is a need to conduct systematic heritage surveys.” Confirmed by JNHT, that have a plan for an island-wide survey of built and archaeological sites from the 1990s

29 Central Jamaica

30 “Sites” Page

31 Photos on “Sites” Page Number of photos Frequency
Number of photos Frequency 1.       Archaeological sites 3 1 2.       Bridges 2 3.       Caves 4.       Cemeteries 5.       Churches 29 11 6.       Clock Towers 7.       Court Houses 9 4 8.       Forts 17 7 9.       Free Villages 10.   Great Houses 33 13 11.   Historic Districts 10 12.   Historic Schools 12 5 13.   Lighthouses 14.   Mineral Spas 15.   National Heroes Sites 16.   Other Historical Sites 45 18 17.   Parks & Gardens 18.   Past JNHT Projects 6 19.   Railway Stations 20.   Special Communities 21.   Statues & Memorials 22.   Sugar Works 256 100

32 JNHT Timeline Album

33 JNHT Facebook Page Number Frequency
Number Frequency Promotional Graphics of JNHT events 18 58 Monuments 4 13 Natural Heritage 1 3 Roxborough Event 8 26 TOTAL 31 100

34 TPDCo / JTB The Jamaica Tourist Board is the marketing arm of the Ministry of Tourism and Entertainment and is charged with driving demand for the tourism industry. As such, they are the entity which uses photography as a promotional tool, to show Jamaica in its best light. The TPDCo is responsible for facilitating the maintenance, development and enhancement of the tourism product. They use photos to document their activities, such as the upgrading of facilities through funding from the Tourism Enhancement Fund.

35 JTB/TPDCo Websites JTB’s Unrestricted Use Images
JTB’s Restricted Use Images. Visit Jamaica’s website, Visit Jamaica’s Facebook Page Cultural Heritage Tourism. Community-based tourism development.

36 TPDCo Cultural Heritage Page

37 TIPS Photography Resources


39 TIPS Photos There are 660 restricted usage photos and 469 unrestricted usage photos, totalling 1129. The most common category available is “Gardens and Parks at 13% followed by “People” with 9%. Ocho Rios is also at 9%, and is the most available resort area. Culture and cultural heritage are both at 0%, although historical sites is at 6% . Special mention must be made of the Dennis Valentine library (6%) who is a Jamaican photographer whose collection includes the Blue Mountains, well-known Jamaican artists , YS Falls, Lacado and NDTC.

40 Visit Jamaica Website

41 Visit Jamaica Website SUBJECT NUMBER FREQUENCY Home Page 1
Where to Visit 60 30 Vacation Themes 76 38 What to do 15 Where to Stay 10 5 Travel Resources 6 3 About Jamaica 18 9 Meetings & Incentives 202 100

42 Visit Jamaica

43 Visit Jamaica FB 2178 photos in over 50 unique albums.
Most photos are Reggae Sumfest (11%) and the Timeline photos (24%) Wedding Expos (6%) and Jazz & Blues (4%) Historic/Heritage sites less than 1%. Primarily to promote happenings and events

44 Visit Jamaica Timeline

45 JCDT JCDT manages the Blue & John Crow Mountains National Park. which has been submitted to be a UNESCO World Heritage Site as a mixed property - high biodiversity & the Windward Maroons. On-line photographic presence has two separate components. The photo page on the sites consists of one gallery consisting of 19 images of the biodiversity found within the Park.


47 Website Statistics SUBJECT Number of photos Frequency Biodiversity 25
30 Activities 31 38 Heritage 6 7 Facilities 9 Landscapes & Attractions 12 15 Promotions 1 TOTAL 82 100

48 JCDT Facebook Page

49 JCDT Facebook Page SUBJECT Number of photos Frequency Biodiversity 1 4
Biodiversity 1 4 Activities 17 68 Heritage Facilities Landscapes & Attractions Promotions 6 24 TOTAL 25 100

50 BJCMNP Facebook Page

51 Park Facebook Page SUBJECT Number of photos Frequency Biodiversity 26
9 Company/Community Activities 33 12 Heritage 18 7 Facilities 17 6 Landscapes & Attractions 46 Promotions 40 15 Enforcement 39 14 Enviro Issues 36 13 Visitor Usage 20 TOTAL 275 100

52 UNESCO Criteria UNESCO stipulates that dossiers for submissions of properties as World Heritage Sites should: Provide a sufficient number of recent images (prints, slides and, where possible, electronic formats, videos and aerial photographs) to give a good general picture of the property.” The “images should portray the potential Outstanding Universal Value of the property, as well as its context”.

53 BJCMNP Submissions to UNESCO PhotoBank

54 Issues & Challenges Gaps of knowledge by institutions.
Who manages the natural heritage sites? Low demand for heritage tourism. Inadequate funding for research and strategies. Need for the private sector involvement. Influence of overseas media programming. Lack of appreciation of Jamaica’s heritage. Challenge of foreign investment.

55 Societal issues related to our colonial past.
Sensitivity of sites and carrying capacity. Lack of knowledge of sites. Use of photography by funding agencies. Use of local vs. overseas photographers. Quality of photos. Under-utilisation of social media. Under reading by Jamaicans.

56 Recommendations Unequivocal and official stance of GOJ on conservation of Jamaica’s heritage. Co-management strategy between the GOJ, communities, NGOs and private sector. Private sector incentives to invest in heritage. Business model of local photographers. Use of social media to interact with the public. Use of multimedia packages on digital platforms. Filling in the gaps of knowledge.

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