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Challenges and perspectives on ex-situ conservation of plants from relict cultivation (from the Middle ages) Svein Øivind Solberg, Nordic Genetic Reseource.

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Presentation on theme: "Challenges and perspectives on ex-situ conservation of plants from relict cultivation (from the Middle ages) Svein Øivind Solberg, Nordic Genetic Reseource."— Presentation transcript:

1 Challenges and perspectives on ex-situ conservation of plants from relict cultivation (from the Middle ages) Svein Øivind Solberg, Nordic Genetic Reseource Center (NordGen) Althea officinalis – Lund Botanical Garden, 2011

2 Important questions for a gene bank 1.Authentisity of the material 2.Germination/regeneration protocols? 3.Genetic variation – within- and between populations? 4.Co-operation – gene bank, botanical gardens, museums, local owners/users and other in conservation and use of the material? Inula helenium Ystad, 2012

3 Plants from relict cultivation - at the gene bank at NordGen today Bernt Løjtnants collection: Jylland (Kalø, Agri, Kollerup, Mols, Mariager ) Sjælland (Borreby, Holsteinborg, Agersø, Skjælskør, Fyrendal) Bornholm (Hammershus, Melsted, Bølshavn, Gudhjem, Svaneke) Jylland (Mols – Dråby, Esby, Bosby, Strandsø, Eens kirke ) Fyn (Kærsgaard, Brahetrolleborg, Hesselager, Kaleko, Tranekær, Valdemar)– 2010 Jylland (Fiskbæk, Høegholm, Ørslevskloster, Kvols, Spøtterup) – ---- – Total 271 accessions

4 Other collects: Skåne (Malmø, Lund) – relict cultivation from MA Iceland (Angelica, Carum) --- Karelen - Scandinavian settlements USA (Scandinavian emigrants) – cultivars/landraces of oat, wheat, beans, peas Landraces and old cultivars (last centyry – today) POM collection (from before 1950) ---- Future plans: Samsø, Denmark – with Bernt Løjtnant – Sept/Oct 2012 Norway - with Per Arvid Åsen, 2013? Filtkondslys (Verbascum thapsus), Klostergården, Lund, 2011

5 Some challanges; no fruits, few fruits Solbær (Ribes nigrum, Hald, 2011 Dansk ingefær (Arum alpinum ssp. danicum, Mols, 2010

6 other challanges; extremly rare, hybridization Bryonia dioica, Stranso, 2010 Grenet kongslys? (Verbascum sp.) Strandso, 2010

7 What are we collecting? Kalø (fort ruin) – Built in left over in 1670th – Bernt Løytnant: registred 26 relict species introduced and cultivated (SKALK 4/2007:11-15) These are plants introduced before 1670th – and after 1313 These plants are the most long- lived cultivated plants («sejlivede») from that period at this site The people at the fort must have cultivated also a lot of other species, these are not at the site anymore. The number of cultivated species at a fort could have been 200 – Collected and stored in the gene bank – 4 accession 200 ? 26 4

8 Hammershus (fort ruin) 200 ? 53 8

9 «Sejlivede» - black listing Myrrhis odorata, Stenbeg, Østre Toten, 2011

10 The job has just started Collect Clean - verify quality and quantity Dry - internal humidity 5% Pack - sealed al-bags Store - at minus 18 C; three locations --- Passport data – documentation --- Germination tests Regeneration – multiplication Distribution Reseda luteola Klostergården, Lund, 2011

11 Establishment of germination protocols Experiment with 40 accessions from different taxa no stratification three weeks stratification (4˚C) six weeks of stratification (4˚C) Followed by 17 days of incubation at 20˚C, 16 h day length. Twenty-five seeds of each accession, placed on moist filter paper (soaked in ordinary tap water) were used for each treatment. Germinated seeds were recorded and removed continuously during the incubation. 1.Responded very well to the stratification periods tested 2.Germinated well without the stratification or had just marginal increase with stratification 3.Negative impact of stratification 4.Insufficient stratification- or incubation-period 5.Other measures have to be taken

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16 Other measures have to be taken – Aegopodium podagraria – Aethusa cynapium – Anchusa officinalis – Ballota nigra – Chelidonium majus – Humulus lupulus – Hyoscyamus niger – Malva neglecta – Parietaria officinalis – Reseda luteola Chelidonium majus, Gjøvik gård, 2011 Further actions must be considered to develop reliable germination protocols for these species. It may include chemical-, mechanical- or prolonged stratification-treatments or a combination of these. A successful example with mechanical treatment that demonstrates this has been shown in M. neglecta which in this trial had 0% germination; seeds chipped with a scalpel had 100% germination in less than five days without any other treatment.

17 Genetic variation – within or between populations

18 Regeneration Isolation – pollination - contamination Number of plants Costs of regeneration NGB9968 Allium schoenoprasum

19 Co-operation in conservation and use Local owners/users (in-situ) Gene bank (ex-situ) Botanical gardens Museums Cultural sciences Authorities Others Melissa officinale Lund, 2012


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