Bio-resources Based Economic Growth in East Africa The Prospects of the Bioscience Revolution Ivar Virgin Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI)
Support decision-making sustainable development around the globe. Linking Policy with Science in the field of environment and development. Water, Energy, Climate, Atmospheric pollution, Global scenarios, Sustainable bioresource development, Innovation
How could modern biosciences contribute to sustainable developing countries?
MDGs and Poverty Reduction Strategies has been the focus but….. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and National Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRS) are dominating African development efforts. The focus on MDGs/PRS is necessary, critical and logical. However, foundation for long-term sustainable economic growth is also very important.
Increasing trade - domestic, regional and overseas export important! Many African countries have not been able to effectively engage and use international trade as an engine of growth In the era of globalisation and rapidly expanding global trade, Africas share of world trade has actually fallen! Long-term economic prospects for many African countries tightly coupled to their ability to integrate in the global economy.
Some key questions facing Policy makers...... How to use trade as an engine for sustainable development? What to produce and sell on the world market in the future? What type of productions systems, what infrastructure, what actors? How do we get there? What specific investments, capacities, policies and strategies are needed?
…? African countries to large extent agricultural economies …
Rapid globalisation, new technologies and trade regimes, increasing energy prices and growing demand for renewable bio-resource are changing the conditions for the agricultural sector world wide..................not least for countries in Sub-Saharan Africa
The Bioresource demand boom! Increased demand for renewable bioresources…including food/feed An oil economy in Zenith – increased biofuel demand...and greenhouse emission has to come down The hunt for agricultural land....
THE NEW HARVEST Agricultural Innovation in Africa Calestous Juma Africa is a huge continent......still relatively sparsely populated......rich in genetic resources.....with a great variety of agro-ecological niches.......Significant agricultural production potential.
Way forward ? Countries in Africa using bio-resources as a strategic base for sustainable economic growth The development of a modern Bio- resource Economy.
Farmers will need to at least double production over the next 25 years to meet increased demand. Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
Increased demand have to be met mainly by increased crop productivity! Higher crop productivity badly needed!…. Not least in the South.
Climate change and resource scarcity How do we meet a rapid increase of bioresource demand in resource effective, climate smart and in a sustainable manner??
In the North, investments in precision agriculture making agriculture more : -resource efficient -sustainable -climate smart
Improved Seeds/cultivars are key! FAO, AU, World Bank points to improved seeds/ cultivars as a key to improving productivity
Plant Breeding is evolving rapidly. Bioscience and gene technology increasingly important tools in breeding....all over the world.
USD/genome 2001 500 MUSD 2007 1 MUSD 2008 100 000 USD 2012 1000 USD 20201000 USD The bioscience revolution moves very fast…. It took 300 researchers 10 years to sequence the human genome, which today would take one researcher a week!!!!
Gene technology a toolbox for more efficient and more precise breeding and the development just begun….
Whats on the horizon? Soon (2-5 years), crops with: Improved nutrional composition (vitamines,proteins Golden rice-vitamin A rice) Improved drough tolerance Further away (10-20 years) Perennial crops. More effecient nutrient uptake. More efficient phototosynthesis....More rescource efficient crops
Everthing you do with mineral oils youcan do with plant oils Its a matter of costs ! 1997 $17 USD$88 USD $130 USD 2011
Biofuel and biofuels technologies increasingly important world wide...
Production of non food/feed agricultural products increasing! Development of agroindustrial production systems producing: - biofuels, fibres, starch products, -green chemicals, biodegradable plastics, oils and lubricants -detergents, enzymes, cosmetics, fragrances and flavours, medicinal products Dow, Du Pond are moving from petrochemicals to R&D on biotech/GM industrial crops. Biotechnology can be used to support value addition, value chains and bioprocessing
Moving the chemical factory to the fields........ 2010 2030 ? An opportunity for Africa...?
6% of global harvest, can replace 40% of fossil oil in chemical industry with plant oils. Stymne et al...and the ICON Industrial Crops producing added value Oils for Novel chemicals project - optimizing the production of industrially important oils in high-yielding, agronomically important crops
Converting waste into useful products...modernizing the agroindustril sector Huge potential for countries in Africa....
. Long-term development goals and visions on how to benefit from global trade some 15-20 years ahead needed.....Where do you want to be?
Countries without competence to use modern Biosciences miss the opportunity to use this powerful technology to develop productive resource efficient sustainable crop production systems for food, feed and agroindustrial products
The Bio-Innovate Program contributions to the Eastern Africa Bio-economy
The Gene Hunters- Calestous Juma Moving genetic resources. Tee from China to India, rubber from Brazil to Malaysia Gene Hunters today…the ability to design and tailor make agroindustrial production Agricultural economies/gene rich countries can benefit!
The New Harvest: Agricultural Innovation in Africa Calestous Juma, Harvard University …Gene technology can be for Africa what the IT revoution has been for India….....but in order to benefit from the wide- ranging advances in biosciences countries need to increase their ability to develop and adopt technologies and knowledge according totheir own priorities and needs!
The Seeds of Future… Developing, adopting and utilising the new biosciences to promote a biobased African growth will require : Active support from African governments Effective policies supporting bioscience innovation A dynamic public research and development (R&D) sector. Regional integration and collaboration, international partnership and multidisciplinary innovation platforms involving the private sector
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