Presentation on theme: "Environmental Issues and the Financial Sector AMCHAM Environment Committee Workshop Warsaw, 17 November 2005 Environmental Issues and the Financial Sector."— Presentation transcript:
Environmental Issues and the Financial Sector AMCHAM Environment Committee Workshop Warsaw, 17 November 2005 Environmental Issues and the Financial Sector AMCHAM Environment Committee Workshop Warsaw, 17 November 2005 Robert Adamczyk Environment Department European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
Presentation Structure Introduction –EBRD Funding sources; –EU –Commercial Banks –What makes a bankable project –Do environmental issues affect investment decisions Equator Principles –What is it –Has it any impact Conclusion
What is the EBRD ? An investment Bank with Public Shareholders: – Owned by 62 countries and international shareholders (EU, EIB) – AAA rated international financial institution founded in 1991 – 1000 staff Mandate: facilitate the transition to market economies Capital base of 20 billion and Business Volume of 24.1 billion to date. Approx 4 billion/yr: – Largest single investor in CEE and FSU, – 75% debt / 25% equity – 72% private sector/privatisation projects – Co-financing levers 2.5 for every 1 the bank invests Over 1 billion in TC funds to manage. Managing Nuclear Decommissioning Funds
Banks Founding Agreement commits the Bank to:... promote, in the full range of its activities, environmentally sound and sustainable development.
EBRD Sound banking principles Additionality –Will another bank invest? –EBRD will not compete with commercial Banks Transition impact Compliance with Environmental Policy
Project Appraisal - Due Diligence Financial Approval Legal Appraisal Technical appraisal Environmental appraisal –Environmental Due Diligence, a tool for decision-making
Project Appraisal Banks and financial institutions: –are (financially) risk averse –Must continually react to the financial risks posed by laws and guidelines such as environmental laws affecting clients and both theirs and the banks credit ratings –Must see to act within the best interest of the communities they serve –Must return a profit to their shareholders The main fears of FI are costs and risks. Financial forecasting and making financial risks transparent are necessary for any loan or investment request
EBRD in Poland Over EUR 3 bln committed Ongoing involvement: –PKN Orlen/Basell project –PAK – Power Plant –BISE New Projects: –BOT – Power Plant –Bydgoszcz Water Project –Dalkia –+
EBRD in Poland Financial Intermediaries: Banks: BGZ, Pekao SA, BISE SME Facilities; ING, PKO BP, Raifaissen,Fortis, BZ WBK etc. Leasing Companies: Bankowy Fundusz Leasingowy; SG Equipment Leasing Funds: Enterprise Investors, Innova Capital, Novum,
Outline Investment needs in Poland and sources of funding Impact of Environmental issues on financing –Direct –Indirect Case Studies
Investment needs in Poland Infrastructure: –Roads, –Railways –Airports Private sector; –Power –Service sector –Industry (new and old) –other
Sources of Funding in Poland European Union –ISPA now EU Structural and Cohesion Funds –European Investment Bank (EIB). Over 4 bln of loans since 2001 Commercial Banks, –Since 2001, 31 loans with a total 6.5 bln. Venture Capital and Equity Investors IFI (IFC, World Bank, EBRD etc). –EBRD – approx EUR 3 bln in Poland Domestic Funds – NFOS etc –Future of NFOS?
Environment and investment decisions Investors and funding agencies whether private or public will look into environmental issues as part of project appraisals. Different drivers for: –Public Funding Bodies EU standards, public participation (EIA, Natura 2000 etc.) –Private Investment, Risk and liability (contaminated land, EU ETS)
Risk issues for Financial Institutions Corporate Loans Working Capital Project Finance Equity Investment Guarantees Portfolio management
Internationally driven changes New IFRS standards –applicable to all publicly quoted companies in EU –e.g. IAS 37 clear investigation of provisions and liabilities EU Modernization and Prospectus Directives Additional national requirements, such as UK OFR system Emission Trading (EU ETS) – –new reporting and accounting requirements could affect P&L account –opportunities for financial institutions Increased pressure on disclosure and reporting
Energy Sector Second Sulphur Protocol –Poland implements KDT (long term electricity contracts) Environmental Policy resulting in KDT Impact on business decisions and government policy EU Accession Treaty – SO 2 emission limits –60% reduction of SO 2 by 2012, more demanding than LCP –Major investment in the Power Sector –Compliance issue –Value of privatised assets
EU Funding Indirect risk to financing projects for instance due to poor transposition of EU Acquis. E.g. Inappropriate transposition and implementation of EU EIA Directive in Poland: Komisja Europejska nie przekaze Polsce 1,5 mld EUR z Funduszu Spójnosci, jesli nie otrzyma raportów na temat oddziaływania na środowisko planowanych inwestycji………….Chociaz KE zaakceptowała już w ubiegłym roku 22 projekty inwestycji miejskich, na które miała przekazać ponad 0,5 mld EUR, na razie tylko Kalisz dostanie pieniadze…. (Rzeczpospolita, Marzec 2005).
EBRD examples A loan to an electronic goods manufacturer in the Czech Republic. Security package included pledge on land. The client went bankrupt and EBRD became the owner of the land, which turned out to be contaminated. The contamination was not properly assessed at the due diligence stage. The National Property Fund requested that the land should be cleaned up. The cost of the clean up exceeded the value of the land and as a result the Bank made loss.
EBRD examples Equity investment in a white goods manufacturing in country X. Due diligence did not identify soil and groundwater contamination. When a strategic investor wanted to buy the company several years later, they brought their own consultants who detected the contamination and the investor asked for a significant reduction of the selling price. As a result the Bank made a loss selling below the level of the original investment.
Equator Principles Equator Principles A major step forward for the banking industry A voluntary, private-sector initiative Based on IFC environmental and social policies and guidelines
Why did they do it? Why did they do it? Increased awareness of the risks –Financial loss –Reputation damage –Shareholder activism No longer someone elses problem Demonstrate leadership and sound environmental management practices and social responsibility Could not do it alone –Level the playing field –Need a common framework and baseline
The New Industry Standard The New Industry Standard 36 Financial institutions are involved, including: –ABN AMRO, Barclays, Citigroup, Credit Lyonnais, CSFB, HVB Group, Calyon, Rabobank, Royal Bank of Scotland, West LB, Westpac; ING, Royal Bank of Canada, MCC of Italy, Dresdner, HSBC, Dexia, Standard Chartered, CIBC, KBC, Bank of America, EKF, BBVA, Unibanco, JPMorgan, Mizuho Corporate Bank, Banco do Brasil, Equator banks arrange over 80% of global project finance market
Application Application Project finance Total capital cost of $50 million or more All industries Environmental risk categorization & industry standards apply globally.
Equator Principles A framework for assessing environmental and social risk in projects including: –A set of baseline policy requirements –A set of quantitative environmental guidelines –Some process steps which ensure appropriate application within the context of the project
Screening Equator Principles Screen the level of environmental and social risk in each project and assign a risk category –A (highest), B or C (lowest) For category A and B projects, borrower completes an Environmental Assessment (EA) EBRD Difference in EBRD Screening: –A – Annex 1 EU EIA Directive – need for EIA –Equator A level projects would fall under EBRD A level category –B level projects require Environmental Analysis All Project screened either O or 1 –1 - Environmental Audit
Environmental Management Plan Environmental Management Plan Borrower prepares an Environmental Management Plan for all As (and for Bs as appropriate) –Draws on conclusions of the EA –Addresses mitigation and monitoring –For As, the EA and EMP subject to independent expert review EBRD use of EAP and ESAP –Environmental Action Plans
Consultation Consultation The borrower consults with affected groups for all As (and for Bs as appropriate): –Includes indigenous peoples and local NGOs –EA or summary to be made available by the borrower to the public for a reasonable period EBRD – consultation period defined –60 and 120 days (private/public)
Covenants Covenants Borrower covenants to : –Comply with EMP –Provide regular reports on compliance with the EMP –Where borrower is not in compliance with EMP, banks will work with the borrower to come back into compliance –May default the loan
The Benefits The Benefits Provides a global standard for project finance Saves borrowers time and money Identifies and manages risks up-front Raises global environmental and social performance Reduces loan-shopping based on environmental and social criteria Expedites consensus-reaching among banks in large loan syndications
Summary Environmental, social and corporate governance issues are increasingly unavoidable Many companies are not aware of the risks and opportunities Managers are often ill equipped to deal with the new challenges
Summary Public attitudes shifting on social and environmental issues Strong anti-globalization, anti- privatization sentiments –Impact of corporate governance scandals NGO networks more sophisticated
Summary Reputation risk is complex and not easy to manage –How do you value reputation Not easy to predict New issues emerge continuously –Labor issues (ILO), Human Rights, Reporting Ability to respond quickly and credibly key to managing these risks Affects all sectors and investments
Summary Implementation of EBRD environmental procedures and Policy ensures compliance with Equator Principles Provides for more tailored approach to environmental issues in CEE Access to EBRD environmental specialists – local knowledge
Conclusion Fast changing market On-going privatization –Complex sectors remaining (chemical, coal) Major investment needs Substantial losses for financial institutions as a result of technical issues In Poland no major reported environmental liability claim to date
Conclusion (cont.) Financial Institutions will only invest in the best projects –Environmental standing often reflects overall performance Environmental Risk is one of the issues more and more institutions look at. –Stakeholder issues Transparency and public consultation are a major focus of many international institutions and EU –Poor consultation can result in major delay to projects (EU Cohesion Funds?) Polish financial sector needs to consider broader European issues.
EBRD web site Robert Adamczyk Principal Environmental Specialist firstname.lastname@example.org Telephone: +44 207 7338 6785 Fax: +44 207338 6848 www.ebrd.com