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Using the Subjunctive Adverb Clauses. Adverbs, remember, answer the question where, why, how, when, to what extent, under what circumstances. We ate before.

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Presentation on theme: "Using the Subjunctive Adverb Clauses. Adverbs, remember, answer the question where, why, how, when, to what extent, under what circumstances. We ate before."— Presentation transcript:

1 Using the Subjunctive Adverb Clauses

2 Adverbs, remember, answer the question where, why, how, when, to what extent, under what circumstances. We ate before he left. We ate... When? Before he left. We cried because he left. We cried... Why? Because he left. We will cry unless he leaves. We will cry... Under what circumstances? Unless he leaves. Sometimes figuring out what question the clause answers isnt quite so easy, but adverb clauses usually dont start with que/that or quien/who, so you can pretty well bet that any clause that starts with one of those words is a noun or adjective clauses. Most other conjunctionsalthough, if, when, after, before, until, etc.introduce adverb clauses.

3 There are certain conjunctions that introduce adverb clauses and REQUIRE the subjunctive: a menos queunless sin quewithout con tal queprovided that para queso that de manera queso that de modo queso that antes de quebefore According to the previous slide, que doesnt introduce adverb clauses. Thats true; que by itself doesnt. In all of these, its just a part of the conjunction.

4 a menos queunlesssin quewithout con tal queprovided thatpara queso that de manera queso thatde modo queso that antes de quebefore Vamos a salir a menos que nos ayudes. – Were going to leave unless you help us. Vamos a salir con tal que nos ayudes.– Were going to leave provided that you help us. Vamos a salir para que nos ayudes. – Were going to leave so that youll help us. Vamos a salir antes de que nos ayudes. – Were going to leave before you help us. Sin que is going to seem kind of strange to you, because we dont have an equivalent conjunction in English: Vamos a salir sin que nos ayudes. – Were going to leave without your helping us. As you can see, in English, rather than using a clause, we use a prepositional phrase.

5 There are some conjunctions, called time conjunctions, that SOMETIMES require the subjunctive. después de queafter hasta queuntil cuandowhen tan pronto comoas soon as en cuantoas soon as If the action in the dependent clause has not yet occurred, it needs the subjunctive: We will eat as soon as you arrive. In the above sentence, you havent arrived yet, so as soon as must be followed by the subjunctive: Comeremos tan pronto como llegues. Hes going to study after you leave. – Va a estudiar después de que salgas. You havent left yet. Im going to read until we eat. – Voy a leer hasta que comamos. We arent eating yet.

6 However, if the action has already occurred, you use the indicative, not the subjunctive: We ate as soon as you arrived. Youve already arrived, so you use the indicative, not the subjunctive: Comimos tan pronto como llegaste. Similarly... He studied after you left. – Estudió después de que saliste. You already left. You may have concluded that if the verb is in the past tense, youre going to need the indicative. That isnt necessarily so. Consider this sentence: I was going to eat as soon as Juan left. During the time frame of this sentence, Juan hadnt left. You need the subjunctive imperfect subjunctive: Yo iba a comer tan pronto como Juan saliera.

7 So, if the action has not yet occurred, you use the subjunctive after the time conjunction. If it has occurred, you use the indicative. But theres one more consideration: If the action occurs habitually, you use the indicative: We always eat as soon as he arrives. – Siempre comemos tan pronto como llega.... as opposed to the following: Were going to eat as soon as he arrives. – Vamos a comer tan pronto como llegue. In the red sentence, were not talking about a one time occurrence. Were talking about something thats a regular, habitual occurrence. In the blue sentence, were talking about a particular occasion, and on this particular occasion, his arrival hasnt happened yet.

8 Click here to go to a brief practice exercise.here


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