Presentation on theme: "The World Bank & Secondary Education in Africa Dzingai Mutumbuka Sector Manager Africa Region World Bank."— Presentation transcript:
The World Bank & Secondary Education in Africa Dzingai Mutumbuka Sector Manager Africa Region World Bank
2 Increased World Bank support Finance for education project has risen from the early 1990s. Under 300 million in 1990 to nearly 600 million today. Much of the expansion was in the primary sector. In % went to primary education, and another 17% to general education projects. Recent years have seen a rise in secondary projects.
3 Secondary - On the agenda From the early 1990s the focus was on primary education But now, the focus is shifting: –The wave of new students is emerging from primary school –A modern economy demands more than primary education –The quality of primary education is limited by lack of teachers as so few progress to secondary.
4 The big increase has been in primary IDA disbursement for education, globally. Selected sub-sectors, excluding general education, $ millions
5 New education projects in Africa, FY06 CountryProjectType US $ millions Burkina Faso Post Primary EducationSIL22.9 Gambia, TheEducation 3 Phase 2APL8 Mozambique Tech & Voc Edu & TrainingSIL30 Uganda Millennium Science InitiativeSIL30 Plus $1,205 million in PRSCs in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote dIvoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Madagascar, Mozambique, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania, Uganda
6 New education projects, expected FY07 excluding PRSC and budget support, in US $ millions Burundi20 DR Congo*130 Kenya*50 Mali35 Namibia*30 Nigeria*100 Senegal30 Zanzibar*35 Total430
7 Barriers to rapid expansion Finance: –Cost per student is a multiple of primary cost (often 3-5 times) (curriculum diversified, teachers have higher qualifications and cost more, subject-teaching, infrastructure) Teachers: –Shortage in key subject areas (Mathematics, Sciences, language) –Teacher training is more expensive and takes longer time –Replacement of teachers due to illness and death Access/Equity –Demand side issues including fees, opportunity cost, early marriages, religious beliefs –Coping with sparse populations –Prohibitive cost of boarding schools
8 Cost structure: Lesotho Primary education Average teacher pay $4,322 pa PTR: 50 Teaching hours: full school day. Teacher cost per student: $86 Secondary education Average teacher pay: $8,860 pa PTR: 40 Expected teaching periods 30 (of 45) Teacher cost per student: $335 Cost per student is 3.8 times the cost at primary level
9 Mathematics and Science (M+S) A cyclical problem Poor M + S teaching in school Few students do M + S, even fewer do well Few available to enter teacher training college Shortage of skilled M + S teachers
10 The equity issues Secondary education as a poverty filter –Frequently primary education is free, but secondary education is not. However, higher education is often free or heavily subsidized. –Fees prevent the poor form accessing secondary education, and therefore cut off their ability to compete for the subsidized places in tertiary education Schools often set their own fee levels –Schools with more wealthy students can charge more, and use the money to provide better services, widening the inequity.