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The Reform of State-Owned Commercial Banks in China Yan Li and Yumin Zhuang ASEAN+3 Workshop on Reform and Development of Banking System in China May 24-26,

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Presentation on theme: "The Reform of State-Owned Commercial Banks in China Yan Li and Yumin Zhuang ASEAN+3 Workshop on Reform and Development of Banking System in China May 24-26,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Reform of State-Owned Commercial Banks in China Yan Li and Yumin Zhuang ASEAN+3 Workshop on Reform and Development of Banking System in China May 24-26, 2005, Shanghai China

2 Contents Overview of China s state-owned commercial banks Overview of China s state-owned commercial banks The history of state-owned commercial banks The history of state-owned commercial banks The process of reform The process of reform Conclusion Conclusion

3 Overview of China s state-owned commercial banks (SOCBs) Overview of China s state-owned commercial banks (SOCBs) The history of state-owned commercial banks The history of state-owned commercial banks The progress of reform The progress of reform Conclusion Conclusion

4 Overview of China s SOCBs Framework of China s banking system Framework of China s banking system Peoples Bank of China Big four Industrial and commercial bank of China (ICBC) Agricultural Bank of China (ABC) Bank of China (BOC) Construction Bank of China (CBC) Joint-stock banks (12 banks) Policy banks (3 banks) City commercial banks (112 banks) Rural credit cooperatives (33,586 banks) Urban credit cooperatives (709 banks) Foreign banks (119 operation branches 216 representative offices )

5 The dominance of banks over capital market

6 The dominance of big four over other banks

7 The dominance of big four over all other financial institutes

8 Overview of China s SOCBs (continue) Conclusion: Conclusion: Financial institutes are dominated by banks Financial institutes are dominated by banks Banks are dominated by SOCBs Banks are dominated by SOCBs China s fragile financial system means China s fragile SOCBs China s fragile financial system means China s fragile SOCBs Financial reform = SOCBs reform Financial reform = SOCBs reform

9 Overview of China s state-owned commercial banks Overview of China s state-owned commercial banks The history of state-owned commercial banks The history of state-owned commercial banks The progress of reform The progress of reform Conclusion Conclusion

10 The history of SOCBs SOCBs were born in 1979 the first stage of financial reform SOCBs were born in 1979 the first stage of financial reform One bank and dual role One bank and dual role Central bank and commercial bank Central bank and commercial bank Only source of loans and the center of disturbing investment and operating funds to SOEs Only source of loans and the center of disturbing investment and operating funds to SOEs Confliction of dual function Confliction of dual function SOCBs are from Peoples Bank of China SOCBs are from Peoples Bank of China ABC a rebirth from PBC ABC a rebirth from PBC BOC a separation of PBC s foreign exchange division BOC a separation of PBC s foreign exchange division CCB transferred from PBC (1983) CCB transferred from PBC (1983) ICBC transferred from PBC (1984) ICBC transferred from PBC (1984)

11 The history of SOCBs (continue) SOCBs is the products of financial reform in China SOCBs is the products of financial reform in China Problems left in SOCBs Problems left in SOCBs Loan to inefficient SOEs Loan to inefficient SOEs Government agency but genuine bank Government agency but genuine bank Non-profit orientation Non-profit orientation Bureaucratism and Corruption Bureaucratism and Corruption Monopoly on specified areas Monopoly on specified areas –Competition was not allowed among big four No risk consciousness No risk consciousness Accumulation of Bad loans Accumulation of Bad loans

12 Performance Comparison of BOCBs with the Top 10 in 2004 (Million Dollars)

13 Overview of China s state-owned commercial banks Overview of China s state-owned commercial banks The history of state-owned commercial banks The history of state-owned commercial banks The progress of reform The progress of reform Conclusion Conclusion

14 The progress of reform Phase I ( ): the forming of framework of modern banking system Phase I ( ): the forming of framework of modern banking system Phase II ( ): transition from specialized bank to commercial bank Phase II ( ): transition from specialized bank to commercial bank Phase III (since 2000): SOCBs Comprehensive Reform Phase III (since 2000): SOCBs Comprehensive Reform

15 The progress of reform (cont 1) Phase II ( ): transition from specialized bank to commercial bank Phase II ( ): transition from specialized bank to commercial bank 1994, recast Big Four as commercial banks 1994, recast Big Four as commercial banks Creating 3 policy banks to divorce Big Four from policy loan dictated by government Creating 3 policy banks to divorce Big Four from policy loan dictated by government –China Agriculture Development Bank –China Development Bank –China Import and Export Bank 1995, pass the Commercial Bank Law 1995, pass the Commercial Bank Law Enabling Big Four to become genuine commercial banks Enabling Big Four to become genuine commercial banks Segregating business operations of banks, securities firms and insurance companies Segregating business operations of banks, securities firms and insurance companies

16 The progress of reform (cont 2) Asia financial crisis in 1997 speed up the reform of SOCBs in 1998 Asia financial crisis in 1997 speed up the reform of SOCBs in 1998 Highly concentrated supervision power in PBOC was separated into 3 parts: Highly concentrated supervision power in PBOC was separated into 3 parts: –PBOC –China Securities Regulatory Commission –China Insurance Regulatory Commission Injecting $33 billion of capital into the Big Four to strengthen their ability of anti-risk Injecting $33 billion of capital into the Big Four to strengthen their ability of anti-risk

17 The progress of reform (cont 3) 1999, Establishing four asset-management companies, one for each of the banks 1999, Establishing four asset-management companies, one for each of the banks AMCs absorbed $169 billion in non-performing loans AMCs absorbed $169 billion in non-performing loans By the end of 2003 they had disposed of $61.5 billion in bad loans, recovering some $12 billion By the end of 2003 they had disposed of $61.5 billion in bad loans, recovering some $12 billion

18 The progress of reform (cont 4) Phase III (since 2000): SOCBs Comprehensive Reform Phase III (since 2000): SOCBs Comprehensive Reform A compressed timeframe of reform A compressed timeframe of reform China s WTO entrance requires all banks (domestic and foreign) compete under the same conditions by the end of 2006 China s WTO entrance requires all banks (domestic and foreign) compete under the same conditions by the end of 2006 Problems faced by SOCBs Problems faced by SOCBs

19 The progress of reform (cont 5) High non-performing loan ratio High non-performing loan ratio Source: database from People s Bank of China –A fragile banking system

20 The progress of reform (cont 6) Low profitability Low profitability Source: China Financial Yearbook,

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22 The progress of reform (cont 7) Capital inadequacy Capital inadequacy Source: Annual report of Big Four –Capital adequacy ratio had been reached 8% after Ministry of Finance injecting $33 billion in SOCBs in But the ratio kept declining after that

23 The progress of reform (cont 8) –Reason of capital inadequacy: Few ways of increasing capital Few ways of increasing capital Low profitability Low profitability Rapid extension of credit Rapid extension of credit Poor corporate governance mechanism Poor corporate governance mechanism –The principles of corporate governance mechanism (codified by OECD) include: Independent board of directors Independent board of directors Treatment of minority shareholders Treatment of minority shareholders Coordinating the interests of capital owners and business managers. Coordinating the interests of capital owners and business managers.

24 The progress of reform (cont 9) –Banks operate on a commercial basis with modern corporate governance should have: Independent boards of directors Independent boards of directors Sound internal control and risk management Sound internal control and risk management Comprehensive external audits Comprehensive external audits Foreign strategic investors Foreign strategic investors –SOCBs have poor corporate governance mechanism Close relation with government. Bankers are government officers but not business men. Close relation with government. Bankers are government officers but not business men. Weak incentives to support business operating Weak incentives to support business operating Weak internal control and risk management Weak internal control and risk management

25 The progress of reform (cont 10) Resolutions Resolutions Improve the supervision and regulation environment Improve the supervision and regulation environment –Creating China Banking Regulation Commission –Narrowing the focus of PBC on monetary policy Increase capital adequacy and writing-off NPLs Increase capital adequacy and writing-off NPLs –Injecting capital into SOCBs $45 billion into BOC and CBC in 2003; $45 billion into BOC and CBC in 2003; $15 billion into ICBC in May 2005 $15 billion into ICBC in May 2005 –Issuing subordinated bonds RMB 49.4 billion by BOC and CBC in 2004

26 The progress of reform (cont 11) Improve legal environment Improve legal environment –Passing three banking laws Transfer from wholly state-owned bank to joint- stockholding bank Transfer from wholly state-owned bank to joint- stockholding bank –BOC and CBC as the pilot of test suppose to go to public in 2005 –ICBC suppose to go to public in 2006 Improve corporate governance mechanism Improve corporate governance mechanism –BOC and CBC have established the General Meeting of Shareholders, the Board of Directors, the Board of supervisors –Under the board of directors, five committees are set up, including Strategy Committee, Risk Management Committee, Audit Committee, Nomination & Remuneration Committee, Related Transaction Committee

27 The progress of reform (cont 12) –All efforts made to achieve the goals: Strengthen risk management & internal control Strengthen risk management & internal control Reform of the Human Resources Management Reform of the Human Resources Management Create prudential Accounting System Create prudential Accounting System Increase transparency Increase transparency Establish Huijin company Establish Huijin company –A government agency –Function A representative of state stock holder A representative of state stock holder Supervise the business operating of SOCBs Supervise the business operating of SOCBs

28 The progress of reform (cont 13) Problems in joint-stock holding reform of SOCBs Problems in joint-stock holding reform of SOCBs Who select the top manager of bank? Who select the top manager of bank? –A dilemma of state control and shareholder s interest –Government doesn't want to give up control How to attract strategic investors? How to attract strategic investors? –The average equity size SOCBs is about RMB 150 billion, take 20% of equity need RMB 30 billion. It is a huge number for most potential investors

29 Overview of China s state-owned commercial banks Overview of China s state-owned commercial banks The history of state-owned commercial banks The history of state-owned commercial banks The progress of reform The progress of reform Conclusion Conclusion

30 Conclusion Reform is slowly but steady during the past quarter of century Reform is slowly but steady during the past quarter of century Spin of commercial operating from people s bank of China into separated commercial banks Spin of commercial operating from people s bank of China into separated commercial banks Strengthen the rule of law in financial system Strengthen the rule of law in financial system Fight against NPLs Fight against NPLs Improving the governance of banks Improving the governance of banks It is a long way but a bright way It is a long way but a bright way

31 THANKS! THANKS!


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