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20-763 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS FALL 2002COPYRIGHT © 2002 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS 20-763 Electronic Payment Systems Lecture 2 Banking Systems and Foreign.

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Presentation on theme: "20-763 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS FALL 2002COPYRIGHT © 2002 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS 20-763 Electronic Payment Systems Lecture 2 Banking Systems and Foreign."— Presentation transcript:

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2 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS FALL 2002COPYRIGHT © 2002 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Electronic Payment Systems Lecture 2 Banking Systems and Foreign Exchange

3 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS FALL 2002COPYRIGHT © 2002 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Outline The world banking system Central banks What is a bank deposit? Difference between clearance and settlement Gross v. net settlement How foreign exchange works

4 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS FALL 2002COPYRIGHT © 2002 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS World Banking System PRIVATELY OWNED CENTRAL BANKS U.S. FEDERAL RESERVE DEUTSCHE BUNDESBANK MIXED-OWNERSHIP CENTRAL BANKS BELGIUM BANK OF JAPAN HONG KONG HKMA GOVERNMENT-OWNED CENTRAL BANKS BANQUE DE FRANCE BANK OF ENGLAND BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS (A BANK FOR 45 CENTRAL BANKS, $130B) ENSURES LIQUIDITY BASEL, SWITZERLAND WORLD BANK (PUBLIC POLICY LOANS$200B) INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (BALANCE OF PAYMENTS LENDER $300B) 182 MEMBER COUNTRIES WASHINGTON, DC SOURCE: TRANSACTION.NETTRANSACTION.NET PRIVATE BANKS AND CREDIT INSTITUTIONS

5 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS FALL 2002COPYRIGHT © 2002 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Central Banks Legal tender (real money) is issued by central banks (and banks operating under their authority) Non-central banks cannot hold legal tender (except in cash form). Why? (What form would it take?) Non-central banks must maintain accounts in the central bank Banks transfer real money via transactions through the central bank

6 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS FALL 2002COPYRIGHT © 2002 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Cash Transaction 1. CENTRAL BANK ISSUES FIDUCIARY MONEY (ANTI-FORGERY) + (SERIAL NUMBERS) 2. CENTRAL BANK SELLS CASH TO BUYERS BANK 3. BUYERS BANK ALLOWS BUYER TO DRAW CASH FROM BUYERS ACCOUNT 4. BUYER PHYSICALLY GIVES CASH TO SELLER 5. SELLER DEPOSITS CASH IN SELLERS BANK ACCOUNT 6. SELLERS BANK CREDITS SELLERS BANK ACCOUNT 7. SELLERS BANK SENDS CASH TO CENTRAL BANK CENTRAL BANK BUYERS BANK SELLERS BANK BUYER SELLER

7 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS FALL 2002COPYRIGHT © 2002 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Movement of Money World economic product ~$30T –Time to circulate $30T ~ 6 days Money supply (U.S., March 2002) –M1 (spendable now) $1182B (liquid = cash + non- interest deposits + travelers checks) M1 IS MONEY AVAILABLE FOR PAYMENTS –M2 (M1+ time deposits + money market funds) $5.5T –M3 (M2 + long-term investments) $8.1T (M2 + big deposits: institutional money funds) Cash $605B

8 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS FALL 2002COPYRIGHT © 2002 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS The U.S. Money Supply Currency 605 Non-bank travelers checks 8 Demand deposits 306 Other checkable deposits 263. M1 Total 1182 USD Savings 2483 Small time deposits <100K 931. Retail money market funds 948 M2 Total 5544 USD Large time deposits >100K 801. Institutional money funds 1185 Bank agreements 365 Eurodollars 218 M3 Total 8113 USD. In billions on May 30, 2002 SOURCE: FEDERAL RESERVEFEDERAL RESERVE

9 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS FALL 2002COPYRIGHT © 2002 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Function of Banks Central banks: –Issue fiduciary money (both token and notational) All other (non-central) banks: –Issue notational scriptural money (bank accounts) Not fiduciary (real money), not token Non-central banks –Move notational money –Accept deposits (loans from depositors) –Loan deposits to others (borrowers)

10 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS FALL 2002COPYRIGHT © 2002 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS What is a Bank Account? Notational representation of a loan to the bank from a depositor Once the depositor puts money in his account, it becomes the banks money, not the depositors When the bank deposits its money in the central bank, it becomes fiduciary (real) money The bank then owes the depositor real money Effect of deposit: bank ends up with more real money I HAVE $1000 CASH I DEPOSIT $200 IN THE BANK I HAVE $800. BANK OWES ME $200 (MY ACCOUNT) BANK DEPOSITS $200 IN CENTRAL BANK BANK HAS $200 MORE MONEY NOW MY ASSETS: $800 CASH +$200 OWED BY BANK BANKS ASSETS: +$200 REAL MONEY - $200 DEBT MY ASSETS: $1000 CASH

11 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS FALL 2002COPYRIGHT © 2002 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Benefit of a Bank Deposit Bank can –loan the money (more than was deposited!) –invest the money –move the money, e.g. make payments –buy foreign currency with the money Reserve ratio –Fraction of deposits the bank must keep in the central bank (HK minimum 25%, 40% in practice) –With a reserve ratio of 25%, for a $1000 deposit, the bank can lend out $3000

12 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS FALL 2002COPYRIGHT © 2002 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Foreign Exchange Currency = token fiduciary money of a central bank Every bank account is denominated in one currency Most banks allow accounts in only one currency All currencies have three-letter ISO currency codes: –USD (U.S. dollar)JPY (Japan yen) –GBP (Great Britain pound)CHF (Swiss franc) –HKD (Hong Kong dollar)EUR (Euro) Usually, the first two letters indicate the country; third letter is the first letter of the currency name Foreign exchange is a barter transaction –To buy GBP for USD, buyer has to find someone with GBP who wants USD

13 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS FALL 2002COPYRIGHT © 2002 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Foreign Exchange Every bank must have an account at the central bank (or with another bank that has a central account) The account is (usually) denominated in that countrys currency and is used to settle obligations in that currency –[Hong Kong is an exception. It has systems for transacting in both HKD and USD.] A foreign exchange transaction requires two settlements, one in each currency Therefore, two countries central banks are involved

14 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS FALL 2002COPYRIGHT © 2002 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Foreign Exchange Example Bank B (buyer) is in the U.S. Bank S (seller) is in the UK B wants to buy 1 million GBP for 1.56 million USD from S B must have an account denominated in GBP somewhere, probably at Bank C in the UK. Why? S must have an account denominated in USD somewhere, probably at Bank T in the US. Why? Generally, 4 banks are involved in a foreign exchange

15 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS FALL 2002COPYRIGHT © 2002 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Foreign Exchange Example BANK B (US) WANTS TO BUY 1 MILLION GBP FOR USD BANK S (UK) WILLING TO SELL 1 MILLION GBP FOR USD BANK T (US) BANK S USD ACCOUNT BANK C (UK) BANK B GBP ACCOUNT US FEDERAL RESERVE BANK BANK B USD ACCOUNT BANK T USD ACCOUNT THE BANK OF ENGLAND BANK S GBP ACCOUNT BANK C GBP ACCOUNT SETTLEMENT ONE: BANK B PAYS 1.56 MILLION USD TO BANK T SELLER S NOW HAS 1.56 MILLION USD IN BANK T SETTLEMENT TWO: BANK S TRANSFERS 1 MILLION GBP TO BANK C BUYER B NOW HAS 1 MILLION GBP IN BANK C US BANKS UK BANKS (NOSTRO ACCOUNT) CENTRAL BANKS

16 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS FALL 2002COPYRIGHT © 2002 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Clearance v. Settlement Messaging –Transmission of payment orders Clearance –Determining the net effect of multiple payment orders –How much does each party owe? How much is it owed? Settlement –Actual payment in fiduciary (real) money, often involving a central bank Foreign exchange requires two settlements –Exchange HKD (HK$) to JPY (Japanese ¥) requires settlement in HKD and JPY

17 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS FALL 2002COPYRIGHT © 2002 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Gross v. Net Settlement Systems Gross settlement system: every transaction is processed separately (usually immediately) Example: cash purchase, large-value bank transfers Problem: transaction overhead, network load Net settlement system: transactions are batched Example: credit cards –Merchant is paid once per day, not for each sale –Customer is billed once per month Problem: delay. Time is the enemy of money.

18 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS FALL 2002COPYRIGHT © 2002 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Payment Graphs A B CD E F GH I A B 31 A OWES B $31 A B 31 A HAS $49; B HAS $16; A OWES B $ WITH N PARTIES, NUMBER OF POSSIBLE DEBTS IS N(N-1)/2 10,000 BANKS, 50 MILLION PAYMENTS A B 31 A HAS $49; B HAS $16; A OWES B $31; A IS OWED NET $15; B OWES NET $12 16 (-12) 49 (+15)

19 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS FALL 2002COPYRIGHT © 2002 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Gross Settlement A B CD E F GH I Each debt is settled individually # of payments = # of debts Here, 16 payments required Collection is a problem (failure to pay) RTGS = real-time gross settlement, immediate payment

20 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS FALL 2002COPYRIGHT © 2002 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Net Settlement A B CD E F GH I Compute net amount owed or owing for each party Net debtors make one payment to the clearing house Net creditors receive one payment from the clearing house # of payments = # of parties 10,000 banks = 10,000 payments, not 50 million (+24) (+15) (+90) (-95) (-23) (+52) (-85) (-46) (+68)

21 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS FALL 2002COPYRIGHT © 2002 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Net Settlement A B C D E F G H I (+24) (+15) (+90) (-95) (-23) (+52) (-85) (-46) (+68) NET CREDITOR NET DEBTOR A B C D E F G H I (+24) (+15) (+90) (-95) (-23) (+52) (-85) (-46) (+68) CLEARING HOUSE

22 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS FALL 2002COPYRIGHT © 2002 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Net Settlement A B C D E F G H I (+24) (+15) (+90) (-95) (-23) (+52) (-85) (-46) (+68) NET CREDITOR NET DEBTOR A B C D E F G H I (+24) (+15) (+90) (-95) (-23) (+52) (-85) (-46) (+68) CLEARING HOUSE =

23 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS FALL 2002COPYRIGHT © 2002 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Net v. Gross Settlement Net settlement requires clearing –Determining the net amounts owed or owing Net settlement requires a separate clearing house Net settlement introduces delay (for clearing) Net settlement eliminates counterparty risk Used for large numbers of small payments, e.g. cheques, credit cards Gross settlement can be instantaneous (< 1 minute) Gross settlement involves a large number of payments; used for large transactions, e.g. interbank transfers

24 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS FALL 2002COPYRIGHT © 2002 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS U.S. Banking & Payments System NATIONAL COMMERCIAL BANKS (2500) FEDWIRE PRINTS CURRENCY CLEARS USD LEG OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION U.S. TREASURY DEPARTMENT FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS (12) NY FEDERAL RESERVE CLEARING HOUSE INTERBANK PAYMENT SYSTEM (CHIPS) FEDERAL SAVINGS BANKS FEDERAL RESERVE CLEARING HOUSE ISSUE MONEY REGULATES NATIONAL BANKS REGULATES SAVINGS BANKS ATM NETWORKS: CIRRUS, HONOR, MAC CLEAR ATM TRANSACTIONS FORMULATES MONEY POLICY CLEAR CHECKS, ACH, CREDIT CARDS ELECTRONIC PAYMENTS NETWORK OTHER CLEARING HOUSES VISANET USES OWNS REGULATES HAS ACCOUNT WITH

25 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS FALL 2002COPYRIGHT © 2002 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Major Ideas Key role of central banks Bank account = debt owed by a bank to a depositor Clearance: determining net effect of multiple debts Settlement: actual payment of money One settlement requires 2 banks (usually) Foreign exchange requires 2 settlements, 4 banks

26 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS FALL 2002COPYRIGHT © 2002 MICHAEL I. SHAMOS Q A &


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