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1 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Using Indigenous Knowledge to Adapt Global Best Practices to Local Conditions: The World Bank Experience Presentation.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Using Indigenous Knowledge to Adapt Global Best Practices to Local Conditions: The World Bank Experience Presentation."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Using Indigenous Knowledge to Adapt Global Best Practices to Local Conditions: The World Bank Experience Presentation to APQCs Fourth Knowledge Management Conference San Antonio, Texas May 26, 2000 Nicolas Gorjestani

2 2 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank What we will share today Part I: World Banks Knowledge Framework – Who we are, what we do – Evolution of knowledge sharing strategy – Lessons of experience Part II: Learning from the Client – Role of Indigenous Knowledge – The process of adaptation

3 3 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Who we are... International organization Owned by 180 governments 9000 staff; 100+ nationalities Regional offices in 100+ countries ~40% operational staff in the field

4 4 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank What we do... Help design/finance development programs reconstruction of Europe developing countries fighting poverty Leverage ideas and financial resources Largest single source of development finance Raise funds from capital markets/contributions

5 5 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Our competitive advantage... Knowledge of development practices J over 50 years J 100+ countries J variety of sectors Largest source of development knowledge under one roof

6 6 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank World Bank mission statement To help people help themselves and their environment, by providing resources, sharing knowledge... To fight poverty with passion and professionalism for lasting results

7 7 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank How we got here... The age of pioneers (1995-1996) Scaling up the Knowledge Bank (1997-99) The age of integration & adaptation (2000 >) Three Phases

8 8 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Knowledge management Knowledge sharing = Jargon Plain English

9 9 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Tax policy and administration thematic group October/November 1998 Public expenditure review Madagascar: In the past: Well get back to you Should VAT (value added tax) be applied to medicines?

10 10 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Tax policy and administration thematic group October/November 1998 Public expenditure review Madagascar: should VAT (value added tax) be applied to medicines?

11 11 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Task manager in Madascar: how desirable are specific reforms to the VAT (value added tax) that the client was contemplating? Tax policy and administration thematic group Within 72 hours... Late October1998 Public expenditure review Madagascar: should VAT (value added tax) be applied to medicines? Indonesia field office MNA Region ECA Region DEC Retired University of Toronto

12 12 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Tax policy and administration thematic group October/November 1998 Public expenditure review Madagascar: should VAT (value added tax) be applied to medicines? The advice received shaped the Bank position as communicated to Govt, IMF and donors In the new finance law, medicines are exempted from VAT

13 13 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Global experience on exemptions from VAT KMS Expected The experience will be edited for re-use and entered into the knowledge base

14 14 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Increasingly The client can get this kind of material in minutes Future Global experience on exemptions from VAT KMS How to make this real ?

15 15 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank While technology is a facilitator Sharing depends on community Indonesia field office ECA Region MNA Region DEC Retired AFR Region University of Toronto

16 16 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Knowledge & Learning Framework What we Know & Dont Know? knowdont know know what we know we dont know what we dont know we dont know what we know we know what we dont know we know

17 17 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Knowledge & Learning Framework How to Share & Learn? internalexternal external internal knowledge sources learn from peers, clients share with, learn from global networks learn from each other by sharing share with clients, partners knowledge users

18 18 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Initially, the focus was on building a knowledge base Knowledge base knowledge objects The evolution of knowledge sharing

19 19 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Knowledge base knowledge objects Then the focus shifted to knowledge communities Communities of practice 100+ thematic groups The evolution of knowledge sharing

20 20 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Health partners Education partners Private sector partners Transport partners Agriculture partners External partners The evolution of knowledge sharing

21 21 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Community of practice: the thematic group

22 22 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Community of practice: the thematic group Most members are in Regions Some staff are anchors External partners TGs are front-line practitioners 100+ thematic groups

23 23 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Doing while learning Knowledge sharing Connecting through communities of practice Sharing knowledge within the team Informal learning clinics Collecting knowhow and sharing Distance learning Study tours Computer based learning Learning while doing Learning

24 24 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Knowledge sharing Learning Ecological approach Information management Intellectual capital Engineering approach

25 25 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Knowledge sharing Learning Ecological approach Information management Intellectual capital Knowledge as an asset Knowledge as information Knowledge as as an activity Knowledge as people We need all four approaches Engineering approach

26 26 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank What we have learned... >need relentless repetition Its a long journey > need relentless repetition > its a series of small steps Its not one thing > its a series of small steps >two sides of same coin Sharing & learning > two sides of same coin > its about people/communities Its not about tools > its about people/communities >integrate K into core business It will stay a fad > integrate K into core business > its about behaviors Its not about rules > its about behaviors >key to client satisfaction Adapt K to setting > key to client satisfaction

27 27 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Integrate knowledge into quality process Road Map for Leveraging Knowledge Systematic process to: Learn before, during, and after the task þ Provide teams with timely best advice þ Ensure that the advice is used

28 28 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank 1. Roles and responsibilities 2. Assessment of knowledge needs 3. Resource allocation 4. When and how advice is given 5. Ensuring that advice is used 6. Adapting global practices 7. Capturing lessons of experience Core Elements of the Road Map

29 29 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank 6. Adapting knowledge to the local setting l Institutional context of global practice? l Setting where practice is to be replicated? l Indigenous knowledge systems to build on to make global practice relevant to the community? l Adjustments to global practice, phasing or local institutions to make the practice work well? Learning from the client and helping the client learn

30 30 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Part II: Adapting global practices l Role of Indigenous Knowledge l The adaptation process

31 31 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Genesis of IK Program GK 97 Conference in Toronto Vision of truly global knowledge partnership will be realized only when the poor participate as both users and contributors of knowledge Learning from clients & helping them learn Client Feed Back Surveys 40 percent knowledge adaptation gap

32 32 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank What IK Achieved in Mozambique *Traditional authorities and local administration þmanaged 500,000 land transactions and þsettled 5 million refugees and displaced persons in two years *Used only local knowledge and capacity þno external assistance from government, donors or NGOs þno conflicts over land and rights *Impact: small holders re-launch agricultural growth How long would it have taken government & donors? Case of post-conflict resettlement

33 33 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank What IK Achieved in Senegal *Adult education course by TOSTAN þapply literacy to solve a community problem þlearn about the consequences of circumcision on the health of girls þabolish the practice after sharing experiences within the community *Exchange experiences with other communities þinvolve male spiritual leaders þobtain presidential approval for the Oath of Malicounda *Impact: þMore than 16 communities abolish the practice within 18 months þSenegal officially abolishes practice in December 1998 Case of women of Malicounda

34 34 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank What IK Achieved in Burkina Faso * Learning in local languages l 15,000 learners in Gulmancema language (41% women) l 4,000 literacy centers (3,000 schools using French) l 52% of the successful literacy center students were women * Impact l Higher literacy rates than in French l Writing and numeracy correspondence, record keeping l Preserving cultural heritage Case of local language literacy centers

35 35 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank * Embedded in Culture * Critical Element of Global Knowledge * Foundation for Human and Social Capital * Gateway to Empowerment * Key to Sustainable Development Indigenous Knowledge is...

36 36 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Tools to capture & integrate IK 4 IK practices data base (120 cases) 4IK Notes publication (20 in print & Internet) 4IK Report: A Framework for Action 4 Website: www.worldbank.org/html/afr/ik/index.htm www.worldbank.org/html/afr/ik/index.htm 4 First local language website 4 Enhance capacity of IK centers in countries 4Funding of IK resource persons for task teams 4Knowledge Packs

37 37 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

38 38 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Integrating IK in Development Programs * Agricultural Research & Training Project II þ focuses research activities on local practices disseminates successful IK practices * National Strategy on Utilization of IK þ establishes national focal point for IK þ organizes national forum to draft IK policy integrates IK in poverty alleviation strategy Case of Uganda

39 39 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Building local communities of practice Engage Exchange Learn Influence Healers Farmers Hunters

40 40 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Botanists Ministry of Health Doctors Pharmacists WHO/ World Bank Specialists Researchers PHC providers Leveraging Global & Local Knowledge Networks Health Care CBOs/ NGOs Traditional Healers

41 41 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Balanced Flow of Knowledge Local Global Networks

42 42 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank The new knowledge frontier Adaptation

43 43 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Practices Adaptation InstitutionsBehaviors

44 44 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Adapting Behaviors Its a mindset thing….. humility curiositylistening learning trusting hearing patience empathy...and

45 45 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Adapting Behaviors …ask the right questions !?

46 46 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Adapting Institutions Providing a framework within which adaptation occurs in a consultative and participatory manner to facilitate ownership and eventual sustainable adoption

47 47 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Adapting Practices Testing, complementing, substituting, or altering a technologies or processes, to make them fit within the physical, social and economic conditions and the utilization purposes of a local community

48 48 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Time Provider Recipient Enabler Degree of Involvement Adaptation Process Provider Recipient Enabler

49 49 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Enablers role varies over time... Nature Intensity Instruments

50 50 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank localexternal external local K -source K- use Adaptation Framework localexternal external local K -source K- use

51 51 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank localexternal external local K -source K- use Adaptation Framework

52 52 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Uganda:RESCUER project in Iganga District l PHCs partner with traditional birth attendants l link attendants to health units thru walkie-talkies l attendants serve as referral points l more women receive health services * Impact: maternal deaths decline by 50% in 3 years Lesson: Appropriate technology can help to enable & empower local communities by leveraging global and local knowledge systems External Knowledge for Local Use

53 53 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank But the Bank is not a storehouse of universally applicable knowledge just waiting to be transferred. That is why it should empower its clients to tap global knowledge, connect clients to one another and to other sources of experience, and learn with them about what works. OED 1999 Annual Review of Development Effectiveness


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