Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 17 Banking and the Management of Financial Institutions.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 17 Banking and the Management of Financial Institutions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 17 Banking and the Management of Financial Institutions

2 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Chapter Preview Banks play an important role in channeling funds (about $6 trillion annually) to finance productive investment opportunities. They provide loans to businesses, finance college educations, and allow us to purchase homes with mortgages.

3 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Chapter Preview In this chapter, we examine how banking is conducted to earn the highest profits possible. In the commercial banking setting, we look at loans, balance sheet management, and income determinants. Topics include: The Bank Balance Sheet Basics of Banking General Principles of Bank Management Off-Balance Sheet Activities Measuring Bank Performance

4 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved The Bank Balance Sheet The Balance Sheet is a list of a banks assets and liabilities Total assets = total liabilities + capital

5 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved The Bank Balance Sheet A banks balance sheet lists sources of bank funds (liabilities) and uses to which they are put (assets) Banks invest these liabilities (sources) into assets (uses) in order to create value for their capital providers

6 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved The Bank Balance Sheet Flow of funds (tab down to commercial banks) Pay no interest Secondary reserves 74% of Assets Lowest cost source of funds-- payable on demand Deposit with no check writing Discount loans Fed Funds, Corporate Loans have grown by factor of 10 since 1960 as % of Liab Bank Equity = Assets - Liabilities, listed as Liab because Bank owes this to owners. Also includes Loan Loss Reserves

7 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Basics of Banking Asset transformation is, for example, when a bank takes your savings deposits and uses the funds to make, say, a mortgage loan. Banks tend to borrow short and lend long (in terms of maturity).

8 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Basics of Banking T-account Analysis: Deposit of $100 cash into First National Bank

9 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Basics of Banking Deposit of $100 check Conclusion: When bank receives deposits, reserves by equal amount; when bank loses deposits, reserves by equal amount

10 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Basics of Banking– Required Reserves Deposit of $100 cash into First National Bank assuming Required Reserve ratio of 10% $10 of the deposit must remain in reserves to meet federal regulations (10% reserve req.). Now, the bank is free to work with the $90 in its asset transformation function. In this case, the bank loans the $90 to its customers.

11 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Basics of Banking Loaning out excess reserves

12 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved General Principles of Bank Management 1.Liquidity management 2.Asset management Managing credit risk Managing interest-rate risk 3.Liability management 4.Managing capital adequacy Now lets look at how a bank manages its assets and liabilities. The bank has four primary concerns:

13 Principles of Bank Management With 10% reserve requirement, bank still has excess reserves of $1 million: no changes needed in balance sheet Deposit outflow - 10 m

14 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Liquidity Management With 10% reserve requirement, bank has $9 million reserve shortfall - 10 m

15 17-14 Liquidity Management + 9 m - 9 m

16 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Liquidity Management Conclusion: Excess reserves are insurance against above 4 costs from deposit outflows + 9 m - 9 m

17 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Asset Management Asset Management: the attempt to earn the highest possible return on assets while minimizing the risk. 1.Get borrowers with low default risk, paying high interest rates 2.Buy securities with high return, low risk 3.Diversify 4.Manage liquidity

18 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Liability Management Liability Management: managing the source of funds, from deposits, to CDs, to other debt. 1.Important since 1960s 2.No longer primarily depend on deposits 3.When see loan opportunities, borrow or issue CDs to acquire funds

19 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Pop Quiz Define Bank Capital. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of maintaining a large amount of bank capital.

20 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Capital Adequacy Management 1.Bank capital is a cushion that prevents bank failure. For example, consider these two banks:

21 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Capital Adequacy Management What happens if these banks make loans or invest in securities (say, subprime mortgage loans, for example) that end up losing money? Lets assume both banks lose $5 million from bad loans.

22 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Capital Adequacy Management Impact of $5 million loan loss Conclusion: A bank maintains reserves to lessen the chance that it will become insolvent.

23 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Capital Adequacy Management So, why dont banks hold want to hold a lot of capital?? 2. Higher is bank capital, lower is return on equity ROA = Net Profits/Assets ROE = Net Profits/Equity Capital EM = Assets/Equity Capital ROE = ROA EM Capital, EM, ROE

24 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Capital Adequacy Management 3.Tradeoff between safety (high capital) and ROE 4.Banks also hold capital to meet capital requirements (more on this in Chapter 20). The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision sets minimum capital requirements the ratio of bank capital to risk weighted assets.Basel Committee

25 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved The Practicing Manager: Strategies for Managing Capital: what should a bank manager do if she feels the bank is holding too much capital? Sell or retire stock Increase dividends to reduce retained earnings Increase asset growth via debt (like CDs)

26 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved The Practicing Manager: Reversing these strategies will help a manager if she feels the bank is holding too little capital? Issue stock Decrease dividends to increase retained earnings Slow asset growth (retire debt) Slow asset growth

27 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved How a Capital Crunch Caused a Credit Crunch in 2008 The slowdown in growth of credit triggered a crunch in 2007credit was hard to get. What caused the credit crunch? Housing boom and bust led to large bank losses, including losses on SIVs which had to be recognized on the balance sheet. The losses reduced bank capital.

28 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved How a Capital Crunch Caused a Credit Crunch in 2008 Banks were forced to either (1) raise new capital or (2) reduce lending. Guess which route they chose? Why would banks be hesitant to raise new capital (equity) during an economic downturn?

29 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Off-Balance-Sheet Activities 1.Loan sales (secondary loan participation) 2.Fee income from Foreign exchange trades for customers Servicing mortgage-backed securities Guarantees of debt Backup lines of credit 3.Trading Activities and Risk Management Techniques Financial futures and options Foreign exchange trading Interest rate swaps All these activities involve risk and potential conflicts What's a C.D.O.? What's a C.D.O.

30 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Off-Balance-Sheet Activities Quiz: Explain how Trading Activities lead to a Principal-Agent problem. What actions should banks take to mitigate the PA problem?

31 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Rouge Traders To highlight the problems that some of these off-balance sheet activities generate, we will briefly look at two incidences with devastating results. Barings: Nick Leeson engaged in speculative trades on the Nikkea, and personally generated $1.3 billion in losses over a 3-year period. Barings had to close!

32 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Rogue Traders Daiwa Bank: Toshihide Iguchi racked up $1.1 billion in losses in trading. When he fessed-up, the bank decided to hide this from regulators. The bank was eventually fined $340 million and barred from U.S. operations.

33 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Measuring Bank Performance Much like any business, measuring bank performance requires a look at the income statement. For banks, this is separated into three parts: Operating Income Operating Expenses Net Operating Income Note how this is different from, say, a manufacturing firms income statement.

34 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Banks Income Statement (a)

35 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Banks Income Statement (b)

36 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Recent Trends in Bank Performance Measures (a) ROA = Net Profits/ Assets ROE = Net Profits/ Equity Capital NIM = [Interest Income – Interest Expenses]/ Assets qbp/ qbp/

37 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Recent Trends in Bank Performance Measures (b) ROA = Net Profits/ Assets ROE = Net Profits/ Equity Capital NIM = [Interest Income – Interest Expenses]/ Assets

38 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Chapter Summary The Bank Balance Sheet: we reviewed the basic assets, liabilities, and bank capital that make up the balance sheet Basics of Banking: we examined the accounting entries for a series of simple bank transactions

39 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Chapter Summary (cont.) General Principles of Bank Management: we discussed the roles of liability, reserves, asset, and capital adequacy management for a bank Off-Balance Sheet Activities: we briefly reviewed some of the (risky) activities that banks engage in that dont appear on the balance sheet or income statement

40 © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Chapter Summary (cont.) Measuring Bank Performance: we reviewed the income statement for a banking organization and key ratios commonly used for measuring and comparing bank performance


Download ppt "Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 17 Banking and the Management of Financial Institutions."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google