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Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr.

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Presentation on theme: "Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr. C. Zanbak Dr. Caner Zanbak Environmental Advisor, Turkish Chemical Manufacturers Association Vice-chairman, Environmental Affairs Committee, Istanbul Chamber of Industry Hotel Lady Diana, Istanbul, Turkey May 31, 2010 Sustainable Development Challenges for TURKEY Under Global Environmental Policies Graduate School of Business and Technology, Master of International Business Management Program International Field Study Trip

2 Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr. C. Zanbak 1959 EEC membership application of Turkey is in 1959, EEC –EU Membership Negotiation Periods NATO Founded USSR Colapsed EU Treaty- Maastricht 1957, EEC established EU 15 EU 25 EU 27 1987 1975 55 years (In 2014, it will be 55 years) Turkey in the Customs Union

3 Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr. C. Zanbak EU-27 Countries and Turkey EEC –EU Membership Negotiation Periods and NATO membership As of 2010, TURKEY is : A Nato member for 60 years, Not an EU member for 51 years ! In Customs Union for 14 years, Turkey in Customs Union

4 Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr. C. Zanbak GDP Energy Consumption 20 mil. TOE 95 million TOE $107 billion Select GROWTH INDICATORS of TURKEY in the last 35 years Rapid Industrialization Consistent Industrial Growth Population, Million Tef: TUİK, DTM, UNEP (Geodata), BP - http://www.bp.com/statisticalreview Population 41 million 70-73 million Population Increased by 75% Turkish Economy was in RAPID Growth Mode.... so was The INDUSTRY...... GDP (2000$) Year ? $150 billion ? Manufacturing Sector Exports $0.6 billion GDP (2000$) Increased by 850% $75 billion $230 billion ? $650 billion ?

5 Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr. C. Zanbak GROWTH in Manufacturing Sector EXPORTS Share of manufacturing sector goods in Exports grew from 30% to 95%. In the 1976-2007 period, Manufacturing Industry Exports (in current prices) increased about 100 times and %94 $101 billion %30 $0.6 billion %76 $6 billion Share of manufacturing sector goods in Exports (%) Rapid Industrialization 1980-90 period is RAPID Industrialization, Consistent Industrial Growth post-1990 period is CONSISTENT INDUSTRY GROWTH. Ref: TUİK, UFT Manuf. Industry – EXPORTS Manuf. Industry - IMPORTS X $ billion While the Foreign Trade Deficit is compensated by Export of Industrial Goods (94%) ENERGY Consumption Increased almost 4 times...

6 Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr. C. Zanbak Foreign Trade of INDUSTRIAL GOODS shows an INCREASING TREND. This trend necessitates, Continuous GROWTH of the Turkish Manufacturing Industry. (or, is an indication of CONTINUAL GROWTH) Trade of Industrial Goods, makes up 85% of the Foreign Trade volume; TURKEYs Need for Industrial Goods IS INCREASING

7 Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr. C. Zanbak Increasing the per capita GDP to $25,000 level, Becoming a G-10 Economy in the world, Reaching Export Volume to $500 billion,........ The outcome of the Turkish Industry Strategy Brainstorming Conference held in 11-13 April 2008 (a high-level meeting with the attendance of 140 businessmen, bureaucrats, academicians and NGOs), a model for Industry Strategy Vision was set forth. This Model has foreseen certain MACRO-LEVEL TARGETs for 2025, such as:

8 Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr. C. Zanbak As per the Macro-level targets of the Turkish Industry Strategy (2008): Per capita GDP and Export Projections Japan USA Germany Italy İspanya Greece Portugal Per capita GDP (2000 $) Year Rapid INDUSTRY GROWTH is Forecasted.. 2015 2020 2025 Turkey

9 Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr. C. Zanbak Resource CONSERVATION ENVIRONMENT 3 Meeting the Needs of Humans 1 SHELTER and FOOD Agriculture, Animal Farming, Fishing, Forestry, Mining, Petroleum, Gas, Water, Air (PROTECTION of Human Health and Environment) a)Prevention of Waste b)Pollution Prevention BASIC PRINCIPLES : SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IMPROVEMENT in Quality of Life 2 DEVELOPMENT Industrialization Services..... Education.... Culture-Arts....

10 Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr. C. Zanbak Resource UTILIZATION Food, Consumption Industrial Use CONSERVATION, PRESERVATION Waste GENERATION Residential and Industrial Waste + + Air, Water, Soil Quality (NATURAL MEDIA for Flora, Fauna) It is a FACT that As long as Humans exist: Natural resources will be UTILIZED Wastes will be GENERATED WASTE MANAGEMENT Natural Resources (Water, Mines, Forests, fuel,...) - NEEDS of FUTURE GENERATIONS BETTER Quality of Life Natural Resources Air, Water, Soil Quality ++ NEEDS and Residuals of Quality of Life/Development ENVIRONMENTAL WEALTH 1.0 SUSTAINABILITY of Quality of Life/Development

11 Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr. C. Zanbak Pollution ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (per capita Income) EKC Concepts Environmental Quality - KUZNETS CURVE Approach Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) - a hypothesized relationship between various indicators of: environmental degradation and per capita income income inequality first rises and then falls as economic development proceeds (Kuznets, S., 1955 ) Economic Growth without due attention to Environmental Concerns + Chemicals Management, Cleaner Technologies Implementation of Effective Environmental Protection Measures Current Model for EKC EKC Hypothesis: level of pollution first rises and then falls as economic development proceeds Developing Countries

12 Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr. C. Zanbak COLD WAR (Political) Asbestos Love Canal Three Mile Island 1980 K.H.Kastman, C. Zanbak, 1993 YEARS 197019751985 19901995 2000 Increase of ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS - Timeline PCB Hg RIO Summit (Environmental Concerns vs Regulations) EPA Established EARTH DAY (20. Year) FWPCA Revision (CWA) Resource Conservation & Recovery Act (RCRA) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Federal Water Poll/ Control Act (FWPCA) EARTH DAY Cuyahoga River Fire Turkey ( or any other Developing Country) RIO + 10 Drums in Black Sea (1988) Asbestos (1991-2) Bergama Gold Mine (1995) Sunken Ship Ulla (1988) KYOTO Protocol GLOBAL WARMINGICE AGE (Acid rains, Nuclear winter) Waste-Fuel ? (1985?) Tuzla Buried Drums (2006) Mount Pinatubo Volcano Radon Gas at homes CHERNOBL Exxon Valdez BHOPAL Chlordane (Pesticide) Pesticides Lead Dioxin Acid Rains Clean Air Act (Revised) SARA Superfund Rev. RCRA Revision (HSWA) SUPERFUND (CERCLA) U. S. A.

13 Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr. C. Zanbak Developed Countries Developing Countries DEVELOPED COUNTRIES Wastewater Treatment, Waste Recovery/Disposal Facilities + Infrastructure Services + Education + Control and Monitoring + Incentives DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS and ENVIRONMENTAL EXPENDITURES Environmental Awareness 1970197519801985 19901995 YEARS 2000 Cumulative Environmental Expenditures 1970197519801985 19901995 YEARS 2000

14 Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr. C. Zanbak Pollution ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (per capita Income) POLLUTION PREVENTION and CONTROL vs State of Economic Development KUZNETS CURVE Model Economic Growth without due attention to Environmental Concerns Inreased Environmental Spending $... $ + Chemicals Management, Cleaner Technologies Implementation of Effective Environmental Protection Measures

15 Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr. C. Zanbak Integrated ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Concept WASTE MANAGEMENT CONSERVATION and PRESERVATION APPROACH Education Planning Resource Dev. Nature Protection Clean Technologies Recovery Reuse Regulated Disposal Environment (al) Management Legal Regulations MONITORING, ENFORCEMENT Environment Law (Framework Act)

16 Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr. C. Zanbak affordability of necessary environmental expenditures is a major concern for the developing countries in the struggle towards sustainability of development. Currently, there is no agreed upon criteria for annual spending of the countries for their domestic service needs. Spending on areas like: education, social services, defense, infrastructure,....... and is not solely an issue for economics to decide; environmental protection but, for people to decide through their political decision-making processes. ENVIRONMENTAL SPENDING Every country would like to have spent MORE on environmental protection; however,

17 Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr. C. Zanbak Data Source: EUROSTAT data http://europa.eu.int/comm/eurostat/newcronos/queen/index.html) Annual Country Total Environmental Expenses 1996-2000 period averages $5,000$10,000$15,000$20,000$25,000$30,000 per capita GDP $0 $50 $100 $200 $300 $400 $0 Expenditure, per capita $ Portugal Greece Austria, UK, Germany, France, Netherlands, Finland Spain Slovenia Slovakia Estonia Turkey Poland EU-15 Average

18 Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr. C. Zanbak Annnual TOTAL Environmental Spending in Europe $0 $50 $100 $150 $200 $250 $300 $350 $400 $0 $5,000$10,000$15,000$20,000$25,000$30,000 per capita GDP Expenditure, per capita Data Source: EUROSTAT PUBLIC INDUSTRY TOTAL Portugal Greece Germany, France, Netherlands, Austria, Finland (1996-2000 period averages)

19 Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr. C. Zanbak Dicotomy between ECONOMICAL GROWTH and ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT (Quality) Energy, Natural Resource Materials Increasing Need for Use Common sense Approach : Environment Sensitive Industrial Policy - Industry Aware Environmental Policy $25,000 Growth in GDP REQUIRES Industrial Growth; which in turn necessitates/results in: ECONOMICAL WEALTH (per capita GDP) ± $10,00 $5,000 $40,000 Environmental Impact Will increase INITIALLY; then Decrease

20 Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr. C. Zanbak Use of CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES, ECONOMICAL WEALTH (per capita GDP) ± $10,00 $5,000 $40,000 Environmental Impact Especially for the DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: pulling the curve (environmental impact) down NECESSITATES: ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES should be based on: - reduction of environmental (quality) impacts - while developing...... INFRASTRUCTURE (physical, legal-administrative, Education,.....) FINANCE SUPPORT,...... TIME & MONEY }

21 Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr. C. Zanbak Environmental Spending $30,000$0$5,000$10,000$15,000$20,000$25,000 per capita GDP $0 $50 $100 $150 $200 $250 $300 $350 $400 $450 $500 Expenditure, per capita $ $41 $38 $52 $84 $132 $274 $368 $195 per capita, $ 0.00% 0.50% 1.00% 1.50% 2.00% 2.50% Expenditure, % of GDP 1.23% 1.10% 1.66% 0.98% 0.88% 0.84% 1.04% 2.56% % of GDP vs Share in GDP in comparison to the Developed Countries, the monetary burden of Environmental Protection is bigger for the Developing Countries. Data Source: EUROSTAT - (1996-2000 period averages)

22 Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr. C. Zanbak POLLUTION ECONOMIC WEALTH (per capita GDP) ± $10,500 ENVIRONMENTAL SPENDING ENVIRONMENTAL KUZNETS CURVE – ENVIRONMENTAL EXPENDITURES POVERTY is enemy # 1 of the environment !! Jack M. Hollander, 2003 - (Berkeley: University of California Press) $5,000 $40,000 $50 $400 in Europe (1996-2000 Averages)

23 Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr. C. Zanbak SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Science The goal is to maintain the balance while DEVELOPING !

24 Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr. C. Zanbak GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES Are BEING DEVELOPED under the UN Charter to fulfill the requirements of the SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Principles. Aim to improve (or prevent further degredation) of ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY.. Rules (or criteria) are set for DOING THINGS RIGHT as per BATs... All of those policies are based on good science and GOOD for the mankind.. HOWEVER; NOT every country is on equal grounds, in terms of implementability.... DEVELOPING countries (undeveloped countries) are under pressure by the developed countries to adopt the Policies; (which is GOOD for them and for the world environment) again, HOWEVER ; they are not (immediately) able to afford the cost of implementation they do not (in practice) have access to new technologies they may be EXPLOITED (taken advantage of) of their natural resources they may be DISORIENTED/Manipulated (at international level) politically...

25 Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr. C. Zanbak PRINCIPAL IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES 1 KNOW-HOW REQUIREMENTS for ENVIRONMENT-FRIENDLY PRODUCTION Clean Production Techniques Environmental Management Systems Infrastructure Services Energy Raw Materials Wastewater Air Emissions Solid Waste and Recovery Industrial Waste Management 2 3 EDUCATION/TRAINING FINANCING

26 Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr. C. Zanbak ability to HAVE or ACCESS to: Challenges for TURKEY towards SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT KNOW-HOW (Transfer – R&D) FINANCE (Resources & Credit Rating) EDUCATION & TRAINING (Investment in Human Resources) 1 1- GOOD GOVERNANCE 2- FINANCE/Money 2 3- EDUCATION 3 4 4- KNOW-HOW.... Actually, these are the challenges not only for Turkey, but for ALL Developing Countries... POLICY Setting & Implementation PLANNING/ ADMINISTRATIVE INFRASTRUCTURE GOOD GOVERNANCE

27 Sustainable Development Challenges of Turkey - Saint Marys Univ. Minn. MIB Program International Field Study Trip - Istanbul, Turkey, 31 May, 2010 Dr. C. Zanbak Dr. Caner ZANBAK Dr. Zanbak, is a graduate of Istanbul Technical University, has completed his Ph.D. at the University of Illinois, USA. His academic experience includes Istanbul Technical University until 1981, Kent State University, Ohio, South Dakota School of Mines, Rapid City, South Dakota as an associate professor and at Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois as an adjunct full professor until 1994. Dr. Zanbak has worked as a consultant to the USEPA and numerous industry facilities on hazardous waste management, remedial investigations, feasibility studies and remedial design for Superfund projects during the 1984-1994 period. Dr. Zanbak is the principal author of Hazardous Waste Management section of the National Environmental Action Plan coordinated by the Turkish State Planning Organization and the Report on Environmental Non-Tariff Trade Barriers and an Action Plan for Turkey prepared for the Turkish Businessmans Association (TUSIAD). He has taken an actıve role in preparation of the Sustainable Development – Business Community and Industry, Johannesburg (Rio+10) Conference Country Report for Turkey, prepared by the CEVKO Foundation. Currently, he serves on the TUSIADs EU Environmental Acquis Harmonization Group. Since 1994, Dr. Zanbak is the coordinator of the Responsible Care © Program of the Turkish Chemical Manufacturers Association. Currently, he is a standing member of the following organizations: Environmental Advisor for the Turkish Chemical Manufacturers Association Vice-Chairman, Environmental Affairs Commission of the Istanbul Chamber of Industry Environment Working Group Member of the Turkish Businessmans Association (TUSIAD) ABET Accreditation Advisory Panel Member of ITU Environmental Engineering Department and the Faculty of Mines Turkish Engineering Programs Accreditation Council (MUDEK) co-evaluator Advisory Board member of Scientific and Research Council of Turkey, TUBITAK-MAM Vice-president of the Balkan Environmental Association (B.EN.A.) and Country Coordinator for Turkey Address: Türkiye Kimya Sanayicileri Derneği webpage: www.tksd.org.tr Değirmen Sokak, No: 19/9 81090 Kozyatağı, İstanbul Tel:(0216) 416-7644, 416-9439 Faks:(0216) 416-9218 e-mail :czanbak@tnn.net


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