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Bio-Based Fuel Research Waste to Resource Steve Safferman Dana M Kirk Wei Liao Susie Liu.

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Presentation on theme: "Bio-Based Fuel Research Waste to Resource Steve Safferman Dana M Kirk Wei Liao Susie Liu."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bio-Based Fuel Research Waste to Resource Steve Safferman Dana M Kirk Wei Liao Susie Liu

2 WASTE TO ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES Direct Combustion Thermal Conversion Biochemical Conversion Pyrolysis Liquefaction Gasification Anaerobic Digestion Thermochemical Deploymerization Thermochemical Conversion Ethanol Synthesis Algae

3 Andrew Wedel, McLanahan Corp. Anaerobic Digestion

4 East Germany (Swine and Potatoes)

5 Scenic View Dairy

6 Minute Maid

7 Anaerobic Digestion What does carbon look like in complex waste? What does carbon look like in energy? CaHbOc?d?e?f?g?hCaHbOc?d?e?f?g?h CH 4 H H C H H

8 Rozdilsky, J. 1997. Farm Based Anaerobic Digestion in Michigan: History, Current Status, and Future Outlook, 1997. Biogas Energy Systems A Great Lakes Casebook, Great Lakes Regional Energy Program. Cliburn & Associates, 1994 Anaerobic Digestion Microbiology

9 Biogas CH 4 (50 – 60%) CO 2 (40 – 50%) Other? (Trace) Heat Electricity Natural Gas Digestate Fiber Water Nutrients Scenic View Dairy, MI Anaerobic Digestion Microbiology

10 \ Solid liquid separation Manure solids as bedding Manure composite boards Compost Digestate

11 Revenue Sources Energy Offset and/or Energy Sales Carbon Credit Tipping Fees New Industries All of the Above Odor Control (Nuisance Avoidance) Water Treatment/Stabilization Emission Control Greenhouse Gas Carbon Credit Public Perception Liquid/Solid Separation Nutrient Availability Pathogen Reduction Anaerobic Digestion Benefits

12 Back of the Envelop Energy Prediction In MI, Avg. Person Requires 313 MBTU/year 1 People in MI: 10,100,000 1 0.012 MBTU/kg VS Added to Digester 2,3 7,100,000 tons of Dry Biosolids Produced each Year 4 Biosolids in Country Supports 183,000 People in MI (2%) 2,3 Cows in MI: 325,000 6 Cows manure in MI Supports 10,400 people (0.1%) 2,3,6 1 MI Depart. of Economic Development and Labor and Economic Growth, Energy Overview 2 Metcalf & Eddy Wastewater Engineering 3 Peavy et al. Environmental Engineering 4 WEF, Questions and Answers on Land Application of Biosolids 5 USDA National Statistics Service 6 Anaerobic Digestion of Animal Waste: Factors to Consider, Balsam, ATTRA Pub. IP219

13 Capital Cost Daily Operation and Maintenance Training Safety Sensitivity Disposal ----- ______ in _____Out ----- Anaerobic Digestion Costs

14 Anaerobic Digestion Benefits

15 Anaerobic Digestion System Research Natural Gas Combined Heat & Power System Methane Biogas Anaerobic Digester Liquid/Fiber Separator Fiber Production Liquid Stream Organic Residues CO 2 Heat Green House Vegetable Production Algal Culture CropBiodiesel Animal Feed Fish Meal Aquaculture & Hoop Agriculture

16 H 2 & CH 4 Production – Psychrotrophic Microbial Consortia Psychrotrophic Hydrogen Producing Microorganisms Psychrotrophic Methane Producing Microorganisms Animal Manure Hydrogen Methane Nutrients (C, N, P etc.) Enhanced Enzyme Production Organic AcidsLignocellulose 5 liter bench reactors for AD research 16s rRNA gene technologies for analysis of microbial consortia

17 Algal production using AD effluent Combustion of AD Biogas AD Liquid Effluent Algal Culture System Ethanol Fertilizers CO 2 Value-Added Products Fish Meal Wastewater with less N, P Algal Biomass Advanced Pond System Algal Turf Scrubber System

18 Integrated Small-Scale Animal Manure Management System to Improve Energy Efficiency and Produce High-Value Co-Products

19 Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor

20 Is anaerobic digestion worth further exploration? 1. Determine Objectives 2. Profile Facility/Facilities 3. Screen Wastewater 4. Predict Best Theoretical Potential 5. Conduct Laboratory Experimentation 6. Interpret Results 7. Make Recommendations 8.Professional Design Anaerobic Digestion Feasibility

21 2. Profile Facility/Facilities

22 3. Screen Waste COD (soluble) Volatile Solids pH Alkalinity C/N/P Toxicity Carbofuran Lindane Diazinon Permethrin

23 Liu, Yan, Miller, S. A., Safferman, S. I. (2008). Alternative Treatments of Food and Manure for Biogas Production. Biofuels, Bioproducts & Biorefining, In Press (manuscript BIOFPR-08-0017.R1). 4.Predict Best Theoretical Potential

24 Anaerobic Respirometry Real Time, Continuous Gas Measurement Total volume Rate (ml/hr) 5. Conduct Laboratory Experimentation

25

26 6. Interpret Results

27 Is anaerobic digestion worth further exploration? Anaerobic Digestion Feasibility

28 MSU Anaerobic Digestion Research and Training Center Comprehensively research, develop, evaluate, and educate on integrated anaerobic digestion systems, with an emphasis on cost effective and efficient technologies for small and medium sized dairy farms. Theoretical modeling Bioassay evaluation and Lab and Bench scale research Anaerobic digester and algae facility at the MSU Dairy Farm Pilot and commercial scale research at Green Meadow Farms and Scenic View Dairy.

29 Anaerobic Digestion Research East Bay, Expansion Potential High Bay Research Bay, Typ. 14 ft 15 ft 10 ft East Bay, Expansion Potential 10 ft 18 ft Wet Laborator y Instrument Laboratory Mens Locker Room Womens Locker Room 15 ft Conference Room Stud. Work Room Manager s Office Entry 4 ft 40 ft 82 ft

30 Questions Steven Safferman safferma@msu.edu 517-432-0812 www.egr.msu.edu/~safferma/ Dana M Kirk kirkdana@msu.edu P: 517.432.6530 C: 517.282.6937


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