Presentation on theme: "MIDDLE PASSAGE & TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE. Slavery Timeline (to 1660s) 10 th century – Islamic slave trade across the Sahara and Central Africa begins."— Presentation transcript:
MIDDLE PASSAGE & TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE
Slavery Timeline (to 1660s) 10 th century – Islamic slave trade across the Sahara and Central Africa begins 10 th century – Islamic slave trade across the Sahara and Central Africa begins 1472First Portuguese slave traders in Benin 1472First Portuguese slave traders in Benin 1481First slave factory in Elmira on the Guinea coast 1481First slave factory in Elmira on the Guinea coast 1502First mention of African slaves in the Americas 1502First mention of African slaves in the Americas 1518Spanish asiento begins 1518Spanish asiento begins 1520 Sugar plantations begin in Brazil 1520 Sugar plantations begin in Brazil 1619 First slaves arrive in Jamestown 1619 First slaves arrive in Jamestown 1620sChesapeake tobacco plantations increase the demand for slaves 1620sChesapeake tobacco plantations increase the demand for slaves 1660sChattel slavery emerges in the southern colonies 1660sChattel slavery emerges in the southern colonies
Trans-Atlantic exports by region Region Number of slaves accounted for % Senegambia479, Upper Guinea411, Windward Coast183, Gold Coast1,035, Blight of Benin2,016, Blight of Biafra1,463, West Central4,179, South East470, Total10,240,
Various ethnic groups Including: Ibo Ewe Bakongo Wolof Serer Bambara Arada Yoruba Dahomey Ashanti Fulani Mandingo Hausa
TRIANGULAR TRADE To Africa: To Africa: Beads, cowrie shells (used as money), textiles, brandy, horses, and perhaps most importantly, guns from Europe. The guns were used to help expand empires and obtain more slaves, until they were finally used against the European colonizers.
TRIAGULAR TRADE To Europe To Europe Furs, fish, whale products, naval stores, grain, iron, tobacco, rice, indigo, and deerskins from North America Sugar and rum from Caribbean
TRIANGULAR TRADE To North America To North America Manufactured goods from Europe Slaves from Africa Sugar, rum, molasses, slaves from Caribbean
TRIANGULAR TRADE To Caribbean To Caribbean Manufactured products from Europe Slaves from Africa Fish, livestock, meat, wood products, grain, and rice from Caribbean
Many years had passed between the arrival of Europeans to Africa and 1795, the time this image was engraved. The Portuguese, who had explored much of the coast of western Africa under the sponsorship of Prince Henry, landed along the shores of the Senegal River 350 years earlier. Image Credit: Musée national des Arts d'Afrique et d'Oceanie
Slave Trading Companies Portuguese control trade initially Portuguese control trade initially –1440s Prince Henry of Portugal, organized the Lagos Company –1692 Portuguese Company of Cacheo is established Dutch Dutch –1621 Dutch establish Dutch West India Company French French –1634 French Company of the West Indies established –1673 French created Company of Senegal British British –1660 British establish Royal Adventurers which becomes the Royal African Company
Baracoons The Spaniards kept them in baracoons -- crude structures, many of them little more than walled, open-air pens, with high, stout walls -- built on the marshy, low-lying islands along the river. The slaves were chained together in pairs by leg irons to discourage escape or revolt.
Ships usually overcrowded – ex. Henrietta Marie, a British ship that sailed from London in 1699 should have been fully loaded with 240 slaves; instead carried 350 to Barbados Cargo space generally only 5 feet high to pack more slaves; about inches headroom with planks of 5.5 feet long and 1.3 feet wide Males chained together Empty tubs used for excrement Mortality rates high because of unsanitary conditions. Bet and 1775 slave deaths on French ships averaged 15%. Overall 1/3 of slaves died before reaching slave ship. Time for crossing varied – 40 days to 6 months
Today, you can find hundreds, if not thousands, of books offering advice and hints relating to specific professions and trades, ranging from TV repairmen to CEOs to office managers. This type of book has been around for centuries, as demonstrated by the French publication, Le commerce de l'Amerique par Marseille. About maritime trade, this would have been the book for you if you were the captain of an 18th century merchant ship. The 1764 publication offers information about the trade of tobacco, cotton, indigo, etc., as well as captive Africans and the "precautions to take in buying slaves, and how to transport them to America in good health." The book included this 1725 engraving by Serge Daget entitled An Englishman Tastes the Sweat of an African. Accompanying the engraving was a numbered list of descriptions in French, the numbers of which corresponded to those on the image. 1. Negroes displayed for sale in a public market. 2. A Negro Slave being examined before being purchased. 3. An Englishman licking the Negro's chin to confirm his age, and to discover from the taste of his sweat that he is not sick. 4. Negro Slave wearing the mark of slavery on his arm.