CMSC Basic Concepts multiprogramming has been introduced in order to maximize CPU utilization CPU–I/O Burst Cycle Process execution consists of a cycle of CPU execution and I/O wait. CPU and I/O burst distribution Can be viewed as a random variable Can be characterized with an empirical and/or theoretical probability distribution
CMSC Alternating Sequence of CPU And I/O Bursts
CMSC Histogram of CPU-burst Times
CMSC CPU Scheduler Selects from among the processes in memory that are ready to execute, and allocates the CPU to one of them. CPU scheduling decisions may take place when a process: 1.Switches from running to waiting state. 2.Switches from running to ready state. 3.Switches from waiting to ready. 4.Terminates. Scheduling under 1 and 4 is nonpreemptive. Once a process is given the CPU it holds it until it terminates or changes state to waiting All other scheduling is preemptive.
CMSC Dispatcher The Dispatcher module gives control of the CPU to the process selected by the CPU (short-term) scheduler The dispatchers function involves: switching context switching to user mode jumping to the proper location in the user program to restart that program Dispatch latency The time it takes for the dispatcher to stop one process and start running running.
CMSC Scheduling Algorithms Before we look into scheduling algorithms need to set Criteria (measures) and objectives that will be used in designing and evaluating such algorithms Scheduling algorithms should optimize some objectives derived from certain criteria Need to understand various properties of scheduling algorithms so that we can choose an algorithm that is most suited to a particular computing environment
CMSC Scheduling Criteria CPU utilization Percent of time the CPU is busy executing processes Throughput number of processes that complete their execution per time unit Turnaround time amount of time to execute a particular process Waiting time amount of time a process has been waiting in the ready queue Response time amount of time it takes from when a request (program) was submitted until the first response is produced, Does not include output time
CMSC Optimization Objectives Maximize CPU utilization Maximize throughput Minimize the maximum turnaround time Minimize average waiting time Minimize average response time Minimize the variance of response time Etc We will consider Minimizing the average waiting time
CMSC First-Come First-Served (FCFS) Scheduling Process requesting the CPU first gets it first Simple to implement with a single FIFO queue of ready processes Link their PCBs into that queue Non-preemptive scheduling algorithm
CMSC FCFS Scheduling Example ProcessBurst Time P 1 24 P 2 3 P 3 3 Suppose that the processes arrive at time 0 in the order: P 1, P 2, P 3 The Gantt Chart for the schedule is: Waiting time for P 1 = 0; P 2 = 24; P 3 = 27 Average waiting time: ( )/3 = 17 P1P1 P2P2 P3P
CMSC FCFS Scheduling Example Suppose that the processes arrive in the order P 2, P 3, P 1. The Gantt chart for the schedule is: Waiting time for P 1 = 6; P 2 = 0 ; P 3 = 3 Average waiting time: ( )/3 = 3 Average waiting time depends on order of processes in FIFO queue Convoy effect Arises when a number of short (I/O bound) processes wait behind a long (CPU bound) process P1P1 P3P3 P2P
CMSC Shortest-Job-First (SJF) Scheduling Associate with each process the length of its next CPU burst. Use these lengths to schedule the process with the shortest time. Two schemes: Non-preemptive once the CPU is given to the process it cannot be preempted until completes its CPU burst. preemptive if a new process arrives with CPU burst length less than the remaining time of the current executing process, preempt it. This scheme is known as the Shortest-Remaining-Time-First (SRTF). SJF is optimal It gives the minimum average waiting time for a given set of processes.
CMSC ProcessArrival TimeBurst Time P 1 07 P 2 24 P 3 41 P 4 54 SJF (non-preemptive) Average waiting time = ( )/4 =4 Non-Preemptive SJF Example P1P1 P3P3 P2P P4P4 812
CMSC Preemptive SJF Example ProcessArrival TimeBurst Time P 1 07 P 2 24 P 3 41 P 4 54 SJF (preemptive) Average waiting time = ( )/4 =3 P1P1 P3P3 P2P P4P4 57 P2P2 P1P1 16
CMSC Difficulties with SJF Length of next CPU burst is generally not known ahead of time Can only estimate the length of the next CPU burst Need appropriate estimating functions Can be done by using the length of previous CPU bursts, using exponential averaging.
CMSC Prediction of the Length of the Next CPU Burst
CMSC Examples of Exponential Averaging =0 n+1 = n Recent history does not count. =1 n+1 = t n Only the actual last CPU burst counts. If we expand the formula, we get: n+1 = t n +(1 - ) t n -1 + … +(1 - ) j t n -1 + … +(1 - ) n=1 t n 0 Since both and (1 - ) are less than or equal to 1, each successive term has less weight than its predecessor.
CMSC Priority Scheduling A priority number (integer) is associated with each process The CPU is allocated to the process with the highest priority Here, we use the convention that smallest integer highest priority. It can be Preemptive Non-preemptive SJF is a priority scheduling where priority is determined by the predicted next CPU burst time. Can cause Starvation A low priority processes may never execute Aging is a technique that can be used to avoid starvation as time progresses increase the priority of processes waiting for the CPU
CMSC Round Robin (RR) Scheduling Each process gets a small unit of CPU time (time quantum or slice), usually milliseconds. After this time slice has elapsed, the process is preempted and added to the end of the ready queue. If there are n processes in the ready queue and the time quantum is q, then each process gets 1/n of the CPU time in chunks of at most q time units at once. No process waits more than (n-1)q time units. When deciding on the time slice need to consider the overhead due to the dispatcher Performance characteristics q large FIFO q small q must be large with respect to context switch, otherwise overhead is too high.
CMSC RR Scheduling Example with Time Quantum = 20 ProcessBurst Time P 1 53 P 2 17 P 3 68 P 4 24 The Gantt chart is: Typically, higher average turnaround time than SJF, but better response time. P1P1 P2P2 P3P3 P4P4 P1P1 P3P3 P4P4 P1P1 P3P3 P3P
CMSC Time Quantum and Context Switch Time
CMSC Turnaround Time Varies With The Time Quantum
CMSC Multilevel Queue Scheduling Ready queue is partitioned into separate queues foreground (interactive) background (batch) Each queue has its own scheduling algorithm foreground – RR background – FCFS
CMSC Multilevel Queue Scheduling
CMSC Multilevel Queue Scheduling Scheduling must be done between the queues. Fixed priority scheduling serve all from foreground then from background Possibility of starvation. Time slice each queue gets a certain amount of CPU time which it can schedule amongst its processes; i.e., 80% to foreground in RR, 20% to background in FCFS
CMSC Multilevel Feedback Queue Scheduling A process can move between the various queues aging can be implemented this way. Multilevel-feedback-queue scheduler is defined by the following parameters number of queues scheduling algorithms for each queue method used to determine when to promote a process method used to determine when to demote a process method used to determine which queue a process will enter when that process needs service
CMSC Multilevel Feedback Queue Scheduling Example
CMSC Multilevel Feedback Queue Scheduling Example Three queues Q 0 – time quantum 8 milliseconds Q 1 – time quantum 16 milliseconds Q 2 – FCFS Scheduling A new job enters queue Q 0 which is served FCFS. When it gains CPU, job receives 8 milliseconds. If it does not finish in 8 milliseconds, job is moved to queue Q 1. At Q 1 job is again served FCFS and receives 16 additional milliseconds. If it still does not complete, it is preempted and moved to queue Q 2.
CMSC Multiple-Processor Scheduling CPU scheduling is more complex when multiple CPUs are available. Homogeneous processors All processors are identical within the multiprocessor system Load sharing Idle processors share the load of busy processors Maintain a single ready queue shared among all the processors Symmetric multiprocessing Each processor schedules a process autonomously from the shared ready queue Asymmetric multiprocessing only one processor accesses the system data structures, alleviating the need for data sharing.
CMSC Real-Time Scheduling Hard real-time systems When it is required to complete a critical task within a guaranteed amount of time Soft real-time computing When it is required that critical processes receive priority over less fortunate ones. For soft real-time scheduling System must have priority scheduling The dispatch latency must be small Problem caused by the fact that many OSs wait for a context switch until either a system call completes or an I/O blocks
CMSC Keeping the Dispatch Latency Small Introduce preemption points within the kernel Where it is safe to preempt a system call by a higher priority process Trouble is only few such points can be practically added Make the entire kernel preemptive Need to ensure that it is safe for a higher priority process to access shared kernel data structures Complex method that is widely used What happens when a high priority process waits for lower priority processes to finish using a shared kernel data structure (priority inversion)? Priority inheritance
CMSC Dispatch Latency
CMSC Evaluating Scheduling Algorithms Deterministic modeling take a particular predetermined workload and determine the performance of each algorithm for that workload Queueing Models Use mathematical formulas to analyze the performance of algorithms under some (simple and possible unrealistic) workloads Simulation Models Use probabilistic models of workloads Use workloads captured in a running system (traces) Implementation
CMSC Queueing Models Assuming that Process inter-arrival times and CPU burst times are independent identical exponentially distributed random variables FCFS scheduling
CMSC Evaluation of CPU Scheduling Algorithms by Simulation
CMSC Solaris 2 Scheduling
CMSC Windows 2000 Priorities
CMSC Linux Scheduling Two algorithms: time-sharing and real-time Time-sharing Prioritized credit-based – process with most credits is scheduled next Credit subtracted when timer interrupt occurs When credit = 0, another process chosen When all processes have credit = 0, recrediting occurs Based on factors including priority and history Real-time Soft real-time Posix.1b compliant – two classes FCFS and RR Highest priority process always runs first
CMSC The Relationship Between Priorities and Time-slice length
CMSC List of Tasks Indexed According to Prorities