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1 ENGINEERING PROFESSORS COUNCIL ANNUAL CONGRESS Brighton,22-23 rd March 2005. The European Dimension: Impact of the Bologna Process Stephen Adam, University.

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Presentation on theme: "1 ENGINEERING PROFESSORS COUNCIL ANNUAL CONGRESS Brighton,22-23 rd March 2005. The European Dimension: Impact of the Bologna Process Stephen Adam, University."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 ENGINEERING PROFESSORS COUNCIL ANNUAL CONGRESS Brighton,22-23 rd March The European Dimension: Impact of the Bologna Process Stephen Adam, University of Westminster

2 2 The Bologna Process suffers from multiple personality disorder!

3 3 Focus on: i.The Bologna Process – clarifications/observations ii.Bologna work programme - Action Lines iii.The 2003 Berlin Communiqué priorities iv.Bologna Process drivers v.Key aspects of the Bologna Process vi.Implications for the UK vii.Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde – alternative visions of the EHEA

4 4 i. Clarifications and observations: An intergovernmental process designed to create the European Higher Education Area by 2010 (not an EC initiative) Driven by Ministers who are committed to converge their HE structures (40 now signed up + have different motives). It is about the mobility, recognition, efficiency, competitiveness and attractiveness of European HE Very rapid developments - mainly due to Bologna international seminars A vision-reality gap exists (see the Trends 3 report) Various Bologna developments are now beginning to cohere and synergies are emerging Many developments are inspired by UK, Australia and USA but the process is not about mimicking Anglo-Saxons It is not clear what it will be like to exist in the EHEA 2010 – the vision is incomplete (Bergen may be a defining meeting) There is political (and some educational) exasperation with the 'UK (appears unwilling to change, etc.)

5 5 Main Documents of the Bologna Process Key Documents: o Sorbonne Declaration (1998)Sorbonne Declaration o Bologna Declaration (1999)Bologna Declaration o Prague Communiqué (2001)Prague Communiqué o Berlin Communiqué (2003)Berlin Communiqué Lisbon Convention and subsidiary documents European Cultural Convention Current Documents: Maastricht Communiqué on the Future Priorities of Enhanced European Cooperation in Vocational Education and Training (VET) Other Documents of Relevance: Lourtie Report - From Bologna to Prague Zgaga Report - From Prague to Berlin National Reports to the Bologna Process Trends I Trends II Trends III Salamanca Convention Graz Declaration (EUA) Magna Charta Universitatum, dated 18/09/88 Survey on Master Degrees and Joint Degrees in Europe National Trends in the Bologna Process - Eurydice

6 6 ii. Work Programme – the Action Lines Introduced in the Bologna Declaration:Bologna Declaration 1.Adoption of a system of easily readable and comparable degrees 2.Adoption of a system essentially based on two cycles 3.Establishment of a system of credits 4.Promotion of mobility 5.Promotion of European co-operation in quality assurance 6.Promotion of the European dimension in higher education Introduced in the Prague Communiqué:Prague Communiqué 7. Lifelong learning 8. Higher education institutions and students 9. Promoting the attractiveness of the European Higher Education Area Introduced in the Berlin Communiqué:Berlin Communiqué 10. Doctoral studies and the synergy between the EHEA and ERA (The social dimension of higher education might be seen as an overarching or transversal action line)

7 7 iii.The 2003 Berlin Communiqué priorities: Noted a comprehensive restructuring of the European educational landscape was underway Education a public responsibility + public good Emphasis on Quality Assurance at the heart of EHEA * Need for Qualifications frameworks + an overarching European Qualifications Framework based on cycles * Enables the portability of national loans and grants ECTS – is the basis for national credit systems – improve recognition * All students to receive the Diploma Supplement by 2005 Encouraged joint degrees (see Erasmus Mundus) Created a third cycle Bologna level for research Mid-term stocktaking exercise 2005 Expanded Bologna to 40 countries + next conference Bergen, May 2005 * Priority priorities!

8 8 iv. Bologna Process drivers: LOCAL: Increasing institutional autonomy and diversity of mission More internal/external competition (TNE) + financial pressure New technologies impacting on teaching, learning and assessment NATIONAL: Existence of outmoded educational systems and qualifications Development of new style national qualifications frameworks Transnational education and globalisation INTERNATIONAL: Expansion of the global education market (student pressure) European Commission initiative (Erasmus Mundus, etc) GATS – challenges public education and subsidies MAIN PLAYERS: European Commission, Council of Europe, EUA, EURASHE, ESIB, ministries, professional bodies, Rectors conferences, UNESCO, etc. OFFICIAL BOLOGNA-BERGEN SEMINARS …

9 9 14.Cooperation between accreditation committees/agencies February 2005, Warsaw, Poland 13.Doctoral Programmes for the European Knowledge Society 3-5 February 2005, Salzburg, Austria 12.The social dimension of the European higher education area and world-wide competition January 2005, Sorbonne, Paris, France 11.The Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area * January 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark 10.Improving the Recognition System of Degrees and Periods of Studies * 3-4 December 2004, Riga, Latvia 9.Bachelors Degree: What is it? November 2004, St. Petersburg, Russia 8.New Generation Policy Documents & Laws for HE: Their Thrust in the Context of the Bologna Process 4-6 Nov 2004, Warsaw, Poland Bologna Seminars

10 10 7.Employability and its links to the objectives of the Bologna Process * October 2004, Bled, Slovenia 6.Designing policies for mobile students Dutch EU Presidency Conference * October 2004, Noordwijk, the Netherlands 5.Public responsibility for higher education and research organised by the Council of Europe * September, Strasboourg, France 4.Assessment and accreditation in the European framework * July 2004, Santander, Spain 3.Using learning outcomes * 1-2 July 2004, Edinburgh, United Kingdom 2.Bologna and the challenges of eLearning and distance education 4-5 June 2004, Ghent, Belgium (Flemish Community) 1.Joint degrees – further development 6-7 May 2004, Stockholm, Sweden NOTE:Many other official BFUG work programme seminars a host of other related events

11 11 v.Key aspects of the Bologna Process a)Qualifications frameworks b)Quality assurance c)Transparency: ECTS, Diploma Supplement EUROPASS d)Mobility

12 12 a)Qualifications frameworks First Copenhagen Conferences: Qualification Structures in European Higher Education (March 2003) BFUG working group appointed (March 2004) to work on QF and EQF Second Copenhagen Conference report recommends a framework for qualifications in the EHEA (January 2005) - proposes new style national qualifications frameworks that employ external reference points: levels, level indicators, learning outcomes, qualification descriptors (output-focused tools) - An overarching framework of qualifications is also outlined: a framework of frameworks, an articulation mechanism between national frameworks that provides a common set of cycle descriptors The EC established (November 2004) an expert welding group to link Bruges-Copenhagen process (VET) to the Bologna Process (HE) - to create a credit-based framework for lifelong learning – an EQF - a meta framework!

13 13 b)Quality assurance The Berlin Communiqué called on ENQA in cooperation with EUA, EURASHE and ESIB to develop an agreed set of standards, procedures and guidelines on quality assurance – report just published (February 2005)! The Berlin Communiqué also agreed that national QA systems should include: - definition of the responsibilities - evaluation of the programmes or institutions - a system of accreditation, certification or comparable procedures - international participation, co-operation and networking The creation of qualifications frameworks have implication for European QA There is an EC proposal (14 th October 2004) for a recommendation of the Council and of the European Parliament on further European cooperation in quality assurance in higher education – this includes allowing HEI to choose a QA body from any agency included in a new European register! EUR-ACE Standards and Procedures for the Accreditation of Engineering Programmes (European Commission initiative )

14 14 c)Transparency: ECTS, Diploma Supplement, EUROPASS ECTS (European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System) - Slow to develop into an accumulation system - ECTS now adopting learning outcomes and levels - It will play a role in NGF and EQF (what role?) - Problematic suggestions regarding cycles – first and 2 nd cycles to be worth 300 ECTS credits (3+2 and 4+1 = 5 year norm) Bologna does not say this! - Problem of number of ECTS credit for a 1 year master = 60/75/90? hours notional workload (very notional + problematic) - Problems with integrated degrees (MEng) - Difficulties with the ECTS grade translation system Diploma Supplement - To be introduced by 2005! - Not the same as the Progress file/transcript EUROPASS – single framework for transparency instruments. It includes: Europass CV, Europass mobility, Europass Diploma Supplement, Europass Certificate Supplement, Europass language portfolio (all launched January 2005)

15 15 d)Mobility Joint degrees (Erasmus Mundus) Academic Recognition (Riga conference, December 2004) learning outcomes (Edinburgh conference, July 2004) ECTS – labels + funding ERASMUS: student mobility, staff mobility, programme mobility

16 16 vi. Implications for the UK (mostly positive): Bologna will create an increase in level and nature of competition and mobility (vertical and horizontal) +more transnational education. UK is well placed to take advantage of this (import students & export programmes + joint degrees) The European overarching framework for qualifications is consistent with UK practices + so is our approach to learning outcomes. However, there are problems with the perception of integrated degrees + length of second cycle programmes UK faces problems by not having a unified credit & qualifications framework. SCQF is being seen as an important model for Europe – the lack of a unified credit-based EWNI framework is problematic (post Burgess agenda?) The evolution of the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) is not consistent with UK credit practice (drop 120 credit base + adopt 60?)

17 17 The recognition of Bachelor-Masters may be damaged globally The Diploma Supplement needs to be introduced. Few HEIs are aware of their responsibilities under the 1997 Lisbon Convention UK HE (+VET) must continue positively to engage with the Bologna Process, especially at the institutional level UK HEI must decide how to position themselves in relation to Europe/Bologna - develop an appropriate institutional strategy towards: - Joint degrees (Erasmus Mundus, PhD, etc) - The European dimension in the curriculum - Student mobility (ECTS), staff mobility, programme mobility (virtual) - Credits…adopt a 60 credit base - Obtain ECTS/DS labels (marketing the institution) - Cooperation and partnerships policy

18 18 vii. Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde – alternative visions of the EHEA NIGHTMARE Dominated by free-market ideology Creates uncontrolled competition Allows unregulated TNE Harms educational integrity/autonomy Fails to improve educational quality Drives down standards Curriculum driven by markets Harms educational/cultural diversity Creates standardised programmes Creates HEI dichotomy - elite + rest Benefits minority to detriment of majority UTOPIA EHEA embodies clear educational, social and political principles Successfully merges competing agendas Promotes a clear European identity Creates more institutional diversity Drives up quality and ed. standards Increases mobility (not just for elite) Increases access, choice & opportunities Improves flexibility (LLL) + efficiency Simplifies transparency + recognition Improves educational cooperation Benefits all students, citizens, states, etc.

19 Final thought with apologies to Wallace and Gromit … UK must not reluctantly cling to the Bologna train but take a more positive approach to European educational reform. BOLOGNA EXPRESS UK EDUCATION

20 20 National educational systems are not like isolated desert islands. They are inevitably becoming more interrelated – Bologna is something we cannot ignore! SEE:


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