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Credit: Past Imperfect, Present Tense, Future Conditional Mark Flinn, retired Pro Vice-Chancellor (Academic), Edge Hill University.

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Presentation on theme: "Credit: Past Imperfect, Present Tense, Future Conditional Mark Flinn, retired Pro Vice-Chancellor (Academic), Edge Hill University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Credit: Past Imperfect, Present Tense, Future Conditional Mark Flinn, retired Pro Vice-Chancellor (Academic), Edge Hill University

2 Making Sense of Credit and Qualification Frameworks in the United Kingdom UK Credit Forum Edited by Paul H Bridges and Mark Flinn Published by University of Derby, 2010 ISBN

3 Level 12DoctoratesLevel 8 Level 11Masters, SVQ5Level 6 Level 10Ordinary Degree, Graduate Certificate and Diploma Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework (SCQF)Framework for Higher Education Qualifications in EWNI (Levels 4-8); AND the Credit and Qualifications Framework for Wales (Levels E-8) Level 12DoctoratesLevel 8Doctorate by research thesis/publication Professional doctorate Level 8 Level 11Masters, SVQ5Level 6Honours Degree BA BSc etc Ordinary Degree Professional Graduate Certificate of Education Graduate Diploma Graduate Certificate Level 7 Level 10Ordinary Degree, Graduate Certificate and DiplomaLevel 6 Level 9HND, Diploma HE SVQ4Level 5Foundation Degree Diploma of Higher Education Higher National Diploma Level 7Advanced Higher, HNC, Cert HELevel 4 Level 6Higher, SVQ 3Level 3 Level 5Intermediate 2, Credit Standard Grade, SVQ2Level 2 Level 7Advanced Higher, HNC, Cert HELevel 4 Level 6Higher, SVQ 3Level 3 Level 5Intermediate 2, Credit Standard Grade, SVQ2Level 2 Level 7Advanced Higher, HNC, Cert HELevel 4 Level 6Higher, SVQ 3Level 3 Level 5Intermediate 2, Credit Standard Grade, SVQ2Level 2 Level 8Doctorate by research thesis/publication Professional doctorate Level 8 Level 6Honours Degree BA BSc etc Ordinary Degree Professional Graduate Certificate of Education Graduate Diploma Graduate Certificate Level 7 Level 6 Level 5Foundation Degree Diploma of Higher Education Higher National Diploma Level 5 Level 4Higher National Certificate (HNC); Certificate of Higher Education (Cert HE) Level 4 Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework (SCQF)Framework for Higher Education Qualifications in EWNI (Levels 4-8); AND the Credit and Qualifications Framework for Wales (Levels E-8) Level 8Doctorate by research thesis/publication Professional doctorate Level 8 Level 6Honours Degree BA BSc etc Ordinary Degree Professional Graduate Certificate of Education Graduate Diploma Graduate Certificate Level 7 Level 6 Level 5Foundation Degree Diploma of Higher Education Higher National Diploma Level 5 Level 4Higher National Certificate (HNC); Certificate of Higher Education (Cert HE) Level 4 Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework (SCQF)Framework for Higher Education Qualifications in EWNI (Levels 4-8); AND the Credit and Qualifications Framework for Wales (Levels E-8) Level 7NVQ5, Level 7 diploma, Level 7 Fellowship, Level 7 Advanced Professional Cert Level 6NVQ4 Level 6 Certificate Level 6 Diploma Level 5NVQ4 Level 5 Certificate Level 5 Diploma Level 4NVQ4 Level 4 Certificate Level 4 Diploma Level 8Doctorate by research thesis/publication Professional doctorate Level 8 Level 6Honours Degree BA BSc etc Ordinary Degree Professional Graduate Certificate of Education Graduate Diploma Graduate Certificate Level 7 Level 6 Level 5Foundation Degree Diploma of Higher Education Higher National Diploma Level 5 Level 4Higher National Certificate (HNC); Certificate of Higher Education (Cert HE) Level 4 Level 12DoctoratesLevel 8 Level 11Masters, SVQ5Level 6 Level 10Honours Degree, Graduate Certificate and Diploma Level 7Advanced Higher, HNC, Cert HELevel 4 Level 6Higher, SVQ 3Level 3 Level 5Intermediate 2, Credit Standard Grade, SVQ2Level 2 Level 8Highly specialist diplomas from professional bodies Level 7NVQ5, Level 7 diploma, Level 7 Fellowship, Level 7 Advanced Professional Cert Level 6NVQ4 Level 6 Certificate Level 6 Diploma Level 5NVQ4 Level 5 Certificate Level 5 Diploma © UK Credit Forum £25 ISBN First published: December 2010 Level 8Highly specialist diplomas from professional bodies Level 7NVQ5, Level 7 diploma, Level 7 Fellowship, Level 7 Advanced Professional Cert Level 6NVQ4 Level 6 Certificate Level 6 Diploma Level 5NVQ4 Level 5 Certificate Level 5 Diploma

4 Whats coming up.... Historical survey of approaches to academic credit Analysis of the current position in Britain and Europe Critique and possible ways forward

5 Origins of Credit (1) Origins of Credit in the USA: courses with 3 hours of credit, 32 semester hours required at each of 4 levels for a degree From 1969: Open University credit model: units equivalent to 15 credits and 30 credits OU Modular academic structure, Credit Accumulation and Transfer, APL.

6 Origins of Credit (2) 1963 Robbins report urging development of curriculum structures offering student choice 1967 University of London course unit scheme: large modules equivalent to 40 credits 1970s: Modular degree schemes introduced in several polytechnics and large colleges Toyne Report (1979) and ECCTIS (Educational Counselling and Credit Transfer Information Service)

7 Credit in the 1980s 1981: Manchester Open College Federation (MOCF) Scheme: 50 hour (later 30 hour) credit scheme with 4 levels and level descriptors: 10,000 learners by 1988 MOCF definition of credit as an award to a learner in recognition of their achievement Other OCNs adopt similar schemes BTEC 60 hour credits

8 CNAA Credit Accumulation and Transfer Scheme (CATS) Introduced in 1986 by the Council for National Academic Awards 120 credits/year for full time UG and PG students Four levels: 1,2,3 and M No level descriptors

9 Vocational qualifications in the 1990s Further Education Unit (A Basis for Credit?,1992) proposes credit system for vocational qualifications with 8 levels based on 30 hour credit Influence of Open College Networks NCVQ: 5 levels Kennedy and Fryer Reports SCOTVEC: full credit-based modular scheme with learning outcomes and module descriptors 1999 National Qualifications Framework: a major missed opportunity in not embedding credit

10 Robertson Report, 1994 Choosing to Change: extending access, choice and mobility in higher education (HEQC, 1994), Recommends: a single unified credit framework covering F & HE based on the 30-hour credit; A National credit transcript Development of 2 year Associate degrees Extending arrangements for credit accumulation and transfer Enhanced arrangements for student guidance

11 Credit developments in HE in the 1990s Formation of the Credit consortia/ bodies SEEC, NUCCAT, NICATS, HECIW, SCOTCATS Dearing Report (1997) proposes credit-based HE qualifications framework with 8 (HE) levels InCCA Report A common Framework for Learning (Reynolds et al, 1998) recommends adoption of the 10- hour credit QAA Framework for Higher Education Qualifications EWNI (FHEQ), 1 st edition 2001, with qualification levels C, I, D and H but doesnt mention credit (another missed opportunity)

12 Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework, SCQF (2001) Builds on SCOTVEC and SCOTCATS First nationwide integrated credit and qualifications framework within the UK Uses 12 levels (1-3 access, 4-6 FE, 7-10 UG, PG) Uses 10-hour credit Strong emphasis on learner progression, Recognition of Prior Learning and learning in the workplace

13 Further developments Northern Ireland NICATS (1999) SEEC Level Descriptors (2001 and 2010) Welsh Assembly approves CQFW (Integrated credit and qualification framework, 2003) Transition from NQF via Framework for Achievement to Qualifications and Credit Framework (QCF, 2007) Second edition of FHEQ (QAA, 2008), with levels 4-8, but still not adopting credit Parallel publication of Higher Education Credit Framework for EWNI (UUK, Guild HE, QAA 2008)

14 Europe: FQ-EHEA Framework for Qualifications in the European Higher Education Area (FQ-EHEA), 1999 Meta- Framework with 3 cycles (plus the short cycle) and corresponding Dublin descriptors Linked to ECTS credit scheme but no levels in ECTS

15 Europe: EQF European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong learning (EQF) Meta- Framework with 8 levels and full level descriptors Referencing of national schemes against EQF under way across Europe Linked to ECVET, a credit system with credit points that reflect the weighting of qualifications: no levels in ECVET

16 Level Descriptors Level descriptors are Generic statements describing the characteristics and context of learning expected at each level, against which learning outcomes and assessment criteria can be reviewed in order to develop modules and assign credit at the appropriate level (Moon, 2002) So...what do they look like now?

17 Level Descriptor: Example 1a Characteristics The following descriptions are for guidance only it is not expected that every point will be covered Knowledge and understanding Demonstrate and/or work with: A broad knowledge of the subject/discipline in general. Knowledge that is embedded in the main theories, concepts and principles. An awareness of the evolving/changing nature of knowledge and understanding. An understanding of the difference between explanations based on evidence and/or research and other forms of explanation and of the importance of this difference. Practice: applied knowledge and understanding Use some of the basic and routine professional skills, techniques, practices and/or materials associated with a subject/discipline. Practise these in both routine and non-routine contexts. Generic cognitive skills Present and evaluate arguments, information and ideas which are routine to the subject/ discipline. Use a range of approaches to address defined and/or routine problems and issues within familiar contexts.

18 Level Descriptor: Example 1b Communication, ICT and numeracy skills Use a wide range of routine skills and some advanced skills associated with the subject/ discipline, for example: Convey complex ideas in well-structured and coherent form. Use a range of forms of communication effectively in both familiar and new contexts. Use standard applications to process and obtain a variety of information and data. Use a range of numerical and graphical skills in combination. Use numerical and graphical data to measure progress and achieve goals/targets. Autonomy, accountability and working with others Exercise some initiative and independence in carrying out defined activities at a professional level. Take supervision in less familiar areas of work. Take some managerial responsibility for the work of others within a defined and supervised structure. Manage limited resources within defined areas of work. Take the lead in implementing agreed plans in familiar or defined contexts. Take account of own and others roles and responsibilities in carrying out and evaluating tasks. Work with others in support of current professional practice under guidance.

19 Level Descriptor: Example 2...the ability to... generate ideas through the analysis of concepts at an abstract level with a command of specialised skills and the formulation of responses to well-defined and abstract problems; analyse and evaluate information; exercise significant judgement across a broad range of functions; and accept responsibility for determining and achieving personal and/or group outcomes.

20 Level Descriptor: Example 3 Knowledge: advanced knowledge of a field of work or study, involving a critical understanding of theories and principles Skills: advanced skills, demonstrating mastery and innovation, required to solve complex and unpredictable problems in a specialised field of work or study Competences: manage complex technical or professional activities or projects, taking responsibility for decision making in unpredictable work or study contexts take responsibility for managing professional development of individuals and groups

21 Level Descriptor: Example 4 Summary statement: Achievement at level X reflects the ability to identify and use relevant understanding, methods and skills to complete tasks and address problems that, while well defined, have a measure of complexity. It includes taking responsibility for initiating and completing tasks and procedures as well as exercising autonomy and judgement within limited parameters. It also reflects awareness of different perspectives or approaches within an area of study or work.

22 PublisherType of framework Date of first and current versions Title of DescriptorsLevelsLabels for Levels Summary characteristics SEECCredit System1996, 2010Credit Level Descriptors53-8Statements of: setting; knowledge and Understanding; cognitive skills; performance and practice; and personal and enabling skills NICATSCredit System1999Generic Level Descriptors9Entry-8Learning accredited at this level will reflect the ability to show: Intellectual skills and attributes, processes and accountability UUK/Guild HE/QAACredit Framework 2008Higher Education Credit Framework for England : Generic Level Descriptors 54-8Learning accredited at this level will reflect the ability to.... QAAQualifications Framework 2001, 2008Framework for Higher Education Qualifications 54-8(The award is made) to students who have demonstrated..... Typically, holders of the qualification will be able to.... Holders will have..... QCA, Welsh Assembly Govt CCEA Credit and Qualifications Framework 2003, 2007Level descriptors for positioning units in the Qualifications and Credit Framework tests and trials 9Entry-8Summary statements of: Knowledge and understanding; application and action and autonomy and accountability SCQFCredit and Qualifications Framework 2001Level Descriptors121-12Characteristics of learning in the areas of: Knowledge and Understanding Practice: Applied knowledge and understanding Generic cognitive skills Communication, ICT and numeracy skills Autonomy, accountability and working with others European Higher Education AreaQualifications Framework with some credit elements 2005, 2006Framework for Qualifications of the EHEA Descriptors 3First (incorporatin g short cycle), Second, Third Qualifications that signify completion of the....cycle are awarded to students who.... European UnionQualifications2008European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning 81-8The learning outcomes relevant to level... relating to: Knowledge Skills Competence New Zealand Qualifications Authority Credit and Qualifications Framework 2005National Qualifications Framework (For levels 1-7) Process Learning Demand Responsibility Table 10.1: Level Descriptors within Frameworks © UKCF

23 ScotlandEnglandWalesNorthern Ireland SCQFFHEQ - EWNI CQFWFHEQ- EWNI FHEQ – Scotland HECFFHEQ-EWNIHECF QCF NQF Table 16.1 Chart showing the 7 national frameworks which are currently operational in each part of the UK. SCQF= Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework (2001); FHEQ- Scotland [and EWNI] Framework for Higher Education Qualifications in Scotland [and England, Wales and Northern Ireland](2001/8); HECF = Higher Education Credit Framework [in England] (2008); CQFW = Credit and Qualification Framework for Wales (2003); QCF = Qualifications and Credit Framework (2008); NQF = National Qualifications Framework. Note that the two FHEQ frameworks operate within the national frameworks in Scotland and Wales. © UKCF

24 FEHQ Qualification LevelHE Qualifications with examples Minimum credit value typically used in the design of programme leading to qualification Minimum credit attainment typically expected at the level of the qualification The Framework for Qualifications in the European Higher Education Area ECTS credit ranges in the Framework for Qualifications in the European Higher Education Area Level 8 Doctor of Philosophy PhD DPhilCredit not generally used for PhD/DPhil Not applicableEnd of Third Cycle qualifications Credit not typically used Professional doctorate EdD DBA DClinPsy Level 7 Master of Philosophy (Research) MPhil Credit not usedNot applicable End of Second Cycle qualifications Range typically 90 – 120 ECTS credits Minimum requirement is 60 ECTS credits Master of Philosophy (Taught) MPhil Masters Degree MA MSc MRes LLM Integrated Masters Degree MBiol MDes MEng MPharm MPhys MSci Postgraduate Diploma12090 Postgraduate Certificate6040 Postgraduate Certificate of Education PGCE 6040 Level 6 Bachelors Degree with Honours BA BSc BEd BEng LLB 36090End of First Cycle qualifications 180 – 240 ECTS credits Bachelors Degree BA BSc30060 Professional Graduate Certificate in Education PGCE 6040 typically more Graduate Diploma80 Graduate Certificate40 Level 5 Foundation Degrees FdA FdSc24090Short cycle qualifications within or linked to First Cycle qualifications Circa 120 ECTS credits Diploma of Higher Education DipHE Higher National Diploma HND24090 Level 4 Higher National Certificate HNC Certificate of Higher Education CertHE12090 Table 16.2: This Table combines the Framework for Higher Education Qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland with the HE Credit Framework for England. The levels shown on the left are the FHEQ qualification levels. The same numbers apply the credit levels used for determining Table 16.2: The Framework for Higher Education Qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland combined with the Higher Education Credit Framework for England, referenced against the Framework for Qualifications in the European Higher Education Area with ECTS credits © UKCF

25 Table 16.3: A Correlation of Credit and Qualification Frameworks across the United Kingdom and Europe Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework (SCQF) Framework for Higher Education Qualifications in EWNI (Levels 4-8); AND the Credit and Qualifications Framework for (Levels E-8) Qualifications and Credit Framework in EWNI Vocational Education & Training Sector And National Qualifications Framework Framework for Qualifications in European HE Area European Qualification Framework (EQF) LevelsQualificationsLevelsQualificationsLevelsQualificationsCyclesEQF Levels Level 12DoctoratesLevel 8 Doctorate by research thesis/publication Professional doctorate Level 8 Highly specialist diplomas from professional bodies Three End of 3 rd cycle EQF Level 8 Level 11Masters, SVQ5Level 7 Masters Degree/Integrated Masters; Postgraduate Diploma; Postgraduate Cert. Level 7 NVQ5, Level 7 diploma, Level 7 Fellowship, Level 7 Advanced Professional Cert Two End of 2 nd cycle EQF Level 7 Level 10 Honours Degree, Graduate Certificate and DiplomaLevel 6 Honours Degree BA BSc etc Ordinary Degree Professional Graduate Certificate of Education Graduate Diploma Graduate Certificate Level 6NVQ4 Level 6 Certificate Level 6 Diploma One End of 1 st cycle EQF Level 6 Level 9 Ordinary Degree, Graduate Certificate and Diploma Level 8 HND, Diploma HE SVQ4 Level 5 Foundation Degree Diploma of Higher Education Higher National Diploma Level 5 NVQ4 Level 5 Certificate Level 5 Diploma End of short cycle EQF Level 5 Level 7 Advanced Higher, HNC, Cert HE Level 4 Higher National Certificate (HNC); Certificate of Higher Education (Cert HE) Level 4 NVQ4 Level 4 Certificate Level 4 Diploma Level 6Higher, SVQ 3Level 3 NVQ Level 3, AS & A levels Level 3 Certificate & Diploma Welsh Baccalaureate (Adv) Level 3 NVQ Level 3, AS/A levels Level 3 Certificate Level 3 Diploma EQF Level 4 Level 5 Intermediate 2, Credit Standard Grade, SVQ2Level 2 NVQ Level 2, GCSE A*- C Level 2 Certificate & Diploma Welsh Baccalaureate (Interm) Level 2 NVQ Level 2, GCSE A*- C Level 2 Certificate Level 2 Diploma EQF Level 3 Level 4 Intermediate 1, General Standard Grade, SVQ1Level 1 NVQ Level 1, GCSE D - G Level 1 Certificate Welsh Baccalaureate (Fd) Level 1 NVQ Level 1, GCSE D - G Level 1 Certificate Foundation Diplomas EQF Level 2 Level 3Foundation Standard Grade Entry 3 Entry Level Certificate Entry 3 Entry Level Certificate EQF Level 1 Level 2Entry 2 Level 1Entry 1 © UKCF

26 Table 16.4 A comparison of the frameworks which are currently in operation across the United Kingdom. L = Lower levels; H = Higher levels. SCQF= Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework (2001); FQ-Scotland [and EWNI] Framework for Higher Education Qualifications in Scotland [and England, Wales and Northern Ireland](2001/8); HECF = Higher Education Credit Framework [in England](2008); CQFW = Credit and Qualification Framework for Wales (2003); QCF = Qualifications and Credit Framework (2008); NQF = National Qualifications Framework. SCQFFQ- Scotland FQ- EWNI HECFCQFWQCFNQF Higher PG Higher UG Lower1-6---E-3 Credit No credit Credit No credit © UKCF

27 Critique Seven national frameworks operational in all or part of the UK, despite attempts (eg Robertson) to promote a single scheme : You wouldnt start from here Confusion potential for learners (and tutors) FHEQ (ENWI and Scotland) fails to differentiate between different qualifications at the same level NQF will continue to exist for the time being Impenetrability of ECVET and limitations of ECTS

28 Proposals (adapted from Chapter 16 of Making Sense of Credit and Qualification Frameworks in the United Kingdom Merge the FQ-EWNI and the HECF Discontinue the FQ-Scotland Integrate GCSE and A levels into QCF and close NQF Rationalise ECVET and ECTS Clarify compatibility of FQ-EHEA and EQF

29 Contact details:


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