Presentation on theme: "GIVING CREDIT TO OUTSIDE SOURCES"— Presentation transcript:
1GIVING CREDIT TO OUTSIDE SOURCES Using the Modern Language Association (MLA) style to document a research paper
2When professionals write papers that require research, they use the documentation style chosen by their discipline.
3For example:An English professor would use the Modern Language Association style (MLA).A historian would use the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS), also known as Turabian.A nursing professional would use the American Psychological Association (APA) style.
4In this workshop, we’ll look at the basic requirements for using MLA In this workshop, we’ll look at the basic requirements for using MLA. This is an overview. For details, be sure to consult a handbook or a handout from the Writing Center.
5First, let’s review the use of sources in any paper.
6Different ways of saying the same thing: Giving credit to your sources.Documenting your sources.Citing your sources.Using in-text citations.
7What are “outside sources” for a research paper What are “outside sources” for a research paper? Traditional sources include:BooksEntire booksChaptersWorks within an anthologyArticlesProfessional journals, magazines, newspapers
8…but today there are many other types of sources as well, such as: Web pagesOnline journalsPersonal interviewsVideotaped interviewsMoviescorrespondence, etc.
9There are two types of sources: primary and secondary. Primary: the work itself. (For a literature paper, for example, the actual novel, short story, or poem.)Secondary: Things written or said ABOUT the primary source. (For example, literary critiques about the novel, short story, or poem.)
10For example, if you were writing an analysis of Emily Dickinson’s poetry: PRIMARY SOURCES— Letters, diaries, working drafts.SECONDARY SOURCES—Reviews and analyses of Dickinson’s work in literary journals.
11Suggestion: Whenever you have access to a primary source, use it Suggestion: Whenever you have access to a primary source, use it! First-hand information is always stronger than second- or third-hand.
12Rule of thumb for deciding what to document: Borrowed languageBorrowed ideasBorrowed informationWhen you use the information, words or ideas of someone else, be sure to tell your readers where the material came from.
13If you would like to learn about how to use borrowed material correctly—quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing—view our workshop on Using Outside Sources Correctly.
14Where do you put the information about your sources in an MLA research paper? Two places: In in-text citations—that is, right in the body of your paperANDOn a page at the end of your paper.
15What kind of information you put in your in-text citations and how you organize the information at the end of your paper depend on the documentation style you are using.
16Each system has its own very specific rules Each system has its own very specific rules. You don’t have to memorize them—you can use a style book or a handout from the Writing Center—but make sure you follow them carefully.
17Your professor and other professionals will notice!
18Modern Language Association (MLA) Used by writers in the humanities, which include literature, philosophy, religion, languages, the classics, and the visual and performing arts.
19This is what an MLA in-text citation looks like This is what an MLA in-text citation looks like. The required information about the source is highlighted in yellow so you can spot it in our examples: Hobson argues that middle schoolers are actually “alien invaders from another planet” (18). One authority argues that middle schoolers are actually “alien invaders from another planet” (Hobson 18).
20Notice that you can use the information about your source to mark the beginning and end of the material you borrowed. Do this whenever possible!
21More examples:Harold Hobson maintains that middle schoolers are alien life forms (18).One authority believes that middle schoolers are alien life forms that originated elsewhere in the galaxy (Hobson 18).
22Some rules for writing in-text citations: Always make sure the author’s last name and the page number are inserted in your text.You don’t need a comma between items, or a “p.” for “page” before the page number.
23Your Works Cited (page) It comes at the end of your paper.It is a list of all of the sources you used in your paper.It does not include sources that you may have read for background information, but did not actually use.
24Your in-text citations tell the reader to look at your Works Cited page, under the name of your source, in order to find publishing information.
25Readers look at the Works Cited page(s) when they want to know how they, too, can find the source you used—or how you found the source.
26Some advice… Pay close attention to: What type of information goes on this pageWhat the order of this information is for an MLA citation.—ORDER MATTERS! (So does punctuation.)Be sure to copy this information right away—when you are actually using the source—so you’ll have it when you write the Works Cited page(s).
27Advice, continued…The title of this page is Works Cited. Do not call it Works Cited Page. Do not put quotation marks around it.Alphabetize the citations on this page according to the authors’ last names.Start each entry at the left margin and indent for subsequent lines.Double space.
28If you are used to using APA style, you may want to note the differences between APA and MLA when you work on your References.
29Main differences between MLA and APA. When using MLA: Use complete first names of sources rather than initials on your Works Cited page.Use quotation marks around the name of a short work (an essay, a review, a newspaper article, etc.).DO italicize books and journal titles, as in APA, but do NOT italicize volume numbers.
30APA differences, continued… In MLA, capitalize the major words in the titles of magazines, newspapers, and journals.Also capitalize major words in the titles of books or articles.
312009 changes to MLAThe 2009 MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, Third Edition, notes some changes in MLA:
322009 MLA changes, contd.Published works are now italicized, not underlined.URLs are no longer required, unless it’s difficult to find the source otherwise.Continuous pagination is not an issue. Volume and issue numbers are necessary, but if pages are not paginated, just write n. pag.
332009 MLA changes, contd.Markers are now used to indicate publication medium: Print, Web, Performance, DVD, or TV, for example. Although the date of retrieval follows the marker for Web sources, most markers go at the end of the entries.
342009 MLA changes, contd.You no longer need to include library information when you cite a journal article from an online database.Berger, James D. and Helmut J. Schmidt. “Regulation of Macronuclear DNA Content in Paramecium Tetraurelia.” The Journal of Cell Biology 76.1 (1978): JSTOR. Web. 20 Nov
352009 MLA changes, contd. New abbreviations. * n.p. is used when no publisher name appears on a web site.* n.d. stands for “no date.”* n. pag. stands for “no pagination.”
36The format for a book citation shows you the “skeleton” of all MLA citations…
37Here is the basic format for a book with one author: Rose, Joel. The Blackest Bird: A Novel of History and Murder. New York: Edinburgh, UK: Canongate Books, Print.Last name, first name. Title of Work. Place of publication: Publisher, Date. Medium.
38--Order of information --Punctuation rules --Capitalization rules For other citations, it’s just a matter of adding to this skeleton. For example…
39If you are using something from a collection or anthology: Warnick, Barbara. “Judgment, Probability, and Aristotle’s Rhetoric.” Teaching Argument in the Composition Course. Ed. Timothy Barnett. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, Print.Author’s last name, first name. “Title of shorter work.” Title of anthology. Editor. Place where published: publishing company, date. Page numbers. Medium.
40Any good handbook will have models for every type of MLA citation Any good handbook will have models for every type of MLA citation. The Writing Center also has a useful MLA handout.
41Manuscript format rules for an MLA paper: Standard type style, e.g. New Times Roman or Courier. (We recommend 12 pt.)One-inch margin on all sides. Do not justify right margin.Double-space everything.Indent each paragraph five spaces.
42Format, continued:In the upper right corner of each page, type your last name, then skip a space, then write the page number.Number all the pages, from the body of the essay and including the Works Cited page(s).MLA does not require a title page.
43Example of a first page: Driver 1 Joseph Driver Professor Harcourt English July 2009 Downloading Music Off the Internet
44OutlinesMLA essays may require an outline. To be on the safe side, always ask your instructor.
45Take time to look at a handout or a handbook on MLA Take time to look at a handout or a handbook on MLA. Looking at model papers is particularly helpful.
46Remember: If you plan ahead, you can bring a finished draft to the Writing Center and ask for help in checking the documentation.