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GIVING CREDIT TO OUTSIDE SOURCES Using the Modern Language Association (MLA) style to document a research paper.

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Presentation on theme: "GIVING CREDIT TO OUTSIDE SOURCES Using the Modern Language Association (MLA) style to document a research paper."— Presentation transcript:

1 GIVING CREDIT TO OUTSIDE SOURCES Using the Modern Language Association (MLA) style to document a research paper

2 When professionals write papers that require research, they use the documentation style chosen by their discipline.

3 For example: An English professor would use the Modern Language Association style (MLA). An English professor would use the Modern Language Association style (MLA). A historian would use the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS), also known as Turabian. A historian would use the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS), also known as Turabian. A nursing professional would use the American Psychological Association (APA) style. A nursing professional would use the American Psychological Association (APA) style.

4 In this workshop, well look at the basic requirements for using MLA. This is an overview. For details, be sure to consult a handbook or a handout from the Writing Center.

5 First, lets review the use of sources in any paper.

6 Different ways of saying the same thing: Giving credit to your sources. Giving credit to your sources. Documenting your sources. Documenting your sources. Citing your sources. Citing your sources. Using in-text citations. Using in-text citations.

7 What are outside sources for a research paper? Traditional sources include: Books Books Entire books Entire books Chapters Chapters Works within an anthology Works within an anthology Articles Articles Professional journals, magazines, newspapers Professional journals, magazines, newspapers

8 …but today there are many other types of sources as well, such as: Web pages Web pages Online journals Online journals Personal interviews Personal interviews Videotaped interviews Videotaped interviews Movies Movies E-mail correspondence, etc. E-mail correspondence, etc.

9 There are two types of sources: primary and secondary. Primary: the work itself. (For a literature paper, for example, the actual novel, short story, or poem.) Primary: the work itself. (For a literature paper, for example, the actual novel, short story, or poem.) Secondary: Things written or said ABOUT the primary source. (For example, literary critiques about the novel, short story, or poem.) Secondary: Things written or said ABOUT the primary source. (For example, literary critiques about the novel, short story, or poem.)

10 For example, if you were writing an analysis of Emily Dickinsons poetry: PRIMARY SOURCES Letters, diaries, working drafts. SECONDARY SOURCES Reviews and analyses of Dickinsons work in literary journals.

11 Suggestion: Whenever you have access to a primary source, use it! First-hand information is always stronger than second- or third- hand.

12 Rule of thumb for deciding what to document: Borrowed language Borrowed language Borrowed ideas Borrowed ideas Borrowed information Borrowed information When you use the information, words or ideas of someone else, be sure to tell your readers where the material came from.

13 If you would like to learn about how to use borrowed material correctlyquoting, paraphrasing, and summarizingview our workshop on Using Outside Sources Correctly.

14 Where do you put the information about your sources in an MLA research paper? Two places: In in-text citationsthat is, right in the body of your paper In in-text citationsthat is, right in the body of your paperAND On a page at the end of your paper. On a page at the end of your paper.

15 What kind of information you put in your in-text citations and how you organize the information at the end of your paper depend on the documentation style you are using.

16 Each system has its own very specific rules. You dont have to memorize themyou can use a style book or a handout from the Writing Centerbut make sure you follow them carefully.

17 Your professor and other professionals will notice!

18 Modern Language Association (MLA) Used by writers in the humanities, which include literature, philosophy, religion, languages, the classics, and the visual and performing arts. Used by writers in the humanities, which include literature, philosophy, religion, languages, the classics, and the visual and performing arts.

19 This is what an MLA in-text citation looks like. The required information about the source is highlighted in yellow so you can spot it in our examples: Hobson argues that middle schoolers are actually alien invaders from another planet (18). One authority argues that middle schoolers are actually alien invaders from another planet (Hobson 18).

20 Notice that you can use the information about your source to mark the beginning and end of the material you borrowed. Do this whenever possible!

21 More examples: Harold Hobson maintains that middle schoolers are alien life forms (18). One authority believes that middle schoolers are alien life forms that originated elsewhere in the galaxy (Hobson 18).

22 Some rules for writing in-text citations: Always make sure the authors last name and the page number are inserted in your text. Always make sure the authors last name and the page number are inserted in your text. You dont need a comma between items, or a p. for page before the page number. You dont need a comma between items, or a p. for page before the page number.

23 Your Works Cited (page) It comes at the end of your paper. It comes at the end of your paper. It is a list of all of the sources you used in your paper. It is a list of all of the sources you used in your paper. It does not include sources that you may have read for background information, but did not actually use. It does not include sources that you may have read for background information, but did not actually use.

24 Your in-text citations tell the reader to look at your Works Cited page, under the name of your source, in order to find publishing information.

25 Readers look at the Works Cited page(s) when they want to know how they, too, can find the source you usedor how you found the source.

26 Some advice… Pay close attention to: What type of information goes on this page What type of information goes on this page What the order of this information is for an MLA citation.ORDER MATTERS! (So does punctuation.) What the order of this information is for an MLA citation.ORDER MATTERS! (So does punctuation.) Be sure to copy this information right awaywhen you are actually using the sourceso youll have it when you write the Works Cited page(s). Be sure to copy this information right awaywhen you are actually using the sourceso youll have it when you write the Works Cited page(s).

27 Advice, continued… The title of this page is Works Cited. Do not call it Works Cited Page. Do not put quotation marks around it. The title of this page is Works Cited. Do not call it Works Cited Page. Do not put quotation marks around it. Alphabetize the citations on this page according to the authors last names. Alphabetize the citations on this page according to the authors last names. Start each entry at the left margin and indent for subsequent lines. Start each entry at the left margin and indent for subsequent lines. Double space. Double space.

28 If you are used to using APA style, you may want to note the differences between APA and MLA when you work on your References.

29 Main differences between MLA and APA. When using MLA: Use complete first names of sources rather than initials on your Works Cited page. Use complete first names of sources rather than initials on your Works Cited page. Use quotation marks around the name of a short work (an essay, a review, a newspaper article, etc.). Use quotation marks around the name of a short work (an essay, a review, a newspaper article, etc.). DO italicize books and journal titles, as in APA, but do NOT italicize volume numbers. DO italicize books and journal titles, as in APA, but do NOT italicize volume numbers.

30 APA differences, continued… In MLA, capitalize the major words in the titles of magazines, newspapers, and journals. In MLA, capitalize the major words in the titles of magazines, newspapers, and journals. Also capitalize major words in the titles of books or articles.

31 2009 changes to MLA The 2009 MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, Third Edition, notes some changes in MLA:

32 2009 MLA changes, contd. Published works are now italicized, not underlined. Published works are now italicized, not underlined. URLs are no longer required, unless its difficult to find the source otherwise. URLs are no longer required, unless its difficult to find the source otherwise. Continuous pagination is not an issue. Volume and issue numbers are necessary, but if pages are not paginated, just write n. pag. Continuous pagination is not an issue. Volume and issue numbers are necessary, but if pages are not paginated, just write n. pag.

33 2009 MLA changes, contd. Markers are now used to indicate publication medium: Print, Web, Performance, DVD, or TV, for example. Although the date of retrieval follows the marker for Web sources, most markers go at the end of the entries. Markers are now used to indicate publication medium: Print, Web, Performance, DVD, or TV, for example. Although the date of retrieval follows the marker for Web sources, most markers go at the end of the entries.

34 2009 MLA changes, contd. You no longer need to include library information when you cite a journal article from an online database. You no longer need to include library information when you cite a journal article from an online database. Berger, James D. and Helmut J. Schmidt. Regulation of Macronuclear DNA Content in Paramecium Tetraurelia. The Journal of Cell Biology 76.1 (1978): JSTOR. Web. 20 Nov. 2008.

35 2009 MLA changes, contd. New abbreviations. New abbreviations. * n.p. is used when no publisher name appears on a web site. * n.d. stands for no date. * n. pag. stands for no pagination.

36 The format for a book citation shows you the skeleton of all MLA citations…

37 Here is the basic format for a book with one author: Rose, Joel. The Blackest Bird: A Novel of History and Murder. New York: Edinburgh, UK: Canongate Books, 2008. Print. Last name, first name. Title of Work. Place of publication: Publisher, Date. Medium.

38 --Order of information --Punctuation rules --Capitalization rules For other citations, its just a matter of adding to this skeleton. For example…

39 If you are using something from a collection or anthology: Warnick, Barbara. Judgment, Probability, and Aristotles Rhetoric. Teaching Argument in the Composition Course. Ed. Timothy Barnett. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2002. 42-58. Print. Authors last name, first name. Title of shorter work. Title of anthology. Editor. Place where published: publishing company, date. Page numbers. Medium.

40 Any good handbook will have models for every type of MLA citation. The Writing Center also has a useful MLA handout.

41 Manuscript format rules for an MLA paper: Standard type style, e.g. New Times Roman or Courier. (We recommend 12 pt.) Standard type style, e.g. New Times Roman or Courier. (We recommend 12 pt.) One-inch margin on all sides. Do not justify right margin. One-inch margin on all sides. Do not justify right margin. Double-space everything. Double-space everything. Indent each paragraph five spaces. Indent each paragraph five spaces.

42 Format, continued: In the upper right corner of each page, type your last name, then skip a space, then write the page number. In the upper right corner of each page, type your last name, then skip a space, then write the page number. Number all the pages, from the body of the essay and including the Works Cited page(s). Number all the pages, from the body of the essay and including the Works Cited page(s). MLA does not require a title page. MLA does not require a title page.

43 Example of a first page: Driver 1 Driver 1 Joseph Driver Professor Harcourt English 1000 23 July 2009 Downloading Music Off the Internet

44 Outlines MLA essays may require an outline. To be on the safe side, always ask your instructor. MLA essays may require an outline. To be on the safe side, always ask your instructor.

45 Take time to look at a handout or a handbook on MLA. Looking at model papers is particularly helpful.

46 Remember: If you plan ahead, you can bring a finished draft to the Writing Center and ask for help in checking the documentation.


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