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Presentation on theme: "LETTER OF CREDIT CITD SEMINAR"— Presentation transcript:

Tuesday, June 22nd, 2004

2 Methods of Payment

3 Methods of Payment Cash in Advance Letters of Credit
Documentary Collection Sight/Time Drafts aka D/P, D/A Open Account Risk mitigation: Export Credit Insurance Standby L/C’s L /C

4 Importer pays Exporter prior to shipment
Cash in Advance Importer pays Exporter prior to shipment Exporter has no risk of non-payment or non-acceptance Importer has risk that exporter will not ship the goods as ordered Used occasionally for small amounts, new customers, one-time sales Goods Exporter Importer

5 Protects the interests of both the Importer and the Exporter
Letters of Credit Protects the interests of both the Importer and the Exporter Exporter is assured payment provided terms of L/C are met Importer is assured terms of L/C have been met before she is required to pay Used for larger amounts, higher credit risks, sometimes mandated L / C

6 Documentary Collections
Exporter routes documents through banking channels, where they are held for payment or acceptance Exporter Exporter’s Importer’s Importer Bank Bank Less costly than a L/C and avoids tying up Importer’s line of credit Average of weeks for exporter to collect on a sight draft Consignment Issues Used for lower risk customers Goods

7 Open Account Exporter ships goods and bills the
importer for payment at sight or at a future date Importer has use of funds, no product risk Exporter has risk of non-payment Risk can be shifted through credit insurance, standby L/C’s Used for well-established customers with good credit Invoice net 30 Goods

8 Letters of Credit

9 Types of Letters of Credit
Trade Import Export Standby

10 Definition of a Trade Letter of Credit
A letter addressed to a beneficiary (exporter) by a bank (issuing bank) wherein the bank undertakes, on behalf of an applicant (importer) to effect payment to the beneficiary for merchandise shipped or services performed provided that the beneficiary presents the required documents in compliance with the terms of the letter of credit

11 Documents Common to an Export L/C
Commercial Invoice Packing List Bills of Lading Certificate of Origin Other Certificates: Quality, Inspection Beneficiary Statements

12 1. Importer and Exporter enter into a sales agreement

13 2. Importer applies for a letter of credit with the Issuing Bank
Application Issuing Bank

14 3. Issuing Bank advises. the letter of credit to. U. S
3. Issuing Bank advises the letter of credit to U.S. Bank, usually via SWIFT L / C SWIFT Letter of Credit Issuing Bank U.S. Bank

15 4. U.S. Bank authenticates the L/C and advises L/C to Beneficiary
Letter of Credit U.S. Bank

16 5. Exporter prepares the documents and ships the goods
Importer Goods

17 6. Exporter sends shipping documents to U.S. Bank for examination

18 7. Assuming clean. documents, U. S. Bank pays. exporter by debiting
7. Assuming clean documents, U.S. Bank pays exporter by debiting Issuing Bank’s account or upon receipt of funds from a separate reimbursing bank. Documents sent to Issuing Bank. Exporter Issuing Bank U.S. Bank Documents

19 8. Issuing Bank examines. documents and delivers. to. importer against
8. Issuing Bank examines documents and delivers to importer against payment. Importer takes possession of goods by presenting documents. Importer Documents Docs Goods Issuing Bank

20 9. The exporter has been. paid, the importer has
9. The exporter has been paid, the importer has their goods, the banks have been reimbursed, and the cycle is complete! Goods Agreement Exporter Importer Letter of Credit Documents Application Documents Letter of Credit U.S. Bank Issuing Bank Documents

21 Special Uses of Letters of Credit

22 Bankers’ Acceptances On a time draft, the bank on whom the draft is drawn commits to pay the face amount at maturity by stamping “Accepted” across the draft . If the exporter wishes early payment, the accepting bank may discount the draft and pay the exporter at sight. U.S. Bank can offer you very competitive rates for BA’s if the draft is drawn on us!

23 Standby Letter of Credit
Standby L/C’s are an irrevocable commitment issued by a bank for a stated time period to pay a beneficiary a stated amount of money upon presentation of specified documents stating that the applicant did not fulfill their contractual obligations.

24 Transferable Letters of Credit
Often used by an export intermediary to pay a vendor or producer The L/C may be transferred only once, but there may be several partial ‘transferees’ Vendor controls presentation of documents to bank Intermediary may substitute his own invoice and draft, but it still may be difficult for the vendor and buyer to remain unknown to each other

25 Assignment of Proceeds
Similar to Transferable L/C in that it is commonly used by an export intermediary to pay a producer or vendor Intermediary (beneficiary) controls document presentation, not the vendor, allowing him/her to keep information on the vendor out of the paperwork Vendor relies on intermediary for proper presentation / performance under the terms of the L/C before funds will be remitted to them

26 Confirmations of Export Letters of Credit
Confirmed - A second bank, usually in the exporter’s country, guarantees the obligation of the issuing bank, providing an extra layer of protection - especially important if the country or the issuing bank is considered risky.

27 More on Confirmations ... Gives the greatest degree of payment protection and an immediate payment source, provided the documents are clean. Added cost, normally to the exporter. Exporter must instruct the importer to have the L/C issued with a request for confirmation. The confirming bank makes a credit decision based on the credit of the issuing bank and the country risk. Approval will depend also on availability under an established line of credit.

28 Adding a confirmation or engagement to purchase documents:
Goods Exporter Agreement Importer Letter of Credit Application Documents Documents Faxport Letter of Credit Advising Bank Issuing Bank Confirm Bank Documents

29 Benefits of Letters of Credit
To the Exporter: Payment protection Reliance on issuing bank’s credit rather than buyer’s Rapid, local source of repayment, if payable at a U.S. bank To the Importer: Documentary evidence that the ordered goods have been shipped on time Assurance that necessary clearance documents will be provided Payment deferred until goods are shipped and documents presented (use of funds)


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