Presentation on theme: "Credit Control ( AR Management)"— Presentation transcript:
1Credit Control ( AR Management) Dr Clive Vlieland-Boddy
2Working Capital Management Working capital management requires managing current assets (cash balances, accounts receivable and inventory) and current liabilities (accounts payable and short-term debt) when faced with political, foreign exchange, tax and liquidity constraints.The overall goal is to reduce funds tied up in working capital while simultaneously providing sufficient funding and liquidity for the conduct of global business.Working capital management should enhance return on assets and return on equity and should also improve efficiency ratios and other performance measures.2
3ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE MANAGEMENT The level of accounts receivable is dependant on two factors:The volume of credit salesThe average collection periodEconomic conditions cannot be controlled, but a business cancontrol its collection policies with an effect on both sales andaverage collection period.CREDIT POLICIESThere are four elements of a credit policy:Credit PeriodCash DiscountsCredit StandardsCollection Policy3
4Accounts Receivable Management: The Five Cs of Credit Character: The applicant’s record of meeting past obligations.Capacity: The applicant’s ability to repay the requested credit.Capital: The applicant’s debt relative to equity.Collateral: The amount of assets the applicant has available for use in securing the credit.Conditions: Current general and industry-specific economic conditions.
5The 4 Elements of credit policy Credit Period – How long to pay? Shorter period reduces DSO and average A/R, but it may discourage sales.Cash Discounts – Lowers price. Attracts new customers and reduces DSO.Credit Standards – Tighter standards tend to reduce sales, but reduce bad debt expense. Fewer bad debts reduce DSO.Collection Policy – How tough? Tougher policy will reduce DSO but may damage customer relationships.
6To increase sales by attracting new customers; ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE MANAGEMENTCredit TermsA business may wish to increase its rate of discount for three reasons:To increase sales by attracting new customers;To encourage existing customers to pay more quickly;To reduce bad debts.A business can increase its rate of discount to the point where themarginal cost of discount equals the marginal profit generated.6
7ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE MANAGEMENT Collection PolicyIs the action a firm takes to recover its overdue accounts.A weak collection policy will save on collection costs but probably result in bad debts.On the other had a severe collection policy may reduce bad debts but may result in high collection costs, lost sales and loss of customer goodwill.Most businesses would prefer to tread a middle path.A company may increase its collection expenditure to a point in which the costs of such effort equal the revenues earned as a result.7
8AR Management Quality of Length of Trade Account Credit Period Average Collection PeriodBad-debtLossesFirmCollectionPolicyPossible CashDiscount
9CASH AND LIQUID ASSET MANAGEMENT Businesses must hold sufficient cash to meet its debts, but excessive cash balances are unproductive, as they could be invested in other assets to generate income.A business will hold cash for- transaction motive- precautionary motive- speculative motive9
10CASH AND LIQUID ASSET MANAGEMENT Other Liquid assetsDeposits, securities that are easily converted to cash in short timeCan earn income in meantime until neededControl Cash via Cash BudgetSynchronising cashCash sales/purchasesCredit sales/purchasesWages, other expenses10
11The Risk of tight credit policy? Yes, a tighter credit policy may discourage sales. Some customers may choose to go elsewhere if they are pressured to pay their bills sooner.
12Credit Standards Costs arising from relaxing credit standards A larger credit departmentAdditional clerical workServicing additional accountsBad-debt lossesOpportunity costs (Loss of the use of the money)
13Collection Policy and Procedures The firm should increase collection expenditures until the marginal reduction in bad-debt losses equals the marginal outlay to collect.Collection ProceduresLettersPhone callsPersonal visitsLegal actionSaturationPointBad-Debt LossesCollection Expenditures
14Analyzing the Credit Applicant Obtaining information on the credit applicantAnalyzing this information to determine the applicant’s creditworthinessMaking the credit decision
15Sources of Information The company must weigh the amount of information needed versus the time and expense required.Financial statementsCredit ratings and reportsBank checkingTrade checkingCompany’s own experienceMay be use a simple matrix
16A credit analyst is likely to utilize information regarding: Credit AnalysisA credit analyst is likely to utilize information regarding:the financial statements of the firm (ratio analysis)the character of the companythe character of managementthe financial strength of the firmother individual issues specific to the firm
17Other Credit Decision Issues Credit-scoring SystemA system using a simple matrix, to decide whether to grant credit by assigning numerical scores to various characteristics related to creditworthiness.Line of CreditA limit to the amount of credit extended to an account. Purchaser can buy on credit up to that limit.Streamlines the procedure for shipping goods.
18Trade Credit ( AP Management) Dr Clive Vlieland-Boddy
19What is trade credit?Trade credit is credit furnished by a firm’s suppliers.Trade credit is often the largest source of short-term credit, especially for small firms.Spontaneous, easy to get, but cost can be high.
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