# Chapter 14 Personal Financial Management

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Chapter 14 Personal Financial Management

Chapter 14: Personal Financial Management

Closed-End Credit Closed-end credit involves borrowing a set amount up front and paying a series of equal installments (payments) until the loan is paid off. Furniture and appliances my be financed through closed-end credit (sometimes called fixed installment loans). © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved

Open-End Credit With open-end credit, there is no fixed number of installments – the consumer continues paying until no balance is owed. Examples include department store charge accounts and charge cards such as MasterCard and VISA. © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved

Add-On Interest Installment loans set up under closed-end credit often are based on add-on interest. This means that if an amount P is borrowed, the annual interest rate is to be r, and payments will extend over t years, then the required interest comes from the simple interest formula I = Prt. Find the future value of a simple interest loan and divide the payments equally (usually monthly) over the t years. © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved

Zach buys \$2800 worth of furniture. He pays \$400 down and agrees to pay the balance at 6% add-on interest for 2 years. Find a) the total amount to be repaid and b) the monthly payment. Solution Amount to be repaid = P(1 + rt) = \$2400(1 + (.06)2) = \$2688 © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved

Open-End Credit With a typical open-end credit account, a credit limit is established initially and the consumer can make any purchases during a month (up to the credit limit). At the end of each billing period (normally once a month), the customer receives an itemized billing, a statement listing purchases and cash advances, the total balance owed, the minimum payment required, and perhaps other account information. © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved

Finance Charge/Unpaid Balance Method
Any charges beyond cash advances and prices of items purchased are called finance charges. A few open-end lenders use a method of calculating finance charges called the unpaid balance method. You begin with the unpaid balance at the end of the previous month and apply it to the current monthly interest rate. Any purchases or returns in the current period do not affect the finance charge calculation. © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved

Example: Unpaid Balance Method
The table shows a VISA account activity for a 2-month period. If the bank charges interest of 1.5% per month on the unpaid balance, find the missing quantities in the table. Month Unpaid Balance at Start Finance Charge Purchases Payment Unpaid Balance at End 1 \$432.56 \$325.22 \$200 2 \$877.50 \$1000 © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved

Example: Solution Month Unpaid Balance at Start Finance Charge Purchases Payment Unpaid Balance at End 1 \$432.56 \$6.49 \$325.22 \$200 \$564.27 2 \$8.46 \$877.50 \$1000 \$450.23 Unpaid balance times .015 © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved

Finance Charge/Unpaid Balance Method
Most open-end lenders use a method of calculating finance charges called the average daily balance method. It considers balances on all days of the billing period and comes closer to charging card holders for credit they actually utilize. © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved

Example: Average Daily Balance
The activity on a credit card account for one billing period is given on the next slide. If the previous balance was \$320.75, and the bank charges 1.4% per month on the average daily balance, find the average daily balance for the next billing (April 3) and the finance charge for the April 3 billing. © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved

Example: Average Daily Balance
March 3 Billing date March 12 Payment \$250.00 March 17 Car repairs \$422.85 March 20 Food \$124.80 April 1 Clothes \$64.32 © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved

Example: Average Daily Balance
Solution First we make a table of the running balance Date Running Balance March 3 \$320.75 March 12 \$ – \$ = \$70.75 March 17 \$ \$ = \$493.60 March 20 \$ \$ = \$618.40 April 1 \$ \$64.32 = \$682.72 © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved

Example: Average Daily Balance
Solution (continued) Take the number of days of the balance times the balance. Date Balance Days Product March 3 \$320.75 9 \$ March 12 \$70.75 5 \$353.75 March 17 \$493.60 3 \$ March 20 \$618.40 12 \$ April 1 \$682.72 2 \$ © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved

Example: Average Daily Balance