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Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Chapter 5 Accounts Receivable Management A / R.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Chapter 5 Accounts Receivable Management A / R."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Chapter 5 Accounts Receivable Management A / R

2 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. The Cash Flow Timeline Order Order Sale Payment Sent Cash Placed Received Received Accounts Collection Accounts Collection Time ==> Time ==> Accounts Disbursement Accounts Disbursement Invoice Received Payment Sent Cash Disbursed Invoice Received Payment Sent Cash Disbursed Order Order Sale Payment Sent Cash Placed Received Received Accounts Collection Accounts Collection Time ==> Time ==> Accounts Disbursement Accounts Disbursement Invoice Received Payment Sent Cash Disbursed Invoice Received Payment Sent Cash Disbursed

3 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Learning Objectives v Define credit policy and indicate its components. v Describe the typical credit-granting sequence. v Apply net present value analysis to credit extension decisions. v Define credit scoring and explain limitations. v List the elements in a credit rating report. v Describe how receivables management can benefit from EDI.

4 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Trade Credit and Shareholder Value v Trade credit arises when goods sold under delayed payment terms v Traced to Romans due to obstacles faced in transferring money through various trading areas v Credit terms are taken for granted today v Value can be added by managing three areas: –aggregate investment in receivables –credit terms –credit standards v Over-investing in receivables can be costly v...but, if credit terms are not competitive, then lost sales can be costly

5 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Conclusion v Minimize bad debts and outstanding receivables v Maintain financial flexibility v Optimize mix of company assets v Convert receivables to cash in a timely manner v Analyze customer risk v Respond to customer needs

6 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. A/R Management and Shareholder Value Marketing Strategy Marketing Strategy Market Share Obj. Market Share Obj. Aggregate Inv. in A/R Aggregate Inv. in A/R Credit Terms Credit Standards Total Dollar Investment Total Dollar Investment Length of Time to Pay Length of Time to Pay Acceptance of Marg Cust. Max Shareholder Value Max Shareholder Value

7 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Trade vs. Bank Credit v Length of terms v Security v Amounts involved v Resource transferred (goods vs. money) v Extent of analysis

8 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Why Extend Credit? v Financial Motive v Operating Motive v Contracting Motive v Pricing Motive v All reasons are related to market imperfections

9 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Financial Motive v Potential of getting a higher price v Sellers raise capital at lower rates than customers and have cost advantages vis-a-vis banks due to: –similarity of customers –the information gathered in the selling process –lower probability of default (the goods purchased are an essential element of the buyers business) –seller can more easily resell product if payment is not made.

10 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Operating Motive v Respond to variable and uncertain demand v Change credit terms rather than: –install extra capacity, –building or depleting inventories, –or forcing customers to wait.

11 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Contracting Cost Motive v Buyer gets to inspect goods prior to payment v Seller has less theft with separation of collection and product delivery

12 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Pricing Motive v Change price by changing credit terms

13 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Trends Affecting Trade Credit v Zero net working capital objective v Improved internal and external credit-related information v Electronic commerce

14 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. The Credit Decision Process Marketing contact Credit investigation Customer contact for information Finalize written documents, e.g.. security agreements Establish customer credit file Financial analysis Time

15 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Basic Credit Granting Model S - EXP(S) S - EXP(S) NPV = VCR(S) 1 + iCP 1 + iCPWhere: NPV = net present value of the credit sale VCR = variable cost ratio S = dollar amount of credit sale EXP = credit administration and collection expense ratio i = daily interest rate CP = collection period for sale

16 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Managing the Credit Policy v Should we extend credit? v Credit policy components v Credit-granting decision

17 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Should We Extend Credit? v Follow industry practice v Extent and form of credit offer –in-house credit card –sell receivables to a factor –captive finance company?

18 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Components of Credit Policy v Development of credit standards –profile of minimally acceptable credit worthy customer v Credit terms –credit period –cash discount v Credit limit –maximum dollar level of credit balances v Collection procedures –how long to wait past due date to initiate collection efforts –methods of contact –whether and at what point to refer account to collection agency

19 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Credit-Granting Decision v Development of credit standards v Gathering necessary information v Credit analysis: applying credit standards v Risk analysis

20 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Grant-Granting Sequence No Order and credit request received New/increased credit limit Material change in customer status Redo credit investigation Size of proposed credit limit Medium Medium Small Large Indepth credit invest. Indepth Moderate Minimal Check new A/R total vs credit lmt Check new A/R total vs credit lmt NoYes Yes Extend Credit No Yes Recorddisposition Set up,post A/R, ship

21 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Credit Standards v Based on five C's of Credit –Character –Capital –Capacity –Collateral –Conditions v Determine risk classification system v Link customer evaluations to credit standards

22 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Gathering Information v credit reporting agencies, e.g.. Dun & Bradstreet v credit interchange bureaus, NACM v bank letters v references from other suppliers v financial statements v field data gathered by sales reps

23 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Credit Analysis: Applying the Standards v Nonfinancial –concerned with willingness to pay, character v Financial –ability to pay, financial ratios etc.. (other Cs of credit) v Credit scoring models –Example: Y = (INCOME) (PAYHIST) (EMPLOYMT)

24 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Emergence of Expert Systems v Example of decision rule: If gross income is equal to or grater than $20,000 and the applicant has not been delinquent and gross income per household member is equal to or greater than $12,000 and debt/equity ratio is equal to or greater than 30% but less than 50% and personal property is equal to or greater than $50,000, then grant credit.

25 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Factors Affecting Credit Terms v Competition v Operating cycle v Type of good (raw materials vs finished goods, perishables, etc.) v Seasonality of demand v Consumer acceptance v Cost and pricing v Customer type v Product profit margin

26 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Cash Discounts v The lower the VC, the higher the feasible discount v Based on companys cost of funds v Consider timing effect when changing discounts v Should be based on products price elasticity v Higher the bad debt experience, higher the optimal discount

27 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Practice of Taking Cash Discounts v 51% of firms always took cash discount v 40% sometimes v 9% take discount and pay late v Study found that 4 or 5 companies would be more profitable if cash discount was eliminated

28 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. A/R Management in Practice v Discounts appear to be changed to match competitors, not inflation or interest rates v The higher a firms contribution margin, the more likely the firm should be to offer discounts. v A price cut is thought to have more impact than instituting a cash discount v The more receivables a firm has, does not necessarily relate to use of penalty fees v The greater amount of receivables does not relate to a more active credit evaluation.

29 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Receivables, Collections, and EDI v If credit approval is delayed... –buyers using EDI purchase orders and JIT manufacturing can encounter serious problems. –sellers can now ship within hours of receiving orders...thus seller must be able to handle electronically transmitted orders. v Seller may also issues electronic invoices and be paid electronically using an EDI-capable bank so that remittance data can be automatically read by sellers A/R system v Trend is for use of data transmission to automate the cash application process

30 Copyright 2005 by Thomson Learning, Inc. Summary v Investment in A/R represents a significant investment. v Key aspects outlined –credit policy –credit standards –credit granting sequence –credit limits –credit terms v Management of A/R is influenced by what competitors are doing not by shareholder wealth considerations. v Proper use of NPV techniques can ensure that credit decisions enhance shareholder value.


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