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TII 2008 - Full Version How Semantics of Business Vocabulary & Business Rules (SBVR) adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards Donald.

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Presentation on theme: "TII 2008 - Full Version How Semantics of Business Vocabulary & Business Rules (SBVR) adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards Donald."— Presentation transcript:

1 TII Full Version How Semantics of Business Vocabulary & Business Rules (SBVR) adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards Donald Chapin Co-chair OMG Business Modeling & Integration Domain Task Force OMG Liaison to ISO TC 37 and its Subcommittees Co-chair OMG SBVR Revision Task Force ISO TC 37/SC 1/WG 5 Project Leader for SBVR Business Semantics Ltd.

2 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards2 Topics SBVR's scope and purpose The SBVR specification Knowledge richness features SBVR adds to ISO TC 37 terminology standards SBVR Touch Points with ISO TC 37 Standards Optional Topics –Applications of SBVR Already in Progress –Emergence of Tool Support of SBVR –SBVR Methods / Best Practice –SBVR Resources

3 TII Full Version What SBVR Is and What You Can Do With It

4 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards4 What SBVR Is Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Business Rules (SBVR) Effectively two specifications in one i.e. a semantic model for: –terminological ontology (formal terminology, SBVR vocabulary) - as a cohesive set of interconnected concepts, not just a list of terms and definitions, and –behavioural guidance (policy, rules, etc.) that govern the actions of subject of the terminological ontology (formal terminology). Developed by 17 organizations in 7 countries Adopted by OMG in September 2005 Published as formal OMG specification January See: First specification under the Object Management Groups new stream of Model-Driven Business specifications

5 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards5 How SBVR Relates to Existing Language Resources Business Glossary: –Noun Concepts, Definitions & Primary Terms + Taxonomy: –General/Specific + Whole/Part Hierarchical Relationships + Thesaurus: –Synonyms, Acronyms, Abbreviations, etc. + Multilingual –Instances of Concepts e.g. Business Events & Business Entities –Verb Concepts Business Facts Relations among Concepts + Semantically Rich Vocabulary (terminological ontology): –Relations among Instances of Concepts –Definitional Rules –Definitions, Relationships & Rules specified in formal logic + Behavioural Business Rules: –Rules Governing Business Actions Business Glossary: –Noun Concepts, Definitions & Primary Terms + Taxonomy: –General/Specific + Whole/Part Hierarchical Relationships + Thesaurus: –Synonyms, Acronyms, Abbreviations, etc. + Multilingual –Instances of Concepts e.g. Business Events & Business Entities –Verb Concepts Business Facts Relations among Concepts + Semantically Rich Vocabulary (terminological ontology): –Relations among Instances of Concepts –Definitional Rules –Definitions, Relationships & Rules specified in formal logic + Behavioural Business Rules: –Rules Governing Business Actions = Business Terminology + Rules

6 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards6 SBVR is Intended for Use in the Context of Enterprises (Organizations) and/or Disciplines It documents the shared concepts and representations in two kinds of communities: –Collaborative Community e.g. A department, cross-function programme team, a internal service –Community of Practice e.g. project managers, operational excellence champions, departmental budget managers These communities can be: –Internal to an organization –Across parts of different organizations In organizations and disciplines, people know: –Who they collaborate with –Who they communicate with –What their common interests are; what subject fields they are involved in

7 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards7 Business Activities Benefiting from SBVR Vocabulary and/or Behavioural Guidance Business Integration and Performance Improvement Risk, Governance, and Compliance Globalization/Localization and Translation Communication and Documentation Document and Content Index Creation Training Business Language–centred Requirements for Information Systems For more information see:

8 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards8 IT Activities & Applications Benefiting from SBVR Document Browse and Search and Text Analytics Business Intelligence and Data Analytics Data Architecture, Management and Quality Message-Based Middleware Architecture Business Process Management Systems Advanced Intelligence Capabilities Rule-based Application Software Development, Generation and Configuration Software Localization Reverse Engineering Software to Business Requirements For more information see:

9 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards9 SBVR - a Synthesis of Four Disciplines 1.TERMINOLOGY & VOCABULARY: –The foundation for SBVR is ISO TC 37 (Terminology and Language & other Content Resources) terminology science standards ISO 704 and 1087 About human communication using special purpose language in the context of natural language 2.FACT-ORIENTED MODELING with interpretation in FORMAL LOGIC: –The precision of formal logic was added to ISO concepts, designations, and concept relations by fact-oriented modelling* Precise meanings for SBVR Vocabulary and Behavioural Guidance enables them to be transformed into IT system designs without losing or changing the business semantics. * See ISO Technical Report TR 9007:1987, "Concepts and Terminology for the Conceptual Schema and the Information Base, and A Logical Analysis of Information Systems: Static Aspects of the Data Oriented Perspective (http://www.orm.net/Halpin_PhD thesis.pdf)

10 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards10 SBVR - a Synthesis of Four Disciplines 3.LINGUISTICS & LINGUISTIC ANNOTATION OF NATURAL LANGUAGE GRAMMAR –Target natural language grammar structures (external to SBVR) were provided by: linguistics, ISO TC 37/SC 4 Linguistic Representation standards, and de-facto industry standards as input to the design of SBVR semantic formulations so that they would both: adequately formulate in logic to provide a formal interpretation of the most complicated definitions and logic statements expressed using selected natural language grammar features, and adequately connect these definitions and logic statements to the underlying SBVR vocabulary of concepts and representations via verb concepts (ISO TC 37 concept relations made formal by fact-oriented modeling) –Provided the basis for a future rich multilingual natural language notation for SBVR

11 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards11 SBVR - a Synthesis of Four Disciplines 4.BUSINESS PRACTICE of VOCABULARY & BUSINESS RULES: –Practical applicability of SBVR in Organizations was provided by hundreds of collective man-years experience in business consultancy applying vocabulary and business rule approaches to the needs of organizations

12 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards12 Benefits of Synthesizing from Established Disciplines World-Class expertise and best practices … –No re-inventing the wheel More complete, pragmatic and theoretically sound than any one of the disciplines on its own Breakthrough synthesis Depth of experience in real-world application and practice Existing communities of usage

13 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards13 SBVR Is a Dictionary – Except … Like lexicography – development of natural language dictionaries –Rooted in Natural Language and Human Communication –Different in these ways: Concept-centric; not word centric (meanings in concept systems) Special Purpose language only Definitions built in terms of characteristics with built-in taxonomies Concept Relations as Entries Semantic Communities enable cross-discipline / cross-subject field capability with support for adopting concepts Speech community, subject field, and other concepts provide context to disambiguate multiple uses of the same signifier to designate concepts Statements, Verb Concept Designations, Definitions added to Designations to create Representations Natural language definitions and other statements can be understood in terms of formal logic Formal interpretation of characteristics and intensions can determine whether two definitions are of the same concept or different concepts Multi-dimensional, classification can be included (to generic relation) Roles and facets (perspectives, aspects) of general concepts treated explicitly and formally Defined reference schemes for general concepts to connect them with the names of the individual concepts associated with them Concept relations enriched with definitions, concept roles, and generic relations to create verb concepts (subject-verb-object plus, sometimes, preposition-object) that are interpretable in formal logic Characteristics can be expressed as definitional /structural rules Formal specification of behavioral guidance in terms of the terminology can be included Terminology Characteristics What SBVR adds to ISO TC 37 Standards

14 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards14 SBVR Vocabulary Structure & Extensibility Structured Like Dictionaries –Flat structures without levels, except for formal logic interpretation There is an analogy with a dictionary: the constructs used to define the organization of the dictionary and the structure of its entries (the dictionarys metamodel) are themselves defined in the dictionary. –Although the conceptual schema and fact instances are distinguished in an SBVR Body of Shared Meanings, they are all part of the same Body of Shared Meanings. –All SBVR vocabulary entries can be in other Body of Shared Meanings and reused by adoption. Inherently extensible like a dictionary - without losing the formal basis –SBVR Vocabularies given by this specification are themselves vocabularies that can be included in other business vocabularies. –An extended SBVR vocabulary can be created by adopting from an SBVR vocabulary. –New concepts immediately become the basis for other concepts

15 TII Full Version The SBVR Specification

16 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards16 SBVR Support for Linguistic Notations Supports Alternative Notations for Business Specifications –Textual or graphic symbols –Outlines, tables, categories, hyperlinks, decision tables, etc. Puts real semantics and formal logics behind a subset of any natural language or formal logic based notation What would the SBVR model look like? –MOF/XMI compliant XML –SBVR Structured English –Graphical Model: UML Profile for SBVR (see SBVR specification Annex H) ORM, CogNIAM Other? –Proprietary language, e.g. RuleSpeak There is no normative or mandatory SBVR notation

17 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards17 SBVR Structured English (SE) Notation SBVR Structured English uses styled fonts in MS Word. termThe term font is used for a designation for a noun concept (other than an individual concept), e.g. renter, branch Name The name font is used for a designation of an individual concept a name. Names tend to be proper nouns, e.g. Utrecht, Euro Note: in MS Word, the name style is double-underlined, but this format is not available in PowerPoint verbThe verb font is used for designations for verb concepts usually a verb, preposition or combination thereof. Such a designation is defined in the context of a form of expression, e.g. car is assigned to rental, rental has pick-up branch keywordThe keyword font is used for linguistic symbols used to construct statements – the words that can be combined with other designations to form statements and definitions, e.g.,each and it is obligatory that. Unstyled text is in black, with no underlining

18 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards18 Sample Language of Business Definitions & Rules Quantification eachuniversal quantification some existential quantification at least n at-least-n quantification Logical Operations it is not the case that plogical negation p and qconjunction p or qdisjunction Modal Operations it is obligatory that p obligation claim it is prohibited that p obligation claim embedding a logical negation it is necessary that p necessity claim Other Keywords the who a, an is of another what a given that

19 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards19 SBVR Terminology Dictionary: Structured English Example car movement Definitionplanned movement of some rental car car movement specifies car group car movement is from sending branch car movement is to receiving branch car movement is contracted Definition:The car movement is a contract with some renter car transfer Definition: car movement that is not contracted DescriptionA transfer is a logistical movement of a car by a EU-Rent driver rental Definition: car movement that is contracted optional extra Definition:Item that may be added to a rental at extra charge if the renter so chooses Example:One-way rental, fuel pre-payment, additional insurances, fittings (child seats, satellite navigation system, ski rack) Source: CRISG [optional extra] Rental includes optional extra scheduled pick-up date/time Concept Type:role Definition:date/time when the rented car of a rental is scheduled to be collected from EU-Rent rental requests car model Synonymous Form:car model is requested for rental Necessity:Each rental requests at most one car model. Noun Concept Entry Verb Concept Entry

20 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards20 General concept vocabulary entry term General Concept: implied if definition starts with signifier of general concept Concept Type: Reference Scheme:for finding instances Subject Field:disambiguating context for homonyms Synonym:may be more than one Definition:may be formal or informal Description: Example: Note: Source:of adopted definition Dictionary Basis:of external supporting definition Necessity:definitional constraint Possibility:definitional comment See:(if the entry is a synonym for a preferred term) See SBVR specification Annex C

21 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards21 SBVR: Context, Content and Logical Formality Business Community with sub-communities that may use different natural languages and specialized vocabularies Community Concepts, Facts & Rules (Unique, Discrete Meaning) Business Meaning Expression of Forms of Concepts, Facts & Rules in a Business Language Business Expression Semantic Formulations + Formal Logic Grounding Formal Logic defines uses formulated as expressed as underpins Context Formal Interpretation Content Business Vocabulary: Clause 8, 11 Business Rules: Clause 12 Clause 10 Clause 9 Clause 11 Structure of Meaning Forms of Concepts, Facts & Rules (different ways of saying the same thing) Forms of Meaning Expression in Languages Clause numbers are those in the SBVR Specification

22 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards22 Expression in Languages Business Context: Community Business Community with sub-communities that may use different natural languages and specialized vocabularies Community Concepts, Facts & Rules (Unique, Discrete Meaning) Business Meaning Expression of Forms of Concepts, Facts & Rules in a Business Language Business Expression Semantic Formulations + Formal Logic Grounding Formal Logic defines uses formulated as expressed as underpins Forms of Concepts, Facts & Rules (different ways of saying the same thing) Forms of Meaning Context Clause 11 Meaning Expression Clause numbers are those in the SBVR Specification Representation

23 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards23 Communication: Meaning vs. Representation body of meaning Meanings Unexpressed: –Concepts Noun Concepts Verb Concepts –Propositions –Questions interpretation body of meaning Meanings Unexpressed: –Concepts Noun Concepts Verb Concepts –Propositions –Questions representation EXPRESSIONEXPRESSION Expressions of Representations In a language: –Terms –Names –Identifiers –Fact Type Forms –Definitions –Statements –Text –Non-verbal Designations Become a Body of Shared Meanings via Definitions & Examples

24 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards24 SBVR Meaning object type (general concept) concept meaning proposition question individual concept characteristic (unary fact type) noun concept fact type role fact fact type (verb concept) binary fact type role fact type with arity > 2 SBVR Specification, clause 8.1

25 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards25 SBVR Representations (for Meanings)

26 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards26 Reading Guide for SBVR 1.An article, SBVR: What is Now Possible and Why? describing the essence of SBVR and its business and IT uses that generate business value. (http://www.BRCommunity.com/a2008/b407.html) 2.Annex A: Overview of the Approach (http://www.omg.org/docs/formal/ pdf) 3.How SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards (see for full version of this presentation) 4.SBVR Tutorial (Metadata Open Forum 2009) (see 5.Annex E: EU Rent Example case study – ( ) (browse for a feel for an SBVR model rather than detailed understanding of entries). 6.Annex C: SBVR Structured English & Annex D: SBVR Structured English Patterns for reading SBVR Structured English in Annex E and Clauses Annex H: Use of UML Notation in a Business Context to Represent SBVR-Style Vocabularies for interpreting diagrams in Annex E and Clauses Clauses 8 & 11 SBVR Vocabulary (formal terminology, terminological ontology) 9.Clause 12: SBVR Guidance (Policy/Rules) 10.Clause 10: Providing Semantic and Logical Foundations for Business Vocabulary and Rules (especially Clause 10.2 which relates SBVR to ISO Common Logic and OWL) 11.Clause 9: Semantic Formulations (for specifying notations, especially restricted natural languages, for definitions and guidance statements for interpretation in formal logic). 12.Clause 13: SBVRs Use of MOF and XMI (SBVR XMI & XSD Interchange Files)

27 TII Full Version Semantic Communities enable cross- discipline / cross-subject field capability with support for adopting concepts Meanings Belong to Semantic Communities

28 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards28 Semantic Communities Share Meanings Semantic Community Definition community whose unifying characteristic is a shared understanding (perception) of the things that they have to deal with NecessityEach semantic community is united by exactly one body of shared meanings. A semantic community defines the scope of an SBVR Body of Shared Meanings: what concepts (both noun concepts and verb concepts) are to be included what business rules it needs to build on them Usually, the most important semantic community is the organization for which you are building the SBVR Body of Shared Meanings, e.g. EU-Rent You will often have to consider other semantic communities that do or could share some of the vocabulary, e.g. the car rental industry, national trade associations, EU-Rent customers When you define rules, you do it from the perspective of the owning semantic community

29 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards29 Body of Shared Meanings body of shared meanings Definitionset of concepts and elements of guidance for which there is a shared understanding in a given semantic community Note EU-Rents Car Rentals business has a body of shared meanings which contains the set of concepts of general and specific things of importance to Car Rentals. NecessityEach body of shared meanings unites exactly one semantic community.

30 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards30 Consensus Definition What an organization in a given business typically does Shared SBVR Vocabularies Neutral Definition What an organization needs to do to be in a given business Enterprise Differentiation What an organization does that distinguishes it from its competitors All enterprises in the sector do this All enterprises in the sector do most of this This is where an enterprises competitive edge is A shared interest group can provide partial business vocabulary An enterprise will define its own business vocabulary Collaboration in a Shared Interest Group

31 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards31 Owned & Adopted Concepts Adoption is important: –Reduces work in maintaining business vocabulary –Supports communication with organizations that have interests in common –Creates consistency across vocabularies Vocabulary adoption is about adopting symbols (signifiers associated with meanings) Concepts are adopted two ways: –By reference – via an adopted vocabulary, e.g. rental, rental car (from Car Rental Industry Standard Glossary) –By name – Individual concept, e.g. Switzerland When an owner vocabulary is revised, –all the users of the vocabulary have to be considered – this is a good thing! SBVR provides strong support for adoption

32 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards32 Vocabulary Adoption The EU-Rent English Vocabulary - built using SBVR contains: –The symbols EU-Rent has assigned as term and fact symbols, and has assumed responsibility for maintaining; e.g. bad experience: damage to car or moving traffic offence or unauthorized late return or car not returned to EU-Rent or … barred driver:driver who has at least three bad experiences on rentals –Adopted vocabularies: Car Rental Industry Standard Glossary [fictitious]* ISO Dictionary of International Symbols adopted across all languages [does not exist yet] Merriam-Webster Unabridged Dictionary default vocabulary for English * Note: the EU-Rent German speech community has adopted equivalent Glossar für Autovermietunggeschäft [also fictitious] – consistency issue to be managed

33 TII Full Version Speech community, subject field, and other concepts provide context to disambiguate multiple uses of the same signifier to designate concepts Representations Belong to Speech Communities

34 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards34 Speech Community Share Representations (Language & Terms) Speech Community Definition subcommunity of a given semantic community whose unifying characteristic is the vocabulary and language that it uses ExampleThe EU-Rent UK Community shares the English-based vocabulary of symbols used in EU-Rents business. The symbols include English words for EU-Rents concepts plus symbols adopted from other languages Dictionary Basisgroup of people sharing a characteristic vocabulary, and grammatical and pronunciation patterns for use in their normal intercommunication W3ID [speech community] NecessityEach speech community is of exactly one semantic community. NecessityEach speech community uses exactly one language. NecessityEach speech community owns exactly one set of representations. NecessityEach speech community owns at least one vocabulary.

35 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards35 The Set of Representations of a Speech Community The part of an SBVR model that includes all the representations of a speech community in the language of, and using the terms of, the speech community: –A natural language, such as English, German, Dutch, or a constructed language such as the UML, plus –Specialised terms such as that used by lawyers or engineers, and/or –The preferred terms used by some group, department or function Includes these kinds of representations: –terms and names for the noun concepts –readings for the verb concepts –definitions for concepts –descriptions, descriptive examples, notes and references for meanings –statements for elements of guidance and facts Definitionset of representations that are owned by a given speech community NecessityThe set of representations owned by a speech community expresses exactly one body of shared meanings. NecessityThe set of representations owned by a speech community uses exactly one language.

36 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards36 Vocabularies & Terminology Dictionaries vocabulary Definitionset of designations and fact type forms primarily drawn from a single language to express concepts within a body of shared meanings Dictionary Basissum or stock of words employed by a language, group, individual, or work, or in a field of knowledge [MWCD vocabulary ] NoteVocabularies are subsets of one (monolingual) or more (multilingual) sets of representations owned by the speech community NecessityEach vocabulary is owned by exactly one speech community. NecessityEach vocabulary is used to express exactly one body of shared meanings. NecessityEach monolingual vocabulary is part of exactly one set of representations that are owned by a given speech community. terminology dictionary Definitioncollection of representations including at least one designation or definition of each of a set of concepts from one or more specific subject fields together with other representations of facts related to those concepts NecessityEach terminology dictionary expresses exactly one body of shared meanings. NecessityEach terminology dictionary presents at least one vocabulary. NecessityEach terminology dictionary uses at least one set of representations that are owned by a speech community.

37 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards37 Designation Disambiguation Contexts speech community subject field …speech community… ¦ …subject field… ¦ …designation context… ¦ …designation…

38 TII Full Version Statements, Fact Type Forms (Verb Concept Designations), Definitions added to Designations to create Representations

39 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards39 Shared Meanings Shared Concepts Meanings and Representations Fact Types (Verb Concepts) Noun Concepts Shared Guidance Business Rules Representations Signifiers, definitions and supporting details Fact Type Forms Definitions Terms & Appellations Business Rule Statements Shared by a semantic community Shared by a speech community of the semantic community Permissions and Possibilities Other Guidance Statements

40 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards40 SBVR Representations (for Meanings)

41 TII Full Version Natural language definitions and other statements can be understood in terms of formal logic

42 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards42 Business Rule It is obligatory that the drop-off date of a rental precedes the expiration date on the driver's license of the customer responsible for the rental. It is obligatory that precedes the drop-off date of a rental the expiration date on the driver's license of the customer responsible for

43 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards43 Simple Quantification It is necessary that each rental car has exactly one vehicle identification number. Necessity Claim Universal Quantification Variable (rental car) Exactly-One Quantification Variable (vehicle identification number) Atomic Formulation (rental car has vehicle identification number) * Logic Variable, not program variable Binding

44 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards44 Implication If the drop-off location of a rental is not the return branch of the rental then it is obligatory that the rental incurs a location penalty charge. Obligation Claim Universal Quantification Variable (rental) Universal Quantification Variable (location) Atomic Formulation (rental has drop-off location) Implication Variable (location penalty charge) Conjunction Logical Negation Atomic Formulation (rental has return branch) Existential Quantification Atomic Formulation (rental incurs location penalty charge)

45 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards45 Aggregation It is obligatory that the average of ages of rental cars owned by each local area is less than 5 years. Obligation Claim Universal Quantification Variable (duration) Universal Quantification Variable (multiset) Atomic Formulation (multiset has average) Conjunction Atomic Formulation (local area owns rental car) Universal Quantification Atomic Formulation (duration is less than duration) Variable (local area) Conjunction Individual Concept (5) Atomic Formulation (number of years involves number) Variable (duration) Atomic Formulation (rental car has age) Projection Aggregation Formulation Auxiliary Variable (rental car) Conjunction Existential Quantification ConjunctionVariable (number of years)

46 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards46 Proposition Nominalization It is obligatory that each new customer is told by an agent that the New Customer Discount is available to the customer. Variable (new customer) Obligation Claim Universal Quantification Variable (proposition) Existential Quantification Variable (agent) Atomic Formulation (person tells person proposition) Atomic Formulation (special offer is available to customer) Existential Quantification Proposition Nominalization Conjunction Individual Concept (New Customer Discount)

47 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards47 Answer Nominalization It is obligatory that each new customer is told by an agent what special offer is available to the customer. Variable (new customer) Obligation Claim Universal Quantification Variable (fact) Existential Quantification Variable (agent) Atomic Formulation (person tells person proposition) Atomic Formulation (special offer is available to customer) Existential Quantification Variable (special offer) Projection Answer Nominalization Conjunction

48 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards48 Objectification It is obligatory that each rental car is tested before the car is purchased. Obligation Claim Universal Quantification Variable (actuality) Existential Quantification Variable (actuality) Atomic Formulation (vehicle is purchased) Atomic Formulation (actuality occurs before actuality) Existential Quantification Variable (rental car) Objectification Implication Objectification Atomic Formulation (vehicle is tested) Conjunction

49 TII Full Version Formal interpretation of characteristics and intensions can determine whether two definitions are of the same concept or different concepts

50 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards50 Characteristics characteristic (as adopted by SBVR from ISO & 704) abstraction of a property of an object [ thing ] or of a set of objects Characteristics serves as qualifiers: –(concept whose designation is a) word group that limits or modifies the meaning of another (concept designated by a) word (as a noun) or word group (as a noun phrase) [qualifier – Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary b.]; e.g.: being red having length made of wood is female maintains cars –Designations of characteristics play the same role in grammar that adjectives play –Characteristics narrow the meaning of more general concepts In SBVR characteristics are: –defined as synonymous with unary fact types, and –distinguished from unary verb concepts (state of affairs types) and unary fact types by using thing as the noun concept that plays the role in the unary verb concept; e.g. thing being red; thing made of wood; thing is female; thing maintains cars

51 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards51 Intensions & Semantic Equivalence of Concepts The set of essential characteristics for a concept is: –the set of necessary and sufficient characteristics that determines the things that are in the extension of, are instances of, the concept –is the combination of: the delimiting characteristics in the intensional definition of the concept, all the delimiting characteristics of each of the more general concepts to the top of the inheritance tree, and a characteristic for the more general concept if it is not thing Two concepts are same or different based on whether or not they: –do or do not have semantically equivalent sets of essential characteristics Concepts dont change – they are just different concepts –Connection of a term to a concept can change over time (usually gradually)

52 TII Full Version Multidimensional classification

53 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards53 Categorization Schemes (Dimensions)

54 TII Full Version Roles and facets (perspectives, aspects) of general concepts treated explicitly and formally

55 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards55 Noun Concepts – Examples Fundamental: –car (adopted) Category of some more general concept: –rental car is a category of car, with delimiting characteristics (unary verb concepts): is owned (by a EU-Rent local area) is rented (is used for rental by EU-Rent) Role in verb concept: –rental car has roles rented car and replacement car in rented car is replaced by replacement car during rental Facet (aspect): –customer [ Car Rentals ]: customer who rents cars –customer [ Vehicle Sales ]: customer who buys a rental car at the end of its rental life

56 TII Full Version Defined reference schemes for general concepts to connect them with the names of the individual concepts associated with them

57 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards57 Reference Scheme Needed for all general concepts whose instances need to be identified by the business Example: rental car Definition:car that is owned by EU-Rent and is used for rentals Reference Scheme:VIN car model Definition:Type of car supplied by a manufacturer with a standard specification that includes body style, engine size, and fuel type(s). Note:EU-Rent bases its model names on those assigned by the car manufacturers, but sometimes has to extend them to distinguish models, for example with/without air conditioning. Reference Scheme:manufacturer code, model id

58 TII Full Version Concept relations enriched with definitions, concept roles, & generic relations to create verb concepts (subject-verb-object plus, sometimes, preposition-object) that are interpretable in formal logic

59 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards59 Verb Concepts – Examples Verb concepts –Unary (characteristic): rental is open 1 placeholder, filled by rental –Binary: rental car is assigned to rental two placeholders, filled by rental car and rental –N-ary: replacement car replaces rented car during rental three placeholders representing roles, filled by rental car, rental car and rental Can objectify a verb concept and use it as a noun concept: –replacement car replaces rented car during rental can be objectified as car exchange plus: car exchange provides replacement car car exchange replaces rental car car exchange occurs during rental

60 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards60 Definitions in SBVR Structured English object type (general concept) concept meaning proposition question individual concept characteristic (unary fact type) noun concept fact type role fact fact type (verb concept) binary fact type role fact type with arity > 2 Main focus for this section

61 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards61 Multiple Verb Concept Forms for One Verb Concept (Discrete Meaning) One Verb Concept (e.g. Associative Verb Concept) –E.g. Open tickets have expiry dates can be put together in many forms: –Sentential Forms open ticket expires on date(semantics in verb) open ticket has expiry date(semantics in role name) –Noun Forms open ticket expiring on date open ticket having expiry date –Multiple orderings Sentential Form open ticket expires on date (active) date is expiration of open ticket (passive) Noun Form expiry date of open ticket open ticket having expiry date

62 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards62 Verb concept vocabulary entry fact type form Synonymous Form: may be more than one implied for simple passive forms Definition:may be formal or informal Necessity:definitional constraint Possibility:definitional comment Note: Example: May require role definitions role name Concept Type:role Definition: that … See SBVR specification Annex C

63 TII Full Version Characteristics can be expressed as definitional /structural rules

64 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards64 Propositional Content + Performative Propositional Content: –a mental picture of a possible state of the world that is expressed in some communication (for example, expressible by arranging certain words: car at location) –is INDEPENDENT of how you use it! Statement: aircraft at airport – The aircraft is at the airport. Command: aircraft at airport – Let the aircraft be at the airport ! Question: aircraft at airport – Is the aircraft at the airport ? Stipulation: aircraft at airport – The aircraft must be at the airport. Example SBVR Propositional Content: –customer wants class of travel SBVR supports these kinds of Performatives –Assertion (Statement) (It is taken to be true that) customer wants class of travel NOTE: The it is taken to be true that is implied from the formal logic grounding of SBVR –Stipulation (Rule) It is obligatory that customer wants class of travel if the customer makes a reservation –Question What class of travel the customer wants ? … from within the rule: –An agent must ask each new customer what class of travel the customer wants.

65 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards65 Definitional Business Rules Is (surprisingly) small part of the OMGs SBVR Specification – about 13% Reuses Business Vocabulary features of SBVR – the bulk of the specification Definitional (Structural) Business Rules (use alethic logic operators) –Specify what the organization takes things to be –Cannot be broken (are true by definition) It is necessary that … –e.g. local area is in exactly one operating country It is possible that … (and its negation, It is impossible that …) –Optional – not required to create SBVR Vocabularies (aka terminologies) –About what the concepts mean: Characteristics of noun concepts Constraints on verb concepts Operative (Behavioural) Business Rules (use deontic logic operators) –Govern what the organization does – what actions it takes It is obligatory that … –e.g. Each rental car that is assigned to a rental must be at the pick-up branch of the rental. It is permitted that … (and its negation, It is forbidden that …) –Intended for people: Actionable, but not necessarily automatable Can be broken; i.e. violated by people, so need an enforcement regime Each definitional business rule is another form of the same meaning as that of a characteristic Every definitional business rule must be demonstrably implied by (a logical consequence of) the definitions of the concepts in its body of shared meanings Characteristics are required for intensional definitions; Definitional business rules are optional in SBVR (They are not part of SBVR as an ontology)

66 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards66 Examples of Characteristics = Definitional Business Rules Characteristic, e.g. rental organization unit maintains cars In intensional definition: service depot Definition:rental organization unit that maintains cars As Necessity: service depot General Concept:rental organization unit Necessity:Each service depot maintains cars As Definitional Rule: service depot General Concept:rental organization unit It is necessary that each service depot maintains cars

67 TII Full Version Formal specification of behavioral guidance in terms of the terminology

68 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards68 Operative Business Rules Is (surprisingly) small part of the OMGs SBVR Specification – about 13% Reuses Business Vocabulary features of SBVR – the bulk of the specification Definitional (Structural) Business Rules (use alethic logic operators) –Specify what the organization takes things to be –Cannot be broken (are true by definition) It is necessary that … –e.g. local area is in exactly one operating country It is possible that … (and its negation, It is impossible that …) –Optional – not required to create SBVR Vocabularies (aka terminologies) –About what the concepts mean: Characteristics of noun concepts Constraints on verb concepts Operative (Behavioural) Business Rules (use deontic logic operators) –Govern what the organization does – what actions it takes It is obligatory that … –e.g. Each rental car that is assigned to an assigned rental is at the pick-up branch of the rental. It is permitted that … (and its negation, It is forbidden that …) –Intended for people: Actionable, but not necessarily automatable Can be broken; i.e. violated by people, so need an enforcement regime

69 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards69 Verb Concepts (Fact Types) Associate Concepts to define Verb Concepts Semantic Formulations – Foundation Constructs SBVR realizes the Business Rules Mantra: Noun Concepts Define Noun Concepts Vocabulary Develop Vocabularies and Rules Sets to represent them (starting with terms for the concepts) … to describe the business language of the activities of organizations Rules are built on Facts. Facts are built on Terms. … in a way that is easily understandable by business people Base Business Definitions & Rules on Verb Concepts Definitions & Rules

70 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards70 Defining a Business Rule Underlying verb concept (in SBVRs Vocabulary for Business Rules): element of guidance is based on verb concept We know that (also in SBVRs Vocabulary for Business Rules): element of guidance introduces an obligation or necessity business rule is a category of element of guidance So, in the SBVR Business Vocabulary+Rules for a specific business (e.g. EU- Rent) Start with a verb concept, e.g. rental is guaranteed by credit card Apply an obligation or necessity to it, e.g. it is obligatory that each rental is guaranteed by a credit card. Then,add qualifications, quantifications and conditions, if necessary e.g. it is obligatory that each rental is guaranteed by a credit card that is held by the renter who is responsible for the rental.

71 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards71 Enforcement Operative business rules can be broken, and need to be enforced. This requires a regime: –To detect violations –To take remedial action, if required –To impose penalties, if required Enforcement action is outside SBVRs scope. It will be resolved in integration with other OMG business modelling specifications SBVR does include enforcement level – how strictly the rule will be enforced. This is quite independent of what the enforcement action is. Examples are: –Strictly enforced: no escape from the consequences –Pre-authorized exceptions permitted –Consequences if exceptions are not logged and justified

72 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards72 Enforcement Level Applicable only to behavioural business rules, which can be violated by people in the business The enforcement level is independent of the rule Enforcement levels in EU-Rent (in the SBVR specification):: strict: if the rule is violated, the sanction or other consequences always ensue. deferred: strictly enforced, but enforcement may be delayed e.g., waiting for resource with required skills. pre-authorized: enforced, but exceptions allowed, with prior approval for actors with before-the-fact override authorization. post-justified: if not approved after the fact, the sanction or other consequences will ensue. override: comment must be provided when the violation occurs. guideline: suggested, but not enforced.

73 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards73 Guidance statement vocabulary entry Guidance Statement Name:Often used as a reference scheme for elements of guidance Guidance Type:operative business rule, structural business rule, advice of permission, possibility, optionality or contingency Enforcement Level:Used only for behavioural business rules Description: Source: Synonymous Statement: Note: Example: See SBVR specification Annex C

74 TII Full Version SBVR Touch Points with ISO TC 37 Standards OMG, ISO, W3C and OASIS

75 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards75 Touch Points with ISO TC 37/SC 1 Terminology with added Knowledge Richness features –SC 1/WG 3 ISO 704 Terminology work Principles and methods –Foundation for SBVR ISO Terminology work Vocabulary Part 1: Theory and application –Foundation for SBVR –SC 1/WG 2 ISO 860 Terminology work – Harmonization of concepts and terms –Terminology harmonization and content/semantic integration –SC 1/WG 5 TR Guidelines for applying concept modelling in terminology SBVR Annex H Use of UML Notation in a Business Context to Represent SBVR-Style Vocabularies (informative) –SBVR multidimensional classification

76 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards76 Touch Points with ISO TC 37/SC 2 … none

77 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards77 Touch Points with ISO TC 37/SC 3 Terminology with added Knowledge Richness features –SC 3/WG 2 ISO Terminology work Vocabulary Part 2: Computer applications –Supplements SBVR –SC 3/WG 3 ISO/DIS Terminology and other language and content resources Specification of data categories and management of a Data Category Registry for language resources –Supplements SBVR ISO/DIS Term-Base eXchange (TBX) format specification –SBVR terminology interchange format (SBVR Clause 13 + Clause 15 accompanying files) –SC 3/WG 4 ISO/CD Computer applications in terminology Design, implementation and maintenance of Terminology Management Systems –SBVR terminology interchange format (SBVR Clause 13 + Clause 15 accompanying files) ISO 16642:2003 Computer applications in terminology -- Terminological markup framework –SBVR terminology interchange format (SBVR Clause 13 + Clause 15 accompanying files) –SC 3/TAG Preliminary Work Item (PWI) Localization aspects for object data modelling –SBVR Annex H Use of UML Notation in a Business Context to Represent SBVR-Style Vocabularies (informative)

78 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards78 Touch Points with ISO TC 37/SC 4 Language Analysis/Annotation –SC 4/WG 2 NP Semantic Annotation Framework – Part 2: Dialogue acts –SBVR performative + proposition structure –SC 4/TDG 6 Multilingual ontology data categories –SBVR as a terminological ontology

79 TII Full Version Further Development of SBVR

80 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards80 Where might SBVR be Going in the Future? First SBVR RTF (March 2009) –primary objective: finish mapping to ISO Common Logic and OWL ISO TC 37 adoption process for SBVR (has begun) Other harmonization / transform definition activities to be undertaken: –Terminology Science vs. Information Science (modeling, metadata and data) –TC 37 terminology standards + SBVR to ISO Metadata Registry standard –ISO TC 215 WG 3 – Healthcare Semantics Generic Vocabularies –Date & Time (in progress), Weights & Measures, Geographic, Math Vertical Industry Vocabularies by OMG Domain Task Forces Standard Notation(s) for SBVR RFP (being discussed) Terminology Content Availability in Online Databases & Registries (possibilities only) –ISO Standards as Databases – Terminology online and free –Euro Term Bank –Terminology/Vocabulary Services for Vocabulary Adoption

81 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards81 SBVR: Context, Content and Logical Formality Business Community with sub-communities that may use different natural languages and specialized vocabularies Community Concepts, Facts & Rules (Unique, Discrete Meaning) Business Meaning Expression of Forms of Concepts, Facts & Rules in a Business Language Business Expression Semantic Formulations + Formal Logic Grounding Formal Logic defines uses formulated as expressed as underpins Context Formal Interpretation Content Business Vocabulary: Clause 8, 11 Business Rules: Clause 12 Clause 10 Clause 9 Clause 11 Structure of Meaning Forms of Concepts, Facts & Rules (different ways of saying the same thing) Forms of Meaning Expression in Languages Clause numbers are those in the SBVR Specification – see SBVR Resources slide at end External to SBVR: linguistics, ISO TC 37/SC 4 Linguistic Representation standards, and defacto industry standards Linguistic Annotation Frameworks New SBVR Notation OMG RFP

82 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards82 Principles in Linguistic Annotation Frameworks were Design Targets for SBVR Semantic Formulations Linguistic Annotation Framework (i.e. natural language grammar structure metamodel) Resources –The discipline of Linguistics MIT book on linguistic engines –http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=_cv4i6heNmwC&dq=linguistic+analysis+engine&source=gbs_summary_s&cad =0 –ISO TC 37/SC 4 Linguistic Representation standards –http://www.tc37sc4.org/what_.php –Defacto industry standard - Xerox PARC Lab linguistic technology LinguistX engine from Business Objects –http://www.businessobjects.com/product/catalog/linguistx/ Xelda from TEMIS –http://www.temis.com/index.php?id=124&selt=1 –Other Commercial Linguistic Engines IBM LanguageWare Linguistic Engine –http://www-306.ibm.com/software/globalization/topics/languageware/index.jsp –Open Source Linguistic Engines NooJ Linguistic Development Environment –http:// /site/pages/nooj.html; SIL Linguistic Freeware –http://www.sil.org/computing/catalog/ –Additional References to Lingusitic Engines Linguistic Annotation (http://www.ldc.upenn.edu/annotation/) LIRICS: Linguistic Infrastructure for Interoperable Resources and Systems (http://lirics.loria.fr/)

83 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards83 SBVR Notation to be Standardized A draft OMG Request for Proposal for SBVR Notations will be considered at the OMGs June Technical Meeting Focus will be on mapping to standard metamodels for cross-natural Linguistic Annotation Frameworks (i.e. natural language grammar structure metamodels -- see slide 14 for examples) –NOT a new artificial language – a selected subset of natural language grammar structures & associated words RFP may require: –A mapping of SBVR Semantic Formulations to one for more Linguistic Annotation Frameworks –How to specify, based on cross-natural language Linguistic Annotation Framework, the subset for a given natural language that will constitute the SBVR natural language notation for that language The specified subset of one or more natural language that is the standard SBVR notation for that language –In particular, a standard English language SBVR notation –How to specify an SBVR notation that is not a natural language in a ways that demonstrates compliance with SBVR semantics One or more standard SBVR graphic notations

84 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards84 OMG SBVR-related activity Business Motivation Model: –Accepted September 2005 for consideration as existing standard to be adopted –Accepted December 2007 for publication as an OMG Specification Completion of related OMG specifications: BPDM, OSM, PRR: Alignment across OMG business-oriented specs: –Interfaces –Common vocabulary –Business Architecture emerges Transforms to MDA CIM and PIM Submission of RFP responses using SVBR? (Has been done in one submission for OSM) Interest from Regulatory Compliance DSIG

85 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards85 Reusing Business Vocabulary Take SBVR specification, excluding Business Vocabulary for Business Rules Use it to define vocabularies for other aspects of business modelling, e.g. –Business Vocabulary for Business Process –Business Vocabulary for Organization Structure (already done in on OMS RFP submission) These are examples of SBVRs self-extensibility Then will have consistency for vocabulary definition – and for MOF/XMI-compliant interchange When creating a business model for a specific business, use the same vocabulary for all aspects

86 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards86 World Wide Web Consortium See rules as a major part of Semantic Web and Web services Has established Rule Interchange Format (RIF) Working Group –http://www.w3.org/2005/rules/wg –Chartered in November 2005 for 2 years; extended by 6 months –Version 1 publication scheduled for June 2008 –SBVR is one of the major inputs: ongoing liaison with OMG (also for ODM and PRR)

87 TII Full Version Applications of SBVR Already in Progress

88 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards88 Business Uses of SBVR Already in Progress Risk, Governance, and Compliance Globalization/Localization and Translation Communication and Documentation –SBVR Document Authoring Word Add-in specifications negotiated with natural language process vendor Document and Content Index Creation –Proof of concept generation of document (back of the book) indexes from an SBVR Vocabulary in a multinational pharmaceutical company Training –Use to structure the knowledge taught in IT training programme of Loyalis (The Netherlands) in a way that is integrated across courses Business Language–centered Requirements for Information Systems –Product Discount Management project for a multinational pharmaceutical company – saved the company £100 million to date –Commercial use: PNA Group CogNIAM Studio; Rule Arts RuleXpress

89 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards89 IT Uses of SBVR Already in Progress Document Browse and Search and Text Analytics –Proof of concept Document Browse and Search based on document (back of the book) indexes generated from an SBVR Vocabulary at multinational pharmaceutical company Business Intelligence and Data Analytics –A Blue Cross / Blue Shield company Data Architecture, Management and Quality –PNA Group CogNIAM Studio Message-Based Middleware Architecture –Initial discussions on using SBVR to add semantics to ISO Universal Financial Industry Message Scheme via using SBVR to support ISO Advanced Intelligence Capabilities –EU Framework 7 project in final stages of negotiation Rule-based Application Software Development, Generation and Configuration –Rules engine vendor creating an SBVR front end to their rules-based application development tool Software Localization Reverse Engineering Software to Business Requirements –Business Vocabulary / Rules Specialist software assistance from reverse engineering from software to SBVR business ontologies and rules (Unisys, KDM Analytics, and others) Software Assurance –Software Assurance policies in SBVR. Software faults defined in SBVR for outsource contracts (US Department of Defense, KDM Analytics)

90 TII Full Version Emergence of Tool Support of SBVR

91 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards91 Emerging SBVR Tools DANTERMcentret i-Term Suite -- available now for sale (http://www.i-term.dk/) –Strong support for ISO 704 and on top of which the vocabulary part of SBVR is built; includes: Subject field Full coverage for noun concepts Partial coverage for verb concepts (concept relations) Multilingual capability –Special feature – ability to graphically show more general concepts and delimiting characteristics, the components of intensional definitions. PNA Group CogNIAM Studio -- available now for sale (www.pna-generics.nl) Strong support for fact modeling and definitional business rules, plus some transforms to application generation Rule Arts RuleXpress -- available now for sale (http://www.rulearts.com/) Strong support for business rule analysis and statement, as well as the vocabularies needed to support rule statements

92 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards92 Emerging SBVR Tools Neumont University NORMA -- open source tool available now (https://sourceforge.net/projects/orm) Strong support for fact modeling and definitional business rules MDT-SBVR Eclipse Project -- open source tool, first release available June 2009 (http://wiki.eclipse.org/MDT-SBVR) Open source component of the Model Development Tools (MDT) subproject to provide a metamodel implementation and sample tools based on the SBVR specification

93 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards93 Emerging SBVR Tools KnowGravity KnowEnterprise/Business -- available now for evaluation, subject to negotiation with KnowGravity (http://www.knowgravity.com/pdf-e/KnowEnterprise-BU%20E.pdf) … Built on the Artisan UML platform. Supports SBVR but not Structured English. Has integrated repository for BMM, SBVR, BPMN, UML and SYSML. Business Semantics Ltd SmartGlossary -- available now, only as part of a consulting engagement (www.BusinessSemantics.com) Strong support for semantic communities, speech communities (multilingual) & expression disambiguation context with simple forms/tables user interface Unisys Rules Modeler Microsoft -- commercial tool under development (probable ship - end 2009) –the demonstration software supporting OMGs adoption of SBVR –software and technology bought by Microsoft in March Several teams members employed by Microsoft –most likely incorporated into a Textual Modeling Language (codenamed D) which is a declarative programming language utilizing a LISP enabled editor (http://blogs.zdnet.com/microsoft/?p=1159) –part of the OLSO set of technical investments of Microsofts Connected Systems Division (http://www.microsoft.com/soa/products/oslo.aspx)

94 TII Full Version SBVR Methods / Best Practice

95 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards95 SBVR Methods / Best Practice Vocabulary/Terminology Content –ISO 704 Concept System Design (How to create definitions) –Pavel Terminology Tutorial (http://www.termiumplus.gc.ca/didacticiel_tutorial/english/lesson1/index_e.html) –Object Role Model (ORM) Methodology (includes structural rules) Halpin, Terry A. Information Modeling and Relational Databases. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann, –SBVR Case Study (SBVR Annex E) –Various SBVR tutorials Policy & Rules Content –SBVR Structured English (SBVR Annex C & D) –Informal SBVR UML Profile (SBVR Annex H) –RuleSpeak Notation (SBVR Annex F) and Methodology (commercial) –ORM Notation (SBVR Annex I) and Methodology (see book above) –CogNIAM Notation and Methodology (see Annex L) –Various rule discovery and documentation methodologies NOTE: Vocabulary/Terminology & Rules Management out of scope for SBVR

96 TII Full Version SBVR Resources

97 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards97 Reading Guide for SBVR 1.An article, SBVR: What is Now Possible and Why? describing the essence of SBVR and its business and IT uses that generate business value. (http://www.BRCommunity.com/a2008/b407.html) 2.Annex A: Overview of the Approach (http://www.omg.org/docs/formal/ pdf) 3.How SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards (see for full version of this presentation) 4.SBVR Tutorial (Metadata Open Forum 2009) (see 5.Annex E: EU Rent Example case study – ( ) (browse for a feel for an SBVR model rather than detailed understanding of entries). 6.Annex C: SBVR Structured English & Annex D: SBVR Structured English Patterns for reading SBVR Structured English in Annex E and Clauses Annex H: Use of UML Notation in a Business Context to Represent SBVR-Style Vocabularies for interpreting diagrams in Annex E and Clauses Clauses 8 & 11 SBVR Vocabulary (formal terminology, terminological ontology) 9.Clause 12: SBVR Guidance (Policy/Rules) 10.Clause 10: Providing Semantic and Logical Foundations for Business Vocabulary and Rules (especially Clause 10.2 which relates SBVR to ISO Common Logic and OWL) 11.Clause 9: Semantic Formulations (for specifying notations, especially restricted natural languages, for definitions and guidance statements for interpretation in formal logic). 12.Clause 13: SBVRs Use of MOF and XMI (SBVR XMI & XSD Interchange Files)

98 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards98 References 1.Comparison of Many Aspects of Terminology, Semantic Metadata, Data Models & Data Chart 2.OMGs The MDA Foundation Model 3.MDA Foundational Model applied to both the Organization and Business Application Software Diagram v Business Architecture as the Application of the MDA Foundation Model to Organizations Presentation to Open Group Business Architecture Working Group, Glasgow, April 23, The Deep Structure of Business Processes, Jan L.G. Dietz 6.Approximate Traceability from Terminology/SBVR to Data Models Chart

99 © Model Systems / Business SemanticsHow SBVR adds Knowledge Richness to ISO TC 37 Terminology Standards99 SBVR Resources Semantics of Business Vocabulary & Business Rules Specification –http://www.omg.org/cgi-bin/doc?formal/ pdf Semantics of Business Vocabulary & Business Rules Tutorial –http://www.BusinessSemantics.com/SBVR_Tutorial.pdf Semantics of Business Vocabulary & Business Rules Overview (Annex A) –http://www.omg.org/cgi-bin/doc?formal/ pdf Semantics of Business Vocabulary & Business Rules EU Rent Example (Annex E) –http://www.omg.org/cgi-bin/doc?formal/ pdf SBVR Foundation –www.sbvrfoundation.eu

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