Presentation on theme: "Mass Media and the Jazz Age"— Presentation transcript:
1Mass Media and the Jazz Age In the 1920s, the mass media provided information and entertainment as never before.
2Beginnings of Hollywood in the 1920s Hollywood’s Mulholland Drive is shown in this 1924 photo. The now-famous sign in the hills was erected to promote a real-estate development. Filmmakers were attracted to the quiet town because they were attracted to the large workforce located in nearby Los Angeles; by the variety of landscapes, from desert to snowy mountains; and by the sun they needed to light their films.
4Mass Media is print, film, and broadcast methods of communicating information to large numbers of peopleBefore the 1920s, the U.S. had been largely a collection of regional cultures.Most Americans simply did not know much about the rest of the country, talk with people in other regions, or even read the same news as other Americans!Films, nationwide news gathering, and the new industry of radio broadcasting produced the beginnings of a national cultureAmericans began to share the same information, read about the same events, and encounter the same ideas and fashionsFew American women dressed in the flapper style or smoked and drank in public until the growth of mass media
5FlapperIn the 1920s, the word "flapper" described a young woman who rebelled against convention. Like jazz music, the gangster, and the speakeasy, the rebellious and fun-loving flapper was a product of 1920s urban America. Most American women were not flappers, but the flapper's shocking behavior set a tone that helped many women explore Jazz Age freedoms without fear." ~ Chicago Historical Society
6Movies Motion pictures introduced in the 1890s By 1929, movie making became the 4th largest business in the countryTheaters sold roughly 80 million tickets each week when the total population was roughly 125 million- roughly 2/3 of the population attended the theater each week!First sound film, The Jazz Singer, was released in included speech, singing, music, and sound effects.Referred to as “talkies”
9NewspapersDuring the 1920s, newspapers increased both in size and in circulation.Profits, not quality, drove most of the new newspaper chains that emerged and many, especially in the cities, published tabloids.Tabloid- a compact newspaper that relies on large headlines, few words, and many pictures to tell a story.The tabloids of the 1920s replaced serious news with entertainment that focused on fashion, sports, and sensational stories about crimes and scandals
10Magazines Also rose in sales during the 1920s Provided a variety of information in a form that most people could easily digest.Advertisers often ran full page ads to promote their productsFavorites included:Saturday Evening PostReader’s DigestLadies’ Home JournalTime
13Radio Barely existed before the 1920s 1920- Frank Conrad, an engineer with the Westinghouse Electric Company, set up a radio transmitter in his garage in PittsburghBegan sending recorded music and baseball scores over the radioBecame the first commercial radio station- KDKABy 1922, more than 500 stations were on the airTo reach more people, networks such as the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) linked many individual stations together and each network played the same programming
17Jazz ArrivesGrew out of the African American music of the South, especially ragtime and bluesJazz-features improvisation, a process by which musicians make up music as they are playing it rather than relying completely on printed scoresSyncopation- a type of off-beat rhythmSome Americans horrified by jazz- too suggestive of the free manners and morals of the ageEventually embraced by people of all walks of life
18Jazz Clubs and Dance Halls One of the most popular places was Harlem, a district on the northern end of the island of ManhattanNearly all the great jazz musicians played in the Harlem clubs at one time or anotherNational fad- the CharlestonEmbodied the Jazz Age- wild and reckless, full of kicks and twists and pivotsCould be danced with a partner, in a group, or alone
20Benny Goodman “King of Swing” His “big band” helped make jazz popular with white audiencesHis 1936 quartet, which included African American musicians Lionel Hampton and Teddy Wilson, was the first popular racially mixed jazz group.
23Louis ArmstrongWowed audiences with his brilliantly improvised trumpet solosNicknamed “Satchmo” for SatchelmouthBecause of Armstrong, long solos became key elements of jazz ensemble performancesAlso improvised with his voice, replacing words with nonsense syllables in a style known as “scat” singing
26Edward Kennedy Ellington- “Duke” Ellington Arranger, composer, and bandleader whose works are played widely to this dayIn 1923, Ellington and several other musicians moved to NYC and formed a band. This band, under various names and in one form or another, continued to play with Ellington until his death at age 75Wrote at least a thousand pieces in his long career
28George Gershwin Composer Mixed jazz elements into more familiar sounding musicMost famous for Rhapsody in Blue
29Gershwin- Rhapsody in Blue Basic form of this rhapsody came to Gershwin in a sudden rush of insight while riding a train“I heard it as a sort of musical kaleidoscope of America– of our vast melting pot, of our unduplicated national pep, of our blues, our metropolitan madness”
31PaintingArtists like Edward Hopper and Rockwell Kint Showed the nation's rougher side, from cities to coal mines, from the streets to the barroomsGeorgia O’Keeffe painted natural objects such as flowers, animal bones, and landscapes
32Rockwell Kent Workers of the World Unite, 1937 Wood engraving While most famously a landscape painter and printmaker, Kent was also a political activist. Kent created prints for politically charged magazines and contributed illustrations for American literary classics including Moby Dick.
34Georgia O’KeeffeRam's Head White Hollyhock and Little Hills, 1935
35LiteratureSinclair Lewis- attacked American society with savage irony and became the first American to receive the Nobel prize for literatureEugene O’Neill- playwright who wove dark, poetic tragedies out of the material of everyday American life
36Literature- The Lost Generation American society in the 1920s troubled one group of important writers who rejected the quest for material possessions that seemed to occupy so many Americans. They scorned American popular culture as artless and uninspiredThey were so repelled by postwar society that they left the U.S. for Europe and found it more intellectually stimulating.Included writers such as Sherwood Anderson, E.E. Cummings, Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and Gertrude Stein.
37F. Scott FitzgeraldSome people believe he helped create the flapper culture with his novel This Side of ParadiseThe Great Gatsby focused on the wealthy, sophisticated Americans of the Jazz Age whom he found to be self-centered and shallow.
38The Harlem Renaissance African American Literary Awakening
39James Weldon Johnson Executive secretary of the NAACP Leading writer of the Harlem groupHis most famous work, God’s Trombones, is a collection of sermons in rhythmic verse modeled after the style of traditional black preaching
40Dorothy WestTackled the dual themes of being black and being a woman
41Langston HughesPoet, short story writer, journalist, and playwright whose career stretched into the 1960sSpoke about the joys and difficulties of being human, being American, and being black
42“I, Too” – Langston Hughes I, too, sing America. I am the darker brother. They send me to eat in the kitchen When company comes, But I laugh, And eat well, And grow strong. Tomorrow, I'll be at the table When company comes. Nobody'll dare Say to me, "Eat in the kitchen," Then. Besides, They'll see how beautiful I am And be ashamed-- I, too, am America.
431. William Randolph Hearst Newspapers Louis Armstrong Mass media How related?
441. HollywoodNewspapers were one type of mass media, and William Randolph Hearst was a publisher