Presentation on theme: "MASS MEDIA AND THE JAZZ AGE In the 1920s, the mass media provided information and entertainment as never before."— Presentation transcript:
MASS MEDIA AND THE JAZZ AGE In the 1920s, the mass media provided information and entertainment as never before.
Beginnings of Hollywood in the 1920s
Whats that? The Mass Media
Mass Media is print, film, and broadcast methods of communicating information to large numbers of people Before the 1920s, the U.S. had been largely a collection of regional cultures. Most Americans simply did not know much about the rest of the country, talk with people in other regions, or even read the same news as other Americans! Films, nationwide news gathering, and the new industry of radio broadcasting produced the beginnings of a national culture Americans began to share the same information, read about the same events, and encounter the same ideas and fashions Few American women dressed in the flapper style or smoked and drank in public until the growth of mass media
Flapper In the 1920s, the word "flapper" described a young woman who rebelled against convention. Like jazz music, the gangster, and the speakeasy, the rebellious and fun-loving flapper was a product of 1920s urban America. Most American women were not flappers, but the flapper's shocking behavior set a tone that helped many women explore Jazz Age freedoms without fear." ~ Chicago Historical Society
Movies Motion pictures introduced in the 1890s By 1929, movie making became the 4 th largest business in the country Theaters sold roughly 80 million tickets each week when the total population was roughly 125 million- roughly 2/3 of the population attended the theater each week! First sound film, The Jazz Singer, was released in included speech, singing, music, and sound effects. Referred to as talkies
Silent Film Star
Silent Film and Talkie Star
Newspapers During the 1920s, newspapers increased both in size and in circulation. Profits, not quality, drove most of the new newspaper chains that emerged and many, especially in the cities, published tabloids. Tabloid- a compact newspaper that relies on large headlines, few words, and many pictures to tell a story. The tabloids of the 1920s replaced serious news with entertainment that focused on fashion, sports, and sensational stories about crimes and scandals
Magazines Also rose in sales during the 1920s Provided a variety of information in a form that most people could easily digest. Advertisers often ran full page ads to promote their products Favorites included: Saturday Evening Post Readers Digest Ladies Home Journal Time
Radio Barely existed before the 1920s Frank Conrad, an engineer with the Westinghouse Electric Company, set up a radio transmitter in his garage in Pittsburgh Began sending recorded music and baseball scores over the radio Became the first commercial radio station- KDKA By 1922, more than 500 stations were on the air To reach more people, networks such as the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) linked many individual stations together and each network played the same programming
THE JAZZ AGE The Explosion of African American Culture
Jazz Arrives Grew out of the African American music of the South, especially ragtime and blues Jazz- features improvisation, a process by which musicians make up music as they are playing it rather than relying completely on printed scores Syncopation- a type of off-beat rhythm Some Americans horrified by jazz- too suggestive of the free manners and morals of the age Eventually embraced by people of all walks of life
Jazz Clubs and Dance Halls One of the most popular places was Harlem, a district on the northern end of the island of Manhattan Nearly all the great jazz musicians played in the Harlem clubs at one time or another National fad- the Charleston Embodied the Jazz Age- wild and reckless, full of kicks and twists and pivots Could be danced with a partner, in a group, or alone
Benny Goodman King of Swing His big band helped make jazz popular with white audiences His 1936 quartet, which included African American musicians Lionel Hampton and Teddy Wilson, was the first popular racially mixed jazz group.
Louis Armstrong Wowed audiences with his brilliantly improvised trumpet solos Nicknamed Satchmo for Satchelmouth Because of Armstrong, long solos became key elements of jazz ensemble performances Also improvised with his voice, replacing words with nonsense syllables in a style known as scat singing
Louis Armstrong- Jeepers Creepers
Hot Five Ensemble
Edward Kennedy Ellington- Duke Ellington Arranger, composer, and bandleader whose works are played widely to this day In 1923, Ellington and several other musicians moved to NYC and formed a band. This band, under various names and in one form or another, continued to play with Ellington until his death at age 75 Wrote at least a thousand pieces in his long career
Duke- Mood Indigo
George Gershwin Composer Mixed jazz elements into more familiar sounding music Most famous for Rhapsody in Blue
Gershwin- Rhapsody in Blue Basic form of this rhapsody came to Gershwin in a sudden rush of insight while riding a train I heard it as a sort of musical kaleidoscope of America– of our vast melting pot, of our unduplicated national pep, of our blues, our metropolitan madness
Painting and Literature Jazz
Painting Artists like Edward Hopper and Rockwell Kint Showed the nation's rougher side, from cities to coal mines, from the streets to the barrooms Georgia OKeeffe painted natural objects such as flowers, animal bones, and landscapes
Rockwell Kent Workers of the World Unite, 1937 Wood engraving While most famously a landscape painter and printmaker, Kent was also a political activist. Kent created prints for politically charged magazines and contributed illustrations for American literary classics including Moby Dick.
Edward Hopper Chop Suey, 1929 Oil on canvas
Georgia OKeeffe Ram's Head White Hollyhock and Little Hills, 1935
Literature Sinclair Lewis- attacked American society with savage irony and became the first American to receive the Nobel prize for literature Eugene ONeill- playwright who wove dark, poetic tragedies out of the material of everyday American life
Literature- The Lost Generation American society in the 1920s troubled one group of important writers who rejected the quest for material possessions that seemed to occupy so many Americans. They scorned American popular culture as artless and uninspired They were so repelled by postwar society that they left the U.S. for Europe and found it more intellectually stimulating. Included writers such as Sherwood Anderson, E.E. Cummings, Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and Gertrude Stein.
F. Scott Fitzgerald Some people believe he helped create the flapper culture with his novel This Side of Paradise The Great Gatsby focused on the wealthy, sophisticated Americans of the Jazz Age whom he found to be self-centered and shallow.
THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE African American Literary Awakening
James Weldon Johnson Executive secretary of the NAACP Leading writer of the Harlem group His most famous work, Gods Trombones, is a collection of sermons in rhythmic verse modeled after the style of traditional black preaching
Dorothy West Tackled the dual themes of being black and being a woman
Langston Hughes Poet, short story writer, journalist, and playwright whose career stretched into the 1960s Spoke about the joys and difficulties of being human, being American, and being black
I, Too – Langston Hughes I, too, sing America. I am the darker brother. They send me to eat in the kitchen When company comes, But I laugh, And eat well, And grow strong. Tomorrow, I'll be at the table When company comes. Nobody'll dare Say to me, "Eat in the kitchen," Then. Besides, They'll see how beautiful I am And be ashamed-- I, too, am America.
1. William Randolph Hearst Newspapers Louis Armstrong Mass media How related?
1. Hollywood Newspapers were one type of mass media, and William Randolph Hearst was a publisher
2. Jazz Harlem Hollywood Duke Ellington How Related?
Hollywood Duke Ellington was one of the many fine jazz musicians to play the clubs of Harlem in the 1920s
3. Rhapsody in Blue Sinclair Lewis Main Street Nobel Prize for Literature How Related?
Rhapsody in Blue Sinclair Lewis, author of the novel Main Street, won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1930
4. Lost Generation Gertrude Stein Ernest Hemingway George Gershwin How Related?
George Gershwin Ernest Hemingway was one of the group of expatriate writers known as the Lost Generation, a term coined by Gertrude Stein
5. NAACP Georgia OKeeffe Harlem Renaissance James Weldon Johnson How Related?
Georgia OKeeffe James Weldon Johnson, a leading writer during the Harlem Renaissance, was also executive secretary of the NAACP