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Welcome to the Intensive Behavioral Intervention Professional Certification Course Instructor: Lindsay Olsen, MA, BCBA

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Presentation on theme: "Welcome to the Intensive Behavioral Intervention Professional Certification Course Instructor: Lindsay Olsen, MA, BCBA"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Welcome to the Intensive Behavioral Intervention Professional Certification Course Instructor: Lindsay Olsen, MA, BCBA 1

3 3 Part Certification Process Level 1: IBI Course Present for each session, pass each standard quiz with minimum score of 80% and participate in activities, assignments and group work Level 2: State Exam Pass exam with minimum score of 80% Level 3: Student Project Complete project with minimum score of 85% 2

4 IBI STUDENT PROJECT 3

5 STANDARDS 1-4 Standard 1: Introduction to Developmental Disabilities Standard 2: Professionalism and Ethics Standard 3: Coordination of Family, School and Community Standard 4: Requirements for IBI 4

6 Group Activity Group Introductions Research and present on disability Include: What it is, symptoms, incidence, treatment, etiology, learning barriers Designate 1 person as group presenter 5

7 QUIZ Quizzes minutes to complete Send to: 6

8 Standard 5: Foundations of Applied Behavior Analysis 1) Define basic behavioral terms and concepts PWOP Chapter 2 and 9 2) Differential reinforcement PWOP chapters 6,7,8 3) Writing behavioral objectives 7

9 Standard 5 Explanations of Human Behavior 8 DisorderGenetic Hereditary +/- of substances in the body ENV influence Other factors Epilepsy some cases traced to single gene Imbalance of neuro transmitters Exposure to lead and carbon monoxide Infectious disease that affect blood supply Down SyndromeExcess of genetic material (47 chromosomes) MRGenetic and chromosomal abnormalities Metabolic disorders Toxic exposure and malnutrition AutismSuspect genesCompromised immune system Body unable to process Exposure to neuro toxins **3 tier insult

10 9

11 Standard 5: Biological Explanations 10

12 Behavioral Explanation 1 11 Antecedent Stimuli/events that occur just before behavior Behavior Observable response Consequence Stimuli/events that happen after behavior The Behavioral Explanation states that both adaptive and maladaptive behavior is learned and that learning results as a consequence of behavior. **Behavior that results in pleasing consequence more likely to be repeated **Behavior that results in unpleasing consequence is less likely to be repeated The Behavioral Theory makes three important assumptions: 1)3 part behavioral sequence 2)Behaviors/responses are result of antecedents 3)Changes to behaviors/responses can be done by manipulation of A/C

13 Behavioral Explanation 2 12 Antecedent Phone rings friend Behavior Push answer button and talk Consequence Pleasant conversation Antecedent Phone rings unknown 800# Behavior Push ignore button Consequence Avoid unpleasant conversation

14 Behavioral Explanation 3 13 Antecedent Teacher sitting across from you asking you questions Behavior Answering questions Sitting and engaging Raising hand Consequence Pleasant interaction, easy tasks Access to reinforcement Antecedent Teacher sitting across from you Behavior Avoidance- laying on floor Crying, tantrum Looking away Running away Consequence Unpleasant interaction, difficult tasks Removal of reinforcement

15 Behavioral Explanation 4 14 Antecedent Entering library for class Behavior Engaging rules Reading Laughing Making choices Consequence Access to reinforcement Antecedent Entering library for class Behavior Tantrum Screaming Head banging Locking doors Consequence Constant difficult demand Removal of reinforcement

16 Behavior Change Process 15 Antecedent 2) What are precursor events Behavior 1) What is the target behavior Consequence 3) What is the pay-off Antecedent Teacher request to sit at desk Behavior High pitched screaming (maladaptive) Consequence Removal of teacher and demand -Placed in time out area Antecedent Therapist request to use the restroom Behavior Enter bathroom and complete required tasks (adaptive) Consequence Internal relief and comfort, praise, sucker, high five

17 Terms and Concepts What is and is not behavior? 16 Raise hand Put away pencil Read Thinking Fall on floor Non-compliant Follow directions Off task Irritated Processing Scream Head down on desk Calm body Frustrated Deep breath

18 Terms and Concepts 17 CONSEQUENCE= Bad unpleasant bummer Hurtnot good loss Dreadfulunlikable terrible

19 Terms and Concepts 18 Behavior Behavior Positive Reinforcement

20 The Science of WANTING Primary AKA: Unconditioned R+ Becomes more valuable when…… Evokes Behaviors that have resulted in………. FoodDeprived of foodGetting food in the past (grocery store, asking, ordering, foraging) SleepDeprived of sleepSleeping in the past (laying down, getting into bed, crying) Increase of Painful Stimulus You are in pain- have a headacheRemoval of pain in the past (taking aspirin) Primary AKA: Unconditioned R+ Becomes less valuable when……Decreases or stops behaviors that have resulted in………. FoodHave just consumed foodGetting food in the past (grocery store, asking, ordering, foraging) Sleep12 hours of sleepSleeping in the past (laying down, getting into bed) Decrease of Painful Stimulus You are no longer in pain or have no pain Removal of pain in the past (taking aspirin)

21 How to Kill a Reinforcer 101 Do not attend to balance between effort and reinforcer (quality/quantity) Do not select reinforcers that compete with reinforcers maintaining problem behaviors Do not attend to the principles of ABA (schedules of reinforcement, errorless teaching, short ITIs, prompting, functional skills) 20

22 Types of Reinforcers Primary (Unconditioned) Basic Human needs Food, water, air, sleep, reduce pain, temperature, activity etc… Sensory reinforcers: includes self stimulatory behaviors Secondary (Conditioned) Generalized r+: Tokens, money, tickets, poker chips Social reinforcers: Verbal praise, participation in activities, attention, NV expressions

23 Positive (+) Reinforcement Antecedent situation BehaviorConsequencesFuture Occurrence Jonny sitting alone at snack time (8 minutes) Throws food on floor, squishes food, rubs on peers next to him Peer yells and Therapist runs over and tells to stop, redirects to clean up and sits next to him Jonny food throwing, squishing and rubbing on peer increases Antecedent situation BehaviorConsequencesFuture Occurrence Has not had attention for 8 minutes Engages in behavior that has resulted in attention in past Attention from peer and Tx (eye contact, physical proximity, verbal engagement) Behavior increases

24 Schedules of Reinforcement 2 categories of schedules1) Continuous2) Intermittent Ratio (Number) 1) Fixed 2) Variable Interval (time) 1) Fixed 2) Variable

25 Fixed- Ratio A worker receives a pay credit after assembling 15 pieces of equipment A student receives a sticker on their chart after completing 5 math problems A student receives a personal size pizza after reading 3 books

26 Variable -Ratio Hitting the jackpot playing the slots. After a varying number of lever pulls (behavior) money delivered (reinforcer) Scammers sending out s requesting for bank information so they can wire you money. After so many responses (sending ) someone gives account information (reinforcer). Door to door salesman. After so many responses (knocking on doors) reinforcement occurs (someone buys item)

27 Fixed- Interval Mail is delivered approximately 4:00 each day. You could check the mailbox (response) all day but your response will only be reinforced after 4:00 (passage of time) Picking up your paycheck. Going to accounting and asking for check (response) will only be reinforced after a fixed passage of time (every 2 weeks) Teachers setting a 2 minute interval timer and each correct answer on a math worksheet after the passage of time results in reinforcement

28 Variable- Interval Jennys therapist assessed Jennys on task behavior (writing, reading a page or calculating problem) an average of every 6 minutes (4,5,6,7,8). If Jenny was on task she would receive 1 point. Points can be redeemed for extra recess time.

29 Terms and Concepts- Consequence 28 Behavior Behavior Positive Reinforcement A-B-C Positive Reinforcement A-B-C Negative Reinforcement A-B-C Negative Reinforcement A-B-C

30 Antecedent situation BehaviorConsequencesFuture Occurrence ESCAPE: Aversive stimulus present Behavior that has removed stimulus in past Removal of aversive stimulus Increase in behavior that terminated stimulus AVOID: Condition where aversive stimulus could occur Behaviors that have delayed in the past Avoid or delay aversive stimulus Increase in behavior that terminated stimulus ESCAPE: Baby crying in back seat while driving Give rice cookie Baby stop cryingKeep rice cookies in car and give when fussy AVOID: Carseat + Baby + caride = Give cookie Avoid cryingWhen need to ride in car give cookie

31 Antecedent situation BehaviorConsequencesFuture Occurrence ESCAPE: Seat belt alarm in car put on seat beltRemoval of alarmIncreases-Putting on seatbelt when alarm sounds AVOID: Stimulus situation where alarm will sound (getting in car) Put seat belt onAvoid alarm soundingincreases-Putting on seat belt when first get in car Therapist asking child to engage in activity Scream run away bite scratch Removal of demand and possibly therapist (time out) Increases- engages in behavior more frequently whenever similar situation arises

32 Terms and Concepts 31 Behavior Behavior Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Punishment type I (Positive punishment) Punishment type I (Positive punishment)

33 Antecedent situation BehaviorConsequencesFuture Occurrence Hungry and in candy store Eat lots of candy Stomach ache (+)Decrease eating candy when hungry Skiing in -20 degree weather Take off mittens frost bite (+)Decrease taking mittens off when cold Sally has the ballGrab the ball from Sally Bite on arm (+)Decrease in taking ball from Sally Closing the doorHand stays on door Hurt finger (+)Decrease leaving hand on door Access to lighterSet a fire1 hour hard labor (+) Decrease fire setting Adult directionFollow direction Hug, smile high five (+) Decrease following directions

34 Terms and Concepts 33 Behavior Behavior Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Punishment type I (Punishment by contingent stimulation) Punishment type I (Punishment by contingent stimulation) Punishment type II (Punishment by contingent withdrawal) Time out, response cost Punishment type II (Punishment by contingent withdrawal) Time out, response cost

35 Antecedent situation BehaviorConsequencesFuture Occurrence SmokingDonate 1$ to disliked organization (-) Decrease in smoking from 85/day to 5/day Call to 411$.20 charge to bill (-) Decrease in calls to 411 Interrupting class lose 3 minutes of computer time (-) Decrease in interruptions Recess playing on slide Kick peerSit on bench for 3 minutes- Time out (-) Decrease in kicking peer on slide

36 Response Cost BehaviorResponse Cost Target behavior want to decreaseLose 1 minute of preferred activity (15 minutes available each day) 35 BehaviorBonus Response Cost Target behavior want to decreaseLose 1 minute of bonus activity (15 minutes of extra activity available each day)

37 Terms and Concepts 36 Behavior Behavior Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Punishment type I (Punishment by contingent stimulation) Punishment type I (Punishment by contingent stimulation) Punishment type II (Punishment by contingent withdrawal) Punishment type II (Punishment by contingent withdrawal) Recovery from Punishment

38 BehaviorConsequenceEffect on Behavior BitingDad put in room Biting Dad gone not put in room, mom engage in verbal corrections Going through red light Red light camera installed- ticket Going through red lightCamera removed- no ticket Stealing food from peersSarah removes all food for 3 minutes and child to sit at different table, alone Stealing food from peersJane gives verbal correction stop, not yours 37

39 Terms and Concepts 38 Behavior Behavior Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Punishment type I (Punishment by contingent stimulation) Punishment type I (Punishment by contingent stimulation) Punishment type II (Punishment by contingent withdrawal) Punishment type II (Punishment by contingent withdrawal) Recovery from Punishment Extinction

40 39 AntecedentBehaviorConsequenceEffect on Behavior Mom on phoneScream and pull cord STOP! I am on the phone! (R+) Mom on phoneScream and pull cord Continue to talk ignore behavior AntecedentBehaviorConsequenceEffect on Behavior Math worksheetAsk for helpReceives help (R+) Math worksheetAsk for helpyou can do it no help AntecedentBehaviorConsequenceEffect on Behavior Snack timeSign crackerGet cracker (R+) Snack timeSign crackerno cracker

41 Maintaining R+: Attention Verbal interaction Physical interaction People looking Exaggerated facial expression 40

42 Antecedent Situation BehaviorConsequence Nap time mother lays child down in bed CryingMother goes in and lays with child and verbally soothes (R+) Nap time mother lays child down in bed CryingTerminate consequence- parent does not go in room 41 Scream + throw+ cry= mom Crying = no mom

43 Antecedent potty Pull-up Teacher leading you to bathroom Scream Runaway Head bang Claw Alligator roll Removal of aversive stimulus- allow to stay in pull up 42 Antecedent potty Pull-up Teacher leading you to bathroom Scream Runaway Head bang Alligator roll Physical assistance to bathroom and team up to change TB + Claw, spit, bite, vomit

44 Differential Reinforcement AntecedentBehavior1ReinforcementBehavior 2Extinction 43 Mom on phone Scream Attention from mom Color in coloring book No attention from mom

45 Differential Reinforcement Independent work time No attention Throw book on floor Attention from teacher Complete problem in book No attention from teacher 44 Independent work time No attention Complete problem in book Attention from teacher Throw book on floor Ignore/no attention

46 DR group activity- fill in chart 45 A:B1:R+/-:B2:Ext: ABC

47 DR Practice (1) Lacee is a non-vocal 6 year old with autism. She has 4 signs which include milk, cereal, candy and ball. During 1:1 instruction with her tutor she will engage in a few tasks and then will start throwing materials and scratching her aide. Her aide quickly cleans up the work items and throws her hands up saying she is not paid enough for this. Work time is then. Lacees scratching and throwing behavior increases and begins to occur each time 1:1 instruction begins with her aide. 46

48 47 Differential R+ Strategy What is it?Variation of Schedule DROReinforcement provided when learner does not engage in a target behavior. Pay learner off for doing any OTHER behaviors except the target behavior 1)DRO Reset 2)DRO fixed Interval 3)DRO Increasing Interval 4)DRO Progressive DRLUsed to decrease high rate behaviors to a more manageable rate by providing reinforcement for lower rates of responding 1)DRL-IRT 2)DRL- Below criterion DRAChoosing a behavior that is topographically different from target behavior and providing reinforcement for the alternate behavior 1)DR Incompatible behaviors 2)DR Competing behaviors

49 DRO 48 A Behavior1- absence of target R+:Behavior2 Extinction Less value r+ AntecedentBehaviorConsequence

50 3 Factors for DR Success! Select and define the target behavior List and prioritize! Determine the right time interval observation time (60) = IRT (12) # of responses (5) IRT(12) = DRO interval (6) 2(2) Identifying and selecting reinforcers What maintains problem behavior can we use it? What reinforcers will compete with reinforcers maintaining problem behavior 49

51 DRO Reset Timer is RESET each time target behavior occurs R+ delivered at end of each interval (as determined by IRT) target behavior is absent When target behavior occurs no R+ delivered (extinction procedure applied) and interval RESET PWOP example page 72 (figure 6.1) 50

52 DRO Reset Schedule (2) Kalee engages in self talk where she will yell out movie phrases or words very loudly and then laugh hysterically. This behavior is contributing to Kalees isolation in that her family doesnt like to take her in public and the school wont allow her to be in the general education classroom because it is so disruptive. You observe Kalee for 60 minutes during centers time. During your observation she engages in self talk 20 times. When she engages in self-talk the therapist redirects her back to the task and asks her to be quiet and must repeat this several times before Kalee attends to her therapist. During 15 of the self talk episodes, the therapist is cleaning up and prepping stations and does not provide a consequence for the behavior. During your observation she is being asked to engage in puzzles, tracing letters, sorting beads, and counting activities. You also note that when given free choice, Kalee chooses activities such as self talk, singing, listening to music, humming, placing toys that vibrate to her ears, and snapping her fingers by her ears or clapping loudly. 51

53 DRO Fixed-Interval Interval schedule is fixed and R+ delivered at end of interval during which the response does not occur Must go for the entire interval with no occurrence of behavior to receive R+ If target behavior occurs, no R+ delivered at end of the interval and student gets another chance at next interval PWOP page figure

54 DRO FI Schedule (3) Amy frequently engages in removing her clothes. She takes off her shoes, pants and shirt while at school or in the community with her family. She has identified sensory needs as identified by an Occupational therapist and Sensory Integration Specialist. Amy has to keep her clothes on for longer periods of time on in order to be in environments outside of her home. You observe Amy in her home for 3 hours during which she removes her clothing 3 times. During your observation, Amy is engaged in activities of her choice such as computer, self stimulatory play with a fan and rocking back and forth while humming. Amys family states she removes clothes when she is alone, when engaged in preferred and un-preferred activities and even in her sleep. 53

55 DRO Increasing Interval Way of thinning or fading R+ As student can refrain from engaging in TB over several intervals, slowly increase the interval size Must increase reinforcer quality or quantity as intervals increase PWOP 74 figure

56 DRO Increasing Interval Schedule (4) Jack was doing really well on his DRO FI- 30min schedule. He currently has 5 30 minute intervals in a row where he has refrained from spitting. Each 30 minutes Jack refrains from spitting he gets to play 1 round of angry birds. The amount of time spent accessing his reinforcer is starting to interfere with routines in the day because activities are stopped every 30 minutes to deliver the reinforcer. 55

57 DRO Progressive Useful for learners who need frequent feedback regarding performance to maintain a level of responding Used for low rate behaviors Allows for shorter intervals, frequent feedback and increasing amounts of R+ Interval size remains the same but as student refrains from TB for more consecutive intervals the R+ gets bigger and better Requires use of reinforcers that can be given in increasing units (tokens, minutes on activity, beverage, etc…) Transition from FI to DROP schedules PWOP 74 figure 6.5 Free access rule!!! 56

58 DRO Progressive Schedule (5) Mike has Aspergers and is working on gaining more appropriate social skills. Mikes IBI provider has been using a token system with Mike that has been very effective in modifying various behaviors. Mikes IBI provider wants to use a token system where Mike can earn points when he refrains from kissing and hugging strangers. He wants to reward Mike for going longer periods of time without engaging in this behavior. He wants a system his family can easily use as well when Mike is not with him. Mike can trade points earned for activities and items that he does not otherwise get access to. Create a DROP schedule for Mike using a 1 hour interval. 57

59 58 Differential R+ Strategy What is it?Variation of Schedule DROReinforcement provided when learner does not engage in a target behavior. Pay learner off for doing any OTHER behaviors except the target behavior 1)DRO Reset 2)DRO fixed Interval 3)DRO Increasing Interval 4)DRO Progressive DRLUsed to decrease high rate behaviors to a more manageable rate by providing reinforcement for lower rates of responding 1)DRL-IRT 2)DRL- Below criterion DRAChoosing a behavior that is topographically different from target behavior and providing reinforcement for the alternate behavior 1)DR Incompatible behaviors 2)DR Competing behaviors

60 DRL-IRT Example Target behavior: Asking for help IRT= 10 minutes 59 Working on assignment Ask for min (R+) Receives help Ask for help >10 min Extinction No help delivered, restart interval

61 DRL-IRT(6) Charlie is a non-verbal 8 year old boy who used to scream and bite his aide whenever she asked him to sit and do work. His previous IBI provider did some analysis and discovered when he engaged in this behavior the task was removed and he was placed in time out. His behavior of screaming and biting increased over time. She was able to teach Charlie a replacement behavior of asking for a break which resulted in removal of the task for a period of time. She also made his work time less difficult and made sure Charlie had lots of reinforcers available. If Charlie does engage in the problem target behavior, he is redirected back to his assignment and the task remains in place. The problem now is Charlie asks for a break all the time and it is difficult to teach Charlie any new skills. During a 1-hour observation, Charlie asks for a break 20 times 60

62 DRL- Below Criterion Target behavior: knocking materials off table Criteria for R+= 3 times or less/ hour 61 Table swipe occurs 3,2,1 or 0 times in an hour (R+) Table swipe occurs 4 or more times in an hour Extinction No R+ delivered

63 DRL- Below Criterion (7) Ava engages in finger play that occurs so frequently it is beginning to cause damage to her joints. She will twist and pop her fingers and her family is worried about the continued damage she is doing. It is reported she does it most when in the community with her family or therapist. You observe Ava at the store with her parents for 30 minutes. During your observation she engages in finger play a total of 30 times. You do not see any patterns that suggest this behavior is maintained by attention, escape from task or to obtain anything from her parents. You suspect the behavior is resulting in internal consequences for Ava, possibly sensory related or to reduce anxiety. You also observe that she enjoys being piggy backed by her dad or riding on the front of the cart. 62

64 63 Differential R+ Strategy What is it?Variation of Schedule DROReinforcement provided when learner does not engage in a target behavior. Pay learner off for doing any OTHER behaviors except the target behavior 1)DRO Reset 2)DRO fixed Interval 3)DRO Increasing Interval 4)DRO Progressive DRLUsed to decrease high rate behaviors to a more manageable rate by providing reinforcement for lower rates of responding 1)DRL-IRT 2)DRL- Below criterion ALT-R (DRA, DRI) Choosing a behavior that is topographically different from target behavior and providing reinforcement for the alternate behavior

65 DR of Alternate and Incompatible Behaviors (ALT-R) Alternate Incompatible 64 Difficult task Ask for break (R-) Break delivered- task removed tantrum Extinction No break delivered typing (R+) music Hand flapping Extinction No R+ delivered

66 DRA/DRI (8) Joe almost exclusively engages in playing, twirling, twisting and pulling on his hair or anyone elses hair who happens to be nearby. It is determined through analysis that this behavior serves as a stimulation behavior and the aspects that Joe likes are the repetitive motion and the input from the hair on his fingers. Since he will do it to others as much as on himself, it is not thought that the feeling on his head has a reinforcing component. This behavior is preventing Joe and his family from accessing typical environments and is keeping Joe isolated from his peers and community. If his parents or anyone tries to remove the hair or stop him he grabs it hard in an effort to keep the hair which causes pain to the other person and makes people scared of Joe. 65

67 Behavioral Objectives: The Big Picture PROBLEM Liz is unable to communicate her wants and needs in an appropriate manner. Liz uses tantrum behavior to let others know when she needs something. GOAL Liz will learn functional communication skills to appropriately communicate her wants and needs so she can be understood by others OBJECTIVE When given a choice between two food items, Liz will point to the item she wants without screaming or grabbing the item at 100% success for 4 out of 5 trials 66

68 Operational Definition: Is it a public or private event BehaviorOperational Definition Understands PointsExtends pointer finger to touch item or if item is out of reach extends pointer finger in direction of item WhispersUses a volume of voice that is lower than common conversational volume and is audible for a distance no greater than 2 feet away. Feels 67

69 Complete the following activities: 1) Components of a Behavioral Objective 2) Writing Behavioral Objectives Worksheet 3) Write Objectives from Sample 68

70 QUIZ Standard 5 quiz 15 minutes to complete 69

71 STANDARD 6 Material needed for this standard: 70

72 Standard 6: Positive Behavioral Support Therapeutic Plan Decrease Problem Behaviors Increase Adaptive Skills IndividualizedComprehensive Use of PROVEN effective approaches Functional Assessment 71

73 Information Gathered from FA Operational Definition Problem Behaviors What is maintaining the behavior? What is the pay off? Consequences Conditions under which behavior will AND will not occur AntecedentsSetting Events 72 Establishing operations OR motivating operations

74 Maintaining Consequences AntecedentBehaviorConsequence 73 Antecedent Hand flapping (SS) Internal stimulation feels good AntecedentScream External: People leave me alone

75 Triggers for Behavior 74 AntecedentBehaviorConsequence Request to sit down for reading group Run away scream fall to floor Sit in break are to calm (task removal/delay) write name on paper. (Difficult task) Scream & throw pencil Head down (difficult task removed)

76 Identifying Antecedent Events 75 Playing word mash on computer Smiling, answering questions, humming Continuation of activity (visual and auditory stimuli) Eating snack with 2 peers Eating food rocking in chair laughing Satisfying hunger, oral stimulation Recess time hanging on bars upside down Laughing, hanging on bar Proprioceptive input, visual input,

77 Setting Events: the 4 th contingency 76 AntecedentBehaviorConsequence EO- setting event AntecedentBehaviorConsequence

78 77 Waitress Asking for food Food delivered/eat Have not eaten for 5 hours Waitress Asking for food Food/ eating No waitress Asking for food No food delivered

79 Setting Events: Altering Reinforcer Value Setting eventIncrease/Decrease effectiveness of ……….. Effect on behavior Hunger- food deprivation Food as reinforcer behavior that results in getting food No hunger- satiation Food as reinforcer behavior that results in getting food Headache- painful stimulation Aspirin as a reinforcer Behavior that results in getting aspirin No headache- no painful stimulation Aspirin as a reinforcer Behavior that results in getting aspirin 78

80 Classroom Examples of SE 79 EO- setting event AntecedentBehaviorConsequence Child did not sleep well Typically easy teacher demand Any behavior to remove demand Removal of demand is WANTED reinforcer Sensory system under- stimulated Nylon body sock Put sock on body Sensory stimulation Sensory system over- stimulated Nylon sock Scream and throw self on floor Remove/avoid Sensory stimulation

81 1) When asked about her medical history, Avas mother reports that Ava often experiences urinary tract infections. Because Ava is non-verbal she can not verbalize when she is in pain or feeling discomfort. Ava is currently working on potty training as a goal. Ava will hold her urine for so long OR will not empty her bladder completely when she urinates which can cause bladder infections. Fill in the 4 part behavioral sequence from the scenario given: It was snack time and Ava was shown her visual schedule. He teacher pointed to the toilet picture indicating it was time to go potty and wash her hands before snack. Ava ran around the room screaming, arching her body and flopping to the floor. 80 What is the EO- setting event? What Antecedent event evoked behavior? What is the behavior? What is valuable as a reinforcer?

82 2) During the functional assessment interview, Rajs mom indicated that her son is sometimes very sensitive to sound. He will cover his ears and mom is not sure why until shortly after when she hears a siren or other loud noise approaching. Fill in the 4 part behavioral sequence from the scenario given: Rajs family uses a pressure cooker to cook rice in their kitchen. It is always left out on the stove even when not in use. When it is time to go outside to play you must go through the kitchen to get to the back door. You say to Raj lets go outside as you point to the back door. He screams and runs away from you into the basement. 81 What is the EO- setting event? What Antecedent event evoked behavior? What is the behavior? What is valuable as a reinforcer?

83 Steps to Conducting a Functional Assessment STEPHow to Collect Information 1.Define the target behaviors and pattern of occurrence Review of daily schedule and routine 2. Develop a hypothesis about the target behavior Conduct interview Direct observation 3. Validate your hypothesis Functional Analysis: can you turn TB on and off? 82

84 PBS plan Results of assessment and analysis Alter patterns of behavior by manipulating A+C Based on principles of ABA Make problem behaviors irrelevant and ineffective Contextual fit 83

85 Contents of Quality Behavior Support Plan Address ALL problem behaviors Implemented across multiple settings Use multiple methods of Intervention Use Functional Assessment as foundation 84

86 Positive Behavior Support Prevent/A Changing antecedent conditions that lead to behavior Teach/B Teaching replacement skills Respond/C Manipulating consequences to Increase or decrease behaviors 85

87 Antecedent Interventions PREVENT Redesign Environment Offer Choices Non- Contingent Attention Behavioral Momentum Positive rapport 86

88 Teaching New Skills TEACH Functional Skills Skills that Produce same consequence Skills that are Effective and Efficient Skills that are easy to perform 87

89 Manipulating Consequences RESPOND Designed from FBA Manipulation of Consequences Produces quality reinforcers Individualized 88

90 Standard 7: Skill Acquisition Discrimination learning Barriers to learning Behavioral Approach to teaching Instructional Procedures Selection of target skills 89

91 Discrimination Learning 90 Stimulus (Become antecedent/Sd and S-deltas) Stimulus (Become consequences that affect behavior) MomNeeds met Stranger Needs not meet

92 Features which must be attended to in order to make discrimination SHOE: Shoelaces, shape, tongue, foot opening, heel shape, toe shape MOM: Body size facial features, eye color, voice, smell Relevant Features which should be ignored and do not contribute to making discrimination SHOE: color, size, location MOM: 2 arms, 2 legs, clothing Irrelevant 91

93 92 Stimulus event (Sd) Correct Response IncorrectNatural Correction Reinforcement Punishment Extinction Inadvertent R+ Prompt

94 93 Add pops up: you won $100 Correct Click on add Incorrect Natural Correction- Computer blocks Receive 100$virus Warning/ secure site

95 94 Sitter calls and cancels for the week Correct ask your mother in law Incorrect Natural Correction- She declines verbal praise, cooks dinner, does dishes Criticizes how you do things, makes a mess, asks for food Ask my mom

96 95 Something happens (stimulus event) Something happens Not sure what to do- random response Something happens Who cares Not sure what that was ???Prompt???

97 96 Fire alarm 1) Correct 1)Go out door 2)Play with trains 2) incorrect False alarm -shuts off Safe from fire praise Social approval Cough eyes burn but not sure why Prompt????

98 Behavioral Approach to Cognition Antecedent Stimulus event Response 97 Red lightApply brake what is 8x8?64 Bladder full- internal signal Void in toilet

99 Discrimination Training Antecedent Stimulus: Event that occurs in environment. Gives us clues about what response to emit 98 Friendly ProfessorSmile and wave Pompous ProfessorLook down walk other directionLibrary with friend Whisper/ nonverbal communication Car with friendTalk loudly, laughBarTell offensive jokeChurchTell clean joke

100 Discrimination Training 99 Antecedent situation/Stimulus event 1 Behavior A Extinction Reinforcement Antecedent situation/Stimulus event 2

101 Discrimination Training Example 100 Sd: Light on Neck Stretching No Food delivered Food Delivered S delta: Light off

102 Discrimination Training Example 101 Sd Door with Exit sign Open the door In another classroom- not outside Outside on way home S Door with Room #443 sign

103 Discrimination Training Example 102 Sd Mom Bang on table No response No attention Attention: honey stop dont do that! S Dad

104 Discrimination Training Example 103 Sd Purple square undress Clothes remain on Clothes off- naked S No purple square

105 Discrimination Training Activity 104 Sd Start group 3 Behavior Extinction Reinforcement S

106 Group Presentations activity# Sd Behavior extinction Reinforcement S

107 Simple Discrimination Response 1 Reinforcement Response 2 No Reinforcement 106 Sd Simple Discrimination Stopping behavior R+ Movement No R+ Stop Simple Discrimination Sitting R+ standing No R+ sit down

108 Simple Discrimination Response 1 Reinforcement Response 2 No Reinforcement 107 Conditional Discrimination Response 1 Reinforcement Stimulus A Response 2 No R+ Sd S

109 Examples of Conditional Discriminations Sd R1: touches R+ Verbal: find baby S-delta R2: touches No R stimuli to attend to: 1.Verbal direction find baby 2.Picture of baby 3.Picture of shoe

110 Sd R1: touches R+ Verbal: find shoe S-delta R2: touches No R stimuli to attend to: 1.Verbal direction find shoe 2.Picture of baby 3.Picture of shoe

111 Barriers to Learning 1)Attention Stimulus over selectivity Focus on irrelevant features 2)Motivation Unmotivated by natural reinforcers Deficits in internal motivation 110

112 Basic Instructional Unit Antecedent Stimulus material Teacher request Environmental stimulus Behavior Learner response Consequence Outcome Natural or artificial R+ Correction procedure 111 Antecedent Home page/ Sign in page for you tube Behavior Chance responding: click on incorrect link Guided: click on correct link Consequence wrong page, lost, cant get to video Get to video complete assignment on time

113 112

114 You are ready to teach when…. 113 Learner Cooperation Is learner approaching you? Are you paired with good outcomes? Are they willing to learn from you? Competing Reinforcers Identified what purpose behaviors serve? What consequences does individual want? Do you have reinforcers that will keep value of escape low? PreventionsIdentified what antecedents trigger desired and undesired behavior? Are you incorporating these into teaching model? Functional SkillsWhat are you teaching? Are the skills functional? What next?Do you know where skills are going? Where is plan going for this person? Whats the big picture

115 Building on the instructional unit Discrete Trial Sd response Consequence Prompt (faded) 114

116 Student Project: Activity #7 2 part Video demonstration of skills. Segment 1: Behavior reduction- demonstration of PBS for problem behavior. Prevent Teach Respond Segment 2: Skill building- demonstration of discrete trial teaching 115

117 Problems with PROMPTs 116 Too early Prompt dependency Too lateDont know how to fade out Forget use of DR

118 Order of Prompts Full physical assistance Partial physical assistance Gesture/model Prepositional Verbal 117

119 2 ways to Fade a Prompt TIME: increase time delay from Sd to prompt TRIAL 1 (0-1 sec) Sd..Prompt response TRIAL 2 (2 sec) Sd….Prompt response TRIAL 3 (4 sec) Sd…..Prompt response TYPE: reduce intensity or prompt or move to next level of assistance Trial 1: FP Sd….prompt response Trial 2: PP Sd….prompt response Trial 3: M Sd….prompt response 118

120 2 ways to transfer prompt to Sd Anything you do or add to help person respond Examples: Help person perform, model, point, move, verbal, raise eyebrows 1) Extra Prompt Using already present stimulus and exaggerating or defining in some way Examples: Pivotal response training (PTR), make features bigger or more pronounced, distinctive feature 2) Within Stimulus Prompt 119

121 Extra Vs Within Stimulus Prompts Example skillExtra PromptWithin Stimulus Prompt Teaching site words, reading, letters Sd: written word Prompts: Verbal, mimetic, gesture (sign or other visual support) Sd: written word Prompts: Fade in and highlight letter formation, word shaped like label Study: Teaching child to branch out from repetitive play to experience and play with various centers in school. Wanted child to play in dramatic play area- kitchen Sd: go play Prompts: point to kitchen center, physically guide to kitchen center, go play at kitchen center. Sd: go play Prompt: Distributed several articles child liked such as flashing toys, mirrors, etc, to lure child to go to the center. Study: Teaching child to engage in same activity that peers are engaging in instead of withdraw and repetitive self- stimulatory behaviors. Using a sensory table Sd: enter into play with peers Prompts: pointing to friends, physical guidance to friends, indirect/direct verbal what are your friends doing/go with friends. Sd: enter into play with peers Prompts: Place squares around table for peers to stand on, one left empty for child. Empty square signals to child the correct response. Fade out square by making smaller and smaller until gone 120

122 Instructional Procedure #2: SHAPING Procedure to teach NEW behavior or strengthen a WEAK one What is the SKILL and how can you break it down into smaller attainable parts? Focus is on reinforcing successive approximations of behavior Uses differential R+ 121

123 Origins of Shaping Behavior is behavior- animals, people all organisms 122 AntecedentBehaviorConsequence Criticize findings 1)Left hand moves 2)Raise off table 3)Raised in air 4)Raised at tilt 5)Raised and lowered in consecutive motions 6)Chopping air with left hand Skinner turn toward and nod

124 Shaping examples 123 AntecedentBehaviorConsequence Tv flickers 1)Flick it 2)Flick harder 3)Hit with palm 4)Hit with fist 5)Beat tv tv back on Exercise time 1)Walk 10 minutes 2)Walk 20 minutes 3)Walk/jog 20 minutes 4)Jog 10 minutes 5)Jog 20 minutes 6)Jog/run 30 minutes 7)Run 30 minutes Endorphin increase, lose weight, clothes fit Time for bed 1.Dimmer on 10 2.Dimmer on 8 3.Dimmer on 6 4.Dimmer on 4 5.Dimmer on 2 6.Dimmer on 1 7.Dimmer on 0 Verbal praise, extra story, added R+ next morning

125 Misuse of Shaping 124 AntecedentBehaviorConsequence Child hungry Dinner cooking 1)Whine 2)Whine and cry 3)Whine cry and scream 4)Whine cry scream and hit 5)Fall to floor and tantrum Cookie

126 Group Presentations: Shaping AntecedentBehaviorConsequence light off/ no light Close light Jump to light Scratch at light Turn on light clicker/ food 125 Directions: 1)Select a target skill (single behavior) 2)Break down into successive approximations 3)Outline differential reinforcement procedure

127 Instructional Procedure #3: Chaining Teaching a series of behaviors in a specific order Linking together a series of already mastered responses Completion of a step serves as cue for next step Requires a task analysis 126

128 ForwardBackwardGlobal 1.Finished eating/dirty dish 2.Take all dishes to sink 3.Plug drain 4.Turn on warm water and fill to line 5.2 squirts of soap 6.Place dishes in sink 7.Wipe food from dish with sponge 8.Place dish in dishwasher (repeat 7- 8 till dishes gone) 9.Open soap drawer 10.Take out detergent 11.Open detergent 12.Fill dispenser with soap 13.Close drawer 14.Close dishwasher 15.Push start button 15. Finished eating/dirty dish 14. Take all dishes to sink 13. Plug drain 12. Turn on warm water and fill to line squirts of soap 10. Place dishes in sink 9. Wipe food from dish with sponge 8. Place dish in dishwasher (repeat 8-9 till dishes gone) 7. Open soap drawer 6. Take out detergent 5. Open detergent 4. Fill dispenser with soap 3. Close drawer 2. Close dishwasher 1. Push start button 4. Finished eating/dirty dish 5. Take all dishes to sink 9. Plug drain 10. Turn on warm water and fill to line 2. 2 squirts of soap 6. Place dishes in sink 8. Wipe food from dish with sponge 7. Place dish in dishwasher (repeat 7-8 till dishes gone) 11. Open soap drawer 12. Take out detergent 13. Open detergent 1.Fill dispenser with soap 14. Close drawer 15. Close dishwasher 3. Push start button 127

129 Group Activity 1. Perform a task analysis 2. Indentify Sd, behavior Consequence 3. Prompts you will use and fading procedure 4. Forward, Backward or global 128

130 Instructional Procedure #4: Errorless Learning Keep value of reinforcer high and value of escape/avoidance low Keep learner successful and teaching/learning an improving set of conditions Systematically sequence discriminations in an easy to difficult method 129

131 EL method: Errorless Sequencing Teach maximally different discriminations first then fade to more difficult 130 Level of difficultyDiscrimination EasyMilk triangle MediumMilk soup difficultMilk juice

132 131 Type of Discrimination AvoidEL method Auditory stimuliStimuli that Sound alike head - hand Nose - toes Put away - throw away Head - tummy nose - elbow Put away - give me Proximity and Movement Close together discrimination Nose - mouth Sign eat - sign drink hit to get attention- tap to get attention Stand up - Jump Point - touch Nose - ankle Sign eat- sign cookie Hit- vocal sound Stand up- clap Point- go get Visual stimuliStimuli that look alike Pen - pencil Tennely - Talon Circle - oval Pen- eraser Tennely- Mom Circle - triangle

133 Group Activity Choose one discrimination task that a member of the group is currently working on with a student Order steps to teach the discrimination in an easy to hard sequence Present to class (designate 1 person to speak and 1 person to write out steps on public white board) 132

134 Instructional Procedure #5: Intermixing trials Intermixing Trials 1) Keep child motivated and responding 1) Intermix easy and hard tasks 2) Intermix response categories 2) Expand discrimination learning set 1) Using systematic stimulus rotation 133

135 Behavioral momentum OR High-P Request E(r+) EE(r+) EHE (r+) EHHEE (r+) = Value of reinforcer Value of escape 134 Not using Behavioral momentum sequence HH (error/correction) HH (error/correction)= Value of reinforcer Value of escape

136 Intermix response categories 135 VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVRRMMVVVVVVVVVVVV VVLMIMR…….LVMMIVVLLMVR…………..VVLVMIIMVVVR…... Response CategoryExample Responses Receptive (listener)Following a direction, identifying a spoken object/word, Expressive/verbal (speaker)Labeling, answering questions MotorGross or fine motor movements Imitation (echoic)Doing what another person is doing RequestingStating a want/need independent of being asked

137 Example of intermixing Objective : When given a math concept such as counting out a specified number, Jack will count out that number of items from a larger set with 100% success for 4 out of 5 session. T1: (receptive/motor) jump and hit hanging ball 5 times T2: (expressive) what number is this? T3: (receptive) write the number 12? T4: (imitation) do this ….number sign on fingers T5: (receptive) give me 12 T6: (expressive/IV) 1,2,3,……,5,6,7…… T7: (motor/receptive) jump on ball 12 times 136

138 Intermixing example ProcessWhat this looks like Step 1. Teach new skill in isolationX= identify water XXX Step 2. Intermix new skill with easy/mastered skills a= imitation skill xxAxxA Step 3. Intermix new skills with multiple easy/mastered skills b= Tact/Label Xxaxxabxxabaxxbxabxxaxxab Step 4. Fully Intermix new skill with entire set of mastered/easy skills c= textual/ reading xabxxcbxabxxcbaxaxxbcxaxxcbxc 137

139 Repeated Vs Distributed Repeated *Therapist lead *Contrived/Structured teaching situation *Allows for controlled process Typical examples: learning to write, math worksheets, learning musical instrument Distributed *Incidental teaching *Environment dictates practice *Natural opportunities Examples: coat/shoes on to go outside, requesting for fork to eat 138

140 Repeated Practice 139

141 Selecting Therapy Targets Foundational and functional skills Discrepancy analysis Review behavior path what is the ultimate desired skill(s) how do we get there? VB-MAPP, ABLLS, Maurice and Green Interventions for Children with Autism, Work in Progress Ron Leaf 140

142 Group activity: S7_definition activity.17 Standard 7 quiz 141

143 Standard 8: Data Collection Gather information Conduct Functional Behavior Assessment Create PBS based on results of FBA Create team to Implement and support PBS Data collection and analysis 142

144 4 Reasons Measurement Necessary 1. Establish current level of performance 2. Monitor progress 3. Guide instructional decisions 4. Communicates progress to team 143

145 144

146 1)LearnerWHO collecting data on 2) ConditionWHEN collecting data 3) BehaviorWHAT collecting data on 4) CriteriaHOW well will they perform 145 Example 1: When given a difficult task such as zipping coat, reading sight words, or cleaning up materials, Jessica will request for adult assistance by saying the persons name and asking for assistance using phrases such as Can you help me/ I need help/ help me please with 100% success for 2 out of 3 consecutive days.

147 146

148 Choosing a Data Collection Method Provides Greatest amount of Information Accurately reflects purpose of instruction Easily and efficiently collected Is meaningful when interpreting performance 147

149 4 Types of Data Collection Methods Type of recording System Type of information obtained Types of recording system Ways to Perform 1. Event BasedCount of discrete behaviors that have clear beginning an clear end. 1)Live count 2)Permanent product 1)Occurrence 2)Duration 3)Latency 2. Time Based 3. Levels of Assistance 4. Task- Analytic 148

150 Event Based Recording Episode countStart/Stop timeTotal Duration 19:04-9:1410 min 29:42-10:0220 min 310: min 410: min Total: 4 episodesTotal duration: 36 min 149

151 4 Types of Data Collection Methods Type of recording System Type of information obtained Types of recording system Ways to Perform 1. Event BasedCount of discrete behaviors that have clear beginning an clear end. 1)Live count 2)Permanent product 1)Occurrence 2)Duration 3)Latency 2. Time Based Time based/interval recording. Observing behaviors for specified length of time and recording occurrence of behaviors 1)Whole interval 2) partial interval 3)momentary 3. Levels of Assistance 4. Task- Analytic 150

152 Time Based Recording System 151 Whole interval: 30 min observation, 1 minute intervals Partial Interval: 30 min observation, 1 minute intervals Momentary: 30 minute observation, time sample every 5 min XXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX NYYNYY

153 4 Types of Data Collection Methods Type of recording System Type of information obtained Types of recording system Ways to Perform 1. Event Based1)Live count 2)Permanent product 1)Occurrence 2)Duration 3)Latency 2. Time Based1)Whole interval 2) partial interval 3)momentary 3. Levels of Assistance Records occurrence of behavior and level of assistance (prompt) required to complete 4. Task- Analytic 152

154 Levels of Assistance Recording Trial: request Break (sign) Prompt FP+ PP-FP+PP+M+ I-M+ 153 Reasons to use this method of recording: 1.Ensures systematic fading of prompts 2.Can analyze if student has been at level of prompt too long (avoid prompt dependency) 3.Tells you at what prompt student is performing successfully so you can ensure errorless learning (minimize errors)

155 4 Types of Data Collection Methods Type of recording System Type of information obtained Types of recording system Ways to Perform 1. Event Based1)Live count 2)Permanent product 1)Occurrence 2)Duration 3)Latency 2. Time Based1)Whole interval 2)partial interval 3)momentary 3. Levels of Assistance 4. Task- Analytic Record correct/incorrect responding to steps in a chain/task 154

156 Task Analytic Recording StepsLevel of assistance/ Performance Trial 1Trial 2Trial 3Trial 4Trial 5Trial 6 1.AFP +PP+ M-M+ 2. UI+ 3. DI+ 4. RPP+ M-M+ 5. EI+ 6. YI+ 155

157 More types of Data Collection Methods TypeType of Information ObtainedUse when 5. Scatter-plot Data Reflects occurrence and non- occurrence of persons behavior across a number of environmental variables Consistent schedule and can not identify consistent, predictable pattern of A-C relations 6. AnecdotalDescriptive information about learner and environmental variables Need to back up other sources of data or relay additional information 7. Trail by TrialIndicates learner performance (correct, incorrect or correct with prompt) for each trial Performing discrete trial 156

158 Summarizing Data: 1) Frequency Data Set without Standard Time Base Data Set with Standard Time Base Episodes of head banging per sessionEpisodes of Head Banging per 4 hour session S1 (4hrs) = 39 S2 (2 hrs) =15 S3 (6 hrs)= 57 S4 (1 hr)= 3 S5 (5 hrs)= 22 S5 (2 hrs)= 5 S1 = 39 S2 =32 S3= 30 S4 =25 S5 =22 S5 = In order to accurately compare frequency data you MUST have a standard time base

159 Summarizing Data Summary Type When to use itVariations/ how to report data Procedure 1) Frequency Events When concerned about number of times behavior occurs 1)Count 2)Rate 3)Percentage Rate= response time %= response time 158 Practice 1): Jonny hits his aide 12 times during a 60 minute observation. Report this data set as count, rate and percentage. Which way BEST represents data set Count= Rate= Percentage=

160 Summarizing Data Summary Type When to use itVariations/ how to report data Procedure 2) PercentageTo describe accuracy of performance or portion of time a behavior occurs 1)Correct responses 2)Proportion of time % correct= Correct response # of opportunities % time= minutes engaged in TB total # of minutes 159 Practice 2): Erika was able to identify 20 of her visual choice board cards correctly out of 48 presented to her. Practice 3): During her 20 minute computer class, Erika was on task (defined as copying text, typing, reading directions, eyes on computer, hands on mouse or keyboard) for a total of 12 minutes.

161 Summarizing Data Summary Type When to use itVariations/ how to report data Procedure 3) RateDetermine frequency of behavior in relation to time. Can also reflect accuracy, speed or fluency of behavior Useful when # of opportunities to perform skill vary across sessions or time varies across session Rate= # of responses total time 160 Practice 4): Jon threw his book 15 times during a 30 minute math class= Practice 5) Jose stacked 15 trays in 5 minutes in job training class= Practice 6) Beth took 25 bites of food in 2 minutes=

162 Summarizing Data Summary Type When to use itVariations/ how to report data Procedure 4) DurationTo measure how long a student engages in a behavior within a limited time period 1)Total duration 2) Percentage of time Total duration= duration of TB/within specified observation time % of time= duration of TB X 100 length of observation 161 Practice 7): During a 30 minute observation you are collecting data on how long Daniel spends engaging in self stimulatory behaviors that include: rocking and finger play typically done in conjunction. At the end of your 30 minute observation you stopwatch total is 22 minutes Total duration= % of time=

163 Summarizing Data Summary Type When to use itVariations/ how to report data Procedure 5) LatencyTo assess duration of each occurrence of response and time between responses. 1)Clearly define TB 2)Start stop watch when TB begins and stop when TB ends 3)Record total duration of that occurrence then reset stop watch 162 Practice 8): Summarize the following information: Target Behavior: on-task during job training (defined as stacking trays, putting left over milk in fridge, wiping tables, throwing away trash). During 30 minute observation.Fill in total duration per incident and time between responses, what would your objective be based on your analysis of data? StartStopTotal duration/ incident latency 1) 0:005:00 2) 8:0010:00 3) 15:0020:00 4) 23:0026:00 5) 28:0030:00

164 163

165 1) SELF STUDY: review part F in manual regarding how to analyze data and plan for interventions. Know instructional decisions and example graphs 2) Standard 8 Quiz to me Wed by 8:00pm 3) Complete and How to Teach Children with Autism and Other Severe disabilities:12-16 (Complete activities)17-30 (Complete activities) number each question in order they occur and submit in or word document 4) Once receive standard 8 quiz score respond to me how many bonus points you will use and for which quiz. I will then submit final P/F to ITC 164


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