2Organic vs. formulaic Raw w/ or w/out rhyme Patternless? Random Off the wallInformalCleanRhyme schemesFollows rulesPatternsOrderlyNot so crazyFormal
3Figurative Language Personification Simile Metaphor Irony Satire HyperboleUnderstatementOverstatementParadox
4PersonificationThe wind whispered in his ear, “Be still Be still.”Raindrops kissed the dry earth bringing hope to the whole town.Motley thought, “I hope we stop here. I really have to go.” He sniffed the fire hydrant as Billy talked to Sally. Sally didn’t have Gracie with her today. Man, he loved that little white poodle.
5The world is not a pleasant place to be Nikki Giovannithe world is not a pleasant placeto be withoutsomeone to hold and be held bya river would stopits flow if onlya stream were thereto receive itan ocean would never laughif clouds weren’t thereto kiss her tearsthe world is nota pleasant place to be withoutsomeone
6I wondered lonely as a cloud William WordsworthI wondered lonely as a cloudThat floats on high o’er vales and hills,When all at once I saw a crowd,A host, of golden daffodils;Beside the lake, beneath the trees,Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.Continuous as the stars that shineAnd twinkle on the milky way,They stretched in never-ending lineAlong the margin of a bay:Ten thousand saw I at a glance,Tossing their heads in sprightly dance.The waves beside them danced; but theyOutdid the sparkling waves in glee:A poet could not but be gayIn such a jocund company:I gazed—and gazed—but little thoughtWhat wealth the show to me had broughtFor oft, when on my couch I lieIn vacant or in pensive mood,They flash upon that inward eyeWhich is the bliss of solitude;And then my heart with pleasure fills,And dances with the daffodils.
7Simile Her eyes glittered like moon beams flickering off the lake. The pain ripped through him like a flame torturing his soul.Joy filled the room as if it were tangible as if it were soft swirlings of cotton candy floating around and around.
8Earth your dancing place – May Swenson Beneath heaven’s vault remember always walking through halls of cloud down aisles of sunlight or through high hedges of the green rain walk in the world highheeled with swirl of cape hand at the swordhilt of your pride Keep a tall throat Remain aghast at life Enter each day as upon a stage lighted and waiting for your step Crave upward as flamehave keenness in the nostrilGive your eyesto agony or raptureTrain your handsas birds to bebrooding or nimbleMove your bodyas the horsessweeping on slender hoovesover crag and prairiewith fleeing manesand aloofness of their limbsTake earth for your own large roomand the floor of earthcarpeted with sunlightand hung round with silver windfor your dancing place
9MetaphorHis hands were claws digging into my flesh. I was his prey; he was the hunter.My fear was a heavy load of everyone else’s packages: their expectations were overwhelming me.The book was an exciting journey into the realm of Egyptian tombs.
10An indian summer day on the prairie Vachel LindsayIn the BeginningThe sun is a huntress young,The sun is red, red joy,The sun is an Indian girl,Of the tribe of the Illinois.Mid-morningThe sun is a smoldering fire,That creeps through the high gray plain,And leaves not a bush of cloudTo blossom with flowers of rain.NoonThe sun is a wounded deer,That treads pale grass in the skies,Shaking his golden horns,Flashing his baleful eyes.SunsetThe sun is an eagle old;There in the windless west,Atop of the spirit-cliffsHe builds him a crimson nest.
11Irony An ad for cigarettes right next to an ad for help with cancer Saying something is beautiful when it’s actually an awful thing that has happenedSaying something is “sick” when it’s actually beautiful or neat
12Ex-basketball player John Updike Pearl Avenue runs past the high-school lot,Bends with the trolley tracks, and stops, cut offBefore it has a chance to go two blocks,At Colonel McComsky Plaza. Berth’s GarageIs on the corner facing west, and there,Most days, you’ll find Flick Webb, who helps Berth out.Flick stands tall among the idiot pumps—Five on a side, the old bubble-head style,Their rubber elbows hanging loose and low.One’s nostrils are two S’s, and his eyesAn E and O. And one is squat, withoutA head at all—more of a football type.Once Flick played for the high-school team, the Wizards.He was good: in fact, the best. In ‘46He bucketed three hundred ninety points,A county record still. The ball loved Flick.I saw him rack up thirty-eight or fortyIn one home game. His hands were like wild birds.He never learned a trade, he just sells gas, Checks oil, and changes flats. Once in a while, As a gag, he dribbles an inner tube, But most of us remember anyway. His hands are fine and nervous on the lug wrench. It makes no difference to the lug wrench, though. Off work, he hangs around Mae’s Luncheonette. Grease-gray and kind of coiled, he plays pinball, Smokes those thin cigars, nurses lemon phosphates. Flick seldom says a word to Mae, just nods Beyond her face toward bright applauding tiers Of Necco Wafers, Nibs, and Juju Beads.
13Satire Jonathon Swift’s, “The Perfect Proposal” Scary Movie Spoofing MockingMimickingImpersonating
14smart Shel Silverstein My dad gave me one dollar bill ‘Cause I’m his smartest son,And I swapped it for two shiny quarters‘Cause two is more than one!And then I took the quartersAnd traded them to LouFor three dimes—I guess he don’t knowThat three is more than two!Just then, along came old blind BatesAnd just ’cause he can’t seeHe gave me four nickels for my three dimes,And four is more than three!And I took the nickels to Hiram CoombsDown at the seed-feed store,And the fool gave me five pennies for them,And five is more than four!And then I went and showed my dad,And he got red in the cheeksAnd closed his eyes and shook his head—Too proud of me to speak!
15HyperboleHis hatred consumed to the point where it burnt holes into my soul.His love overtook my every movement; my life was forever dedicated to his requests.School is beyond boring; it’s like watching a tree grow a new leaf—you may never see the beginning or the end.Lunch today was so exuberantly disgusting; I thought I was on the season premiere of Fear Factor eating eggs of some not so exotic bird.
16Tonight I can write . . . Pablo Neruda Tonight I can write the saddest lines.Write, for example, “The night is shattered and the blue stars shiver in the distance.”The night wind revolves in the sky and sings.I loved her, and sometimes she loved me to.Through nights like this one I held her in my arms.I kissed her again and again under the endless sky.She loved me, sometimes I loved her too.How could one not have loved her great still eyes.To think that I do not have her. To feel that I have lost her.To hear the immense night, still more immense without her.And the verse falls to the soul like dew to the pasture.What does it matter that my love could not keep her.The night is shattered and she is not with me.This is all. In the distance someone is singing. In the distance.My soul is not satisfied that it has lost her.My sight searches for her as though to go to her.My heart looks for her, and she is not with me.The same night whitening the same trees.We, of that time, are no longer the same.I no longer love her, that’s certain, but how I loved her.My voice tried to find the wind to touch her hearing.Another’s. She will be another’s. Like my kisses before.Her voice. Her bright body. Her infinite eyes.I no longer love her, that’s certain, but maybe I love her.Love is so short, forgetting is so long.Because through nights like this one I held her in my armsmy soul is not satisfied that it has lost her.Though this be the last pain that she makes me sufferand these the last verses that I write for her.
17UnderstatementThe break-up was like stubbing a toe (he actually put his fist through a window and needed 12 stitches)Their love was a prick in my side (when his infatuation with her was all-consuming)Winter in Pennsylvania can be chilly (after a week of below 25 temperatures)The TV reception is annoying (when no channels will stay in & everything comes in with static)
18How things work Gary Soto Today it’s going to cost us thirty-five dollarsTo live. Six for a softball. Eight for a book,A handful of ones for coffee and two sweet rolls,Bus fare, rosin for your mother’s violin.We’re completing our task. The tip I leftFor the waitress filters downLike rain, wetting the new roots of a childPerhaps, a belligerent cat that won’t let goOf a balled sock until there’s chicken to eat.As far as I can tell, daughter, it works like this:You buy crayons from a stationer, a bag of applesFrom the farmer’s market, and what dollarsAre passed on help others buy pencils, a guitar,Tickets to a matinee movie.If we buy a goldfish, someone tries on a hat.If we buy crayons, someone walks home with a broom.A tip, a small purchase here and there,And things just keep going. I guess.
19Overstatement You’ve got it all She has the most beautiful voice you’ll ever hearHe was so mean; He was a HitlerTheir romance is as dangerous as Romeo and Juliet’sAll of the problems in this country have been caused by Democrats (or Republicans)
20I’m nobody! Who are you? Emily Dickinson I’m Nobody! Who are you? Are you—Nobody—Too?Then there’s a pair of us!Don’t tell! they’d advertise—you know!How dreary—to be—Somebody!How public—like a Frog—To tell one’s name— the livelong June —To an admiring Bog!
21Paradox Will bite when cornered (ad for a tire) Divergence or variation in the word biteBite would normally mean with teeth; this means with the tread of the tiresIt’s a Sucker (ad for a vacuum cleaner)Divergence or variation in the word suckerSucker would normally mean someone who is easily tricked; this means to actually suck in the dirt
22The secret the line, the name of the poem. I love them for finding whatI can’t find,and for loving mefor the line I wrote,and for forgetting itso thata thousand times, till deathfinds them, they maydiscover it again, in otherlinesin otherhappenings. And forwanting to know it,forassuming there issuch a secret, yes,for thatmost of all.Denise LevertovTwo girls discoverthe secret of lifein a sudden line ofpoetry.I who don’t know thesecret wrotethe line. Theytold me(through a third person)they had found itbut not what it wasnot evenWhat line it was. No doubtby now, more than a weeklater, they have forgottenthe secret,
24enjambmentThe continuation of a sentence from one line of a poem into the nextA run-on lineMakes the reader’s eye follow the lineCan help with the poem’s meter & flowIs, however, used in organic poetry, too
25The peace of wild things Wendell BerryWhen despair for the world grows in meand I wake in the night at the least soundin fear of what my life and my children’s lives may be,I go and lie down where the wood drakerests in this beauty on the water, and the great heron feeds.I come into the peace of wild thingswho do not tax their lives with forethoughtof grief. I come into the presence of still water.And I feel above me the day-blind starswaiting with their light. For a timeI rest in the grace of the world, and am free.
27Honky tonk in cleveland, ohio Carl SandburgIt's a jazz affair, drum crashes and cornet razzes.The trombone pony neighs and the tuba jackass snorts.The banjo tickles and titters too awful.The chippies talk about the funnies in the papers.The cartoonists weep in their beer.Ship riveters talk with their feetTo the feet of floozies under the tables.A quartet of white hopes mourn with interspersed snickers:"I got the blues.I got the blues.I got the blues."And as we said earlier:
28alliteration Repetition of same sound in a poem Tongue twisters Must have two or more words with same soundTongue twistersPeter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppersShelly picks sea shells at the sea shoreCalls attention to certain wordsHe who laughs last laughs first.Time and tide wait for no man.
29The bells By Edgar Alan Poe I (of IV) Hear the sledges with the bells - Silver bells! What a world of merriment their melody foretells! How they tinkle, tinkle, tinkle, In the icy air of night! While the stars that oversprinkle All the heavens seem to twinkle With a crystalline delight; Keeping time, time, time, In a sort of Runic rhyme, To the tintinnabulation that so musically wells From the bells, bells, bells, bells, Bells, bells, bells - From the jingling and the tinkling of the bells.
30assonanceRepetition of VOWEL sounds in words that are close to each otherJohn Betjeman's 'A Subaltern's Love Song'"westering, questioning settles the sun / On your low-leaded window”
31A rose for janet By Charles Tomlinson I know this rose is only an ink-and-paper rosebut see how it grows and goeson growingbeneath your eyes:a rose in flowerhas had (almost) its vegetable hourwhilst myrose of spaces and typographycan reappear at will(your will)whenever you repeatthis ceremony of the eyefrom the beginningand thuslearn howto resurrect a rosethat’s instantaneousperennialand perfect nowBy Charles Tomlinson
32consonancerepetition of similar consonant sounds, especially at the ends of wordslost and pastconfess and dismiss
33Stopping by woods on a snowy evening By Robert FrostWhose woods these are I think I know. His house is in the village though; He will not see me stopping here To watch his woods fill up with snow. My little horse must think it queer To stop without a farmhouse near Between the woods and frozen lake The darkest evening of the year. He gives his harness bells a shake To ask if there is some mistake. The only other sound's the sweep Of easy wind and downy flake. The woods are lovely, dark and deep, But I have promises to keep, And miles to go before I sleep. And miles to go before I sleep. This poem provides a good example of Assonance and Consonance. The “s” sound.
34repetition Harrison Fuller Repetition can be good Repetition can be bad Repetition can make you smile Repetition can make you mad To repeat a specific word That is repetition Repetition can take a hold That is the repeating mission Repetition is used in life Repetition is used in speech Repetition is used in writing Repetition is in reach To repeat a repeatable word Gives speech a repeatable rhyme The repeatable rhyme has a repeatable pattern Which is not a repeatable crimeRepetition can be annoying Repetition can be a pain Repetition can get better Repetition can repeatedly gain When an intelligent word is repeated It repeatedly loses its awe Repeating it often loses value But mild repetition adds more Repetition will reappear Repetition will come round Repetition will be seen again Repetition’s a familiar sound I’ll repeat what I said at the beginning And I’ll repeat it at the end Repetition may do some good But it’ll send you repeatedly round the bend
35rhymeThere will come soft rains and the smell of the ground, And swallows circling with their shimmering sound; And frogs in the pools singing at night, And wild plum-trees in tremulous white; Robins will wear their feathery fire Whistling their whims on a low fence-wire; And not one will know of the war, not one Will care at last when it done Not one would mind, neither bird nor tree If mankind perished utterly; And Spring herself, when she woke at dawn, Would scarcely know that we were gone.Each couplet has an end rhyme.Come onGet a clueYou know how to rhymeYou do!The adjacent poem is written by Sarah Teasdale and is titled, “There will come soft rains”
36imagery Words paint pictures Makes experience more real for reader Impact of meaning enhancedEvery word countsActive verbsFun wordsMeaningful adjectives
37Cherry blossoms adrift By Mary O. Fumento, 1999Pink petals passing Scents above so high Painted porcelain perfection Blossoms caress the skySwaying silent shroud Suitors strolling by Pink petals passing Lover's gentle sighPastel hues falling Slow fluttering grace Pink petals passing Lining streams in lacePink petals passing Smoothest transit by Soft essence floating In most subtle lullabyInducing springtime slumber Upon a satin shore Sailing with the current Pink petals pass before