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Preparation. Techniques Link questions Word choice Sentence structure Meaning and context Passage as a whole.

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Presentation on theme: "Preparation. Techniques Link questions Word choice Sentence structure Meaning and context Passage as a whole."— Presentation transcript:

1 Preparation

2 Techniques Link questions Word choice Sentence structure Meaning and context Passage as a whole

3 Often you will be asked to identify techniques used by writers Ensure that you are able to identify the seven techniques on the sheet you have been given.

4 You may also be asked to explain the effect of a particular technique. This is asking you why the writer has used this comparison or sound effect.

5 His eyes were clear pools of ice Technique- metaphor Effect- gives the colour of his eyes- blue and also a sense that he is a very cold person.

6 ... a walkway snaking into the distance. (Paragraph 3) Identify the technique used in this expression and explain why it is appropriate.

7 Metaphor Gives impression that the walkway is thin and twists as it goes into the horizon, much like the shape of a snake.

8 In front of him, traceurs and traceuses from tonights class are poised like trapeze artists on railings completing a study in balance. Identify the technique used in this expression and explain why it is appropriate.

9 Simile Like trapeze artists the traceurs and traceuses are balancing at a height.

10 Then quite suddenly he heard the voices fading away from him, as if the boys had tired of their game and gone home, leaving him undetected. Their voices were like bells in the distance, each answering the other and then falling silent. Iain hears the voices of the other boys. Quote a simile which describes their voices. What does it suggest about their voices?

11 Their voices were like bells in the distance Suggest that their voices were far way; he could not hear them properly.

12 The moon made a white road across the distant sea. (Paragraph 2) (a) What technique is used in this expression? (b) Explain fully what this expression suggests about the moonlight.

13 Metaphor Suggests that the moonlight was very strong. That it was reflecting on the water.

14 Their language sounded very odd, not at all liquid and running, but like the voice of stones, thorns. By referring to the passage, identify and explain one technique the writer uses to describe the stooks language.

15 like the voice of stones, thorns- simile Suggests their language sounded hard and jaggy.

16 These questions are designed to assess your understanding of how writers link similar or opposing points together in a way that helps the flow of their argument. The question might ask you to show how a sentence provides an effective link between two paragraphs or ideas.

17 How to answer 1) Identify and write down the link word or phrase and explain that it shows a change in direction of the writers argument 2) Quote the part of the sentence which refers back to the earlier topic and explain, in your own words, what the earlier topic is. 3) Quote the part of the link sentence which looks forward to the next topic and explain, in your own words, what that new topic is.

18 Explain how the one sentence paragraph is an effective link between paragraphs 1 and 3 Howard could see he knew the berries werent ready yet, like the ones behind the steading that they always picked; and he understood that this was a lesson being set up for him when he came home without brambles: not to tell lies. And thered be another lesson behind this one, the real lesson: that is father had been right about that sort of new fangled nonsense coming to grief. In spite of this, he forgot it all and slipped through the Racecourse fence. A crowd mobbed around the grandstand where they served drinks and sandwiches. He made his way through the high society of Lanark, dolled up to the nines…

19 Remember, your answer should deal with the three key elements. The phrase In spite of this, he forgot it all and slipped through the Racecourse fence acts as a link sentence. In spite of this links back to his thoughts in the previous paragraph about what his father had said. Slipped through the racecourse fence introduces what is to follow in the next paragraph as the writer describes the scene at the races.

20 What is the purpose of paragraph 2? How does it achieve this? My first encounter with someone on Twitter was at a birthday party. It was in a bar and the woman was responding to the one question Twitter poses: What are you doing? Ive always hated this question. I admit, its because the answer is generally: nothing. Or: nothing worth reporting. So for me, Twitter would be a problem. Especially since the status updates are limited to 140 characters or less. Including spaces. I love that. Who types without spaces? I am already stressed about the multitude of decisions it will pose: do I really need this space? Is this question mark important? I would have to discipline myself. No hyphenating. Wheres the fun in that?

21 Paragraph 3 acts as a link sentence. Especially since the status updates refers back to the previous paragraph which was discussing the concept of Twitter. Who types without spaces? introduces the subject of the next paragraph, which is the writers obsession with language and grammar.

22 Explain how the first sentence of paragraph two acts as a link. We hardly ever saw him, but what time he was at home my mother decided was too much. He had a weakness for getting drunk and giving his money away. On the other hand, I think he loved us dearly in his own way. When he sauntered home form his far wanderings he would bring strange toys for us, Roy and myself, and gentle, fragile china, for my mother.

23 On the other hand is a linking phrase that suggest a contrasting idea from the previous paragraph. he refers to the father whose drinking was the subject of paragraph one. Loved us dearly introduces the new idea, which is him showing his love by buying presents.

24 In these questions you are asked to discuss why the writer has used particular words.

25 Comment on how the writers word choice Find a word or short phrase that creates the effect you are being asked about. 2. Explain how the word/ phrase creates this effect.

26 Q. In Paragraph 1, the writer suggests Iains feeling of excitement. By referring to one example from Paragraph 1, explain how word choice is used to achieve this. Iain crouched behind one of the stooks listening, watching for deepening shadows, his face and hands sweaty, his knees trembling with excitement.

27 knees trembling suggests that he was so excited that he was physically affected.

28 Q. Explain how word choice is used to indicate the power of the night. It was as if the night didnt want him to speak, were forbidding him to do so, as if it were saying to him, This is my kingdom, you are not to do anything I dont wish you to do.

29 This is my kingdom makes the night seem like a powerful ruler or monarch.

30 Q. Comment on the writers use of word choice to show the agility of the athletic youths. They bound over rocks, surefooted, before leaping like cats into the air, their trainers crunching into the gravel on landing.

31 Surefooted suggests that they are in control of their movements, even complicated ones.

32 Some of the most challenging questions in Close Reading are the ones which ask you to look at the writers sentence structure and to comment on the effect that the writer is trying to create.

33 Although it may seem daunting, you can answer all sentence structure questions by using the same process every time. This can be split down into four separate parts which you should consider: 1) Sentence Length 2) Punctuation 3) Function of the Sentence 4) Any other stand-out features

34 Consider whether the writer has used a long or a short sentence and what the effect is. Long Sentences can be used to… Create a list of something Suggest a large amount Suggest that something is going on for a long time Short Sentences can be used to… Indicate that something has happened suddenly Emphasise an idea Suggest that there is little of something

35 The next thing to consider is whether there is any particular punctuation mark on which you could comment, for example, colon, semi-colon, comma, brackets etc

36 Separates different items in a list In English we have to complete a number of units before sitting the exam. These are: Personal Study, Textual Analysis, Writing and Interpretation. Surrounds extra information – parenthesis As well as this, however, you need to be focused and committed in order to make good progress.

37 Indicates an illustration or example of an idea previously mentioned There was only one solution: he would have to work much harder. Introduces a list or a quotation The contents of his pockets were as follows: a penknife; four bus tickets; a filthy handkerchief the colour or parchment and a few copper coins.

38 Balances out related statements/clauses in a sentence Talent without genius isnt much; genius without talent is nothing. Used instead of commas for lengthy/complex items in lists The new school building had 1500 pupils; forty classrooms; one staff room; two computer suites; a dining hall; an assembly hall and a large playground.

39 Two dashes indicate extra information/parenthesis The kitten – the last of the litter – was taken by a lovely little girl. Use to create a pause The new school holds 1500 pupils – I think!

40 An unfinished/incomplete/interrupted sentence Did you see the accused take a gun out of his pocket and… Objection! Defence Counsel is trying to lead the witness. Shows uncertainty or pause for special effect Well…em…um…I think I will go in that case.

41 Repetition Inversion

42 The cat sat on the mat and sat and sat and sat.

43 On the mat, the cat sat.

44 Identify the relevant features of sentence structure Explain their effect

45 Comment on the writers use of sentence structure No whisper of wind, no rustle of creaturerat or mousemoving about.

46 Comment on the writers use of sentence structure No whisper of wind, no rustle of creaturerat or mousemoving about.

47 No whisper of wind, no rustle of creaturerat or mousemoving about. Parenthesis is used to give an explanation of what type of animals might have been moving about. Repetition of no emphasises the absence of sound.

48 Comment on the writers use of sentence structure. Its hard work: the digging, scraping, cataloguing, recording, and so far theyve turned up little to justify their efforts.

49 Comment on the writers use of sentence structure. Its hard work: the digging, scraping, cataloguing, recording, and so far theyve turned up little to justify their efforts.

50 A colon is used to introduce a list of all the tasks they have been carrying out. This emphasises how much hard work there has been.

51 Comment on the writers use of sentence structure. He was breathing heavily, and the smell was inconceivably foul; it was the reek of rotting flesh, of festering wounds, of ancient perspiration, and of fear.

52 Comment on the writers use of sentence structure. He was breathing heavily, and the smell was inconceivably foul; it was the reek of rotting flesh, of festering wounds, of ancient perspiration, and of fear.

53 A semi-colon is used to join two statement s about the unpleasant smell. The second part of the sentence contains a list of the negative smells. This emphasises how overpowering these terrible smells were.

54 Comment on the writers use of sentence structure. I am already stressed about the multitude of decisions it will pose: do I really need this space? Is this question mark important? I would have to discipline myself. No hyphenating. Wheres the fun in that?

55 Comment on the writers use of sentence structure. I am already stressed about the multitude of decisions it will pose: do I really need this space? Is this question mark important? I would have to discipline myself. No hyphenating. Wheres the fun in that?

56 A colon introduces a list of questions about how to use Twitter. These questions illustrate the writers uncertainty over using Twitter.

57 For this type of question you are usually asked to use the context to explain the meaning of a particular word. In other words, how do the words round about help you to understand what the highlighted word means?

58 How to answer 1) First of all, find the word in the passage that you have been directed to and read that paragraph again. 2) Consider whether you understand the meaning of the word. If so, great. If not, look at the surrounding words and try to work it out. 3) Once you have worked out the meaning, then you should look at the context surrounding the word in question and pick out the words which have led you to your decision about its meaning. You must do this even if you knew what the word meant anyway. 4) Then in your answer you should give the DEFINITION of the word and QUOTE the words from the context EXPLAINING why they led you to your answer.

59 Explain how the context helps you to understand the meaning of vicarious in paragraphs 1 and 2 At first I was angry at him, frightened for him, but now suddenly I get this rush of joy, watching him race out there into the cold level space of the stilled river, free and warm and vivacious in that smoothed and frozen silence. I think hes done it, I think hes across the river and safe and theres a buzzy glow of vicarious accomplishment starting to well up within me, but then theres a cracking noise and he falls…

60 Do I know what it means? If yes, fine. If not, then look to the context. The word accomplishment is right next to the word vicarious which tells us that something has been achieved. The fact that the narrator is watching his friend and that he says I think hes done it shows us that the achievement is his friends. What does this tell us when we put all of this information together? Vicarious must mean that the narrator is experiencing this achievement through his friend. So, generally, vicarious means to experience something through someone else. Remember that in your answer you must give the meaning and quote the words from the context which helped you to understand – even if you knew the meaning of the word anyway.

61 The word vicarious means to experience something through another person. The word accomplished shows that something has been achieved and the fact that the writer says, I think hes done it shows the reader that it is through another person that he is experiencing this incident.

62 Explain how the context helps you to understand the meaning of taxidermy in Paragraph 1. When the London dodo died, the animal was stuffed and sold to the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford. Taxidermy not being what it is today, over the next few decades the dodo slowly rotted until it was thrown out in All, that is, except the moth-eaten head and one leg

63 The word taxidermy means to preserve the skin of a dead animal and stuff it in a lifelike form. The word stuffed leads the reader to this assumption and the fact that it had rotted implies that a poor job has been done of preserving the animal.

64 What is the meaning of the word erudite, and how does the rest of paragraph 1 help you understand this? Meanwhile, Im sure he has no idea he has legitimised the site for the legions over 30. I can understand following him because from what Ive heard, his updates are witty and clever. But with other less erudite celebs, the immediacy of the information doesnt hold the same appeal.

65 Erudite means knowledgeable or learned (1). Earlier reference to witty and clever help understand this (1)


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