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HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Hawkes Learning Systems: Intermediate.

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Presentation on theme: "HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Hawkes Learning Systems: Intermediate."— Presentation transcript:

1 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Hawkes Learning Systems: Intermediate Algebra Section 7.1a: Quadratic Equations: The Square Root Method

2 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Objectives o Solve quadratic equations by factoring o Solve quadratic equations by using the definition of a square root.

3 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Solving Quadratic Equations by Factoring When the solutions of a polynomial equation can be found by factoring, the method depends on the zero-factor property. Zero-Factor Property If the product of two factors is 0, then one or both of the factors must be 0. For factors a and b, For example,

4 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Solving Quadratic Equations by Factoring An equation that can be written in the form Where a, b, and c are real numbers and is called a quadratic equation.

5 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. To Solve an Equation by Factoring 1.Add or subtract terms so that one side of the equation is 0. 2.Factor the polynomial expression. 3.Set each factor equal to 0 and solve each of the resulting equations. Note: If two of the factors are the same, then the d solution is said to be a double root or a root d of multiplicity two.

6 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 1: Solving Quadratic Equations by Factoring Solve the following quadratic equation by factoring. Subtract 18 from both sides. One side must be zero. Factor the left-hand side. Set each factor equal to 0. Solve each linear equation. or

7 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 2: Solving Quadratic Equations by Factoring Solve the following quadratic equation by factoring. The solution is a double root.

8 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Solving Quadratic Equations by Factoring o Quadratic equations may have nonreal complex solutions. o In particular, the sum of two squares can be factored as the product of complex conjugates. o For example,

9 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 3: Quadratic Equations Involving the Sum of Two Squares Solve the following equation by factoring. Check:

10 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Square Root Property v If, then or, or. If, then Note: If c is negative, then the solutions will be nonreal.

11 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Using the Definition of Square Root and the Square Root Property Consider the equation Allowing that the variable, x, might be positive or negative, we use the definition of square root, Taking the square root of both sides of the equation gives: So we have two solutions,

12 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Using the Definition of Square Root and the Square Root Property Similarly, for the equation the definition of square root gives This leads to the two equations and the two solutions, as follows:

13 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 4: Using the Square Root Property Solve the following quadratic equations by using the Square Root Property. a. b.

14 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Hawkes Learning Systems: Intermediate Algebra Section 7.1b: Quadratic Equations: Completing the Square

15 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Objectives o Solve quadratic equations by completing the square o Find polynomials with given roots.

16 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Completing the Square o Recall that a perfect square trinomial is the result of squaring a binomial. o Our objective here is to find the third term of a perfect square trinomial when the first two terms are given. This is called completing the square.

17 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Completing the Square Perfect Square Trinomials Equal Factors Square of a Binomial

18 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Completing the Square Step 1: Write the equation in the form. Step 2: Divide by if, so that the coefficient of is :. Step 3: Divide the coefficient of by, square the result, and add this to both sides. Step 4: The trinomial on the left side will now be a perfect square. That is, it can be written as the square of an algebraic expression.

19 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 1: Completing the Square Add the constant that will complete the square for the expression. Then write the new expression as the square of a binomial. Solution: Since the leading coefficient is 1, we can begin to complete the square. We take half of the coefficient of the x term and square the result.

20 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 1: Completing the Square Adding 81 to the expression yields the perfect square trinomial This can be factored as Thus completing the square gives us:

21 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 2: Completing the Square Solve the following quadratic equation by completing the square. Take half of the coefficient of the x term. Square the result.

22 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 2: Completing the Square (Cont.) Adding 9 to both sides of the original equation will result in a perfect square trinomial. Add 9 to both sides (completing the square). Factor the left-hand side. Use the Square Root Property to solve. or We write these two solutions as:

23 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 3: Completing the Square Solve the following quadratic equation by completing the square. Divide each term by 2 so that the leading coefficient will be 1. Isolate the constant term. Take half of the coefficient of the x term, and square it.

24 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 3: Completing the Square (Cont.) Use the Square Root Property. or Add 4 to both sides of Factor the left-hand side of the equation.

25 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Writing Equations with Known Roots To find the quadratic equation that has the given roots and, first get 0 on one side of each equation. Set the product of the two factors equal to 0 and simplify. Continued on the next slide…

26 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Writing Equations with Known Roots Regroup the terms to present the product of complex conjugates. This makes the multiplication easier.

27 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 4: Equations with Known Roots Find the quadratic equation that has the given roots. and Get 0 on one side of each equation. Set the product of the two factors equal to 0.

28 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 4: Equations with Known Roots (Cont.) Simplify and solve.

29 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Hawkes Learning Systems Intermediate Algebra Section 7.2: Quadratic Equations: The Quadratic Formula

30 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Objectives o Write quadratic equations in standard form. o Identify the coefficients of quadratic equations in standard form. o Solve quadratic equations using the quadratic formula. o Determine the nature of the solutions (one real, two real, or two non-real) for quadratic equations using the discriminant.

31 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Standard Form of the Quadratic Equation We are interested in developing a formula that can solve quadratic equations of any form. This formula will always work, though other techniques may be more convenient to use. We want to solve the standard form equation of the quadratic formula for x in terms of a, b and c. The standard form of the quadratic equation is where,, and are real numbers and.

32 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Development of the Quadratic Formula Continued on the next page… Standard form. Add –c to both sides. Divide both sides by a so that the leading coefficient is 1. Complete the square. Simplify.

33 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Development of the Quadratic Formula Combine the fractions on the right side of the equation. Square Root method. The quadratic formula. Find LCM of the denominators on the right side.

34 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Development of the Quadratic Formula The quadratic formula,, can ALWAYS solve quadratic equations of any form. Because it is so useful, you should memorize the quadratic formula.

35 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Discriminant The expression is called the discriminant. The discriminant determines the number of solutions to the given quadratic equation. If the discriminant is: PositiveZeroNegative Discriminant Number of Solutions 212 Solution(s) Real or Non-real Real Non-real

36 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Solve Quadratic Equations Using the Quadratic Formula Ex: Solve the quadratic equation using the quadratic formula. Compare it to the standard quadratic equation to find a, b and c. Solve the discriminant by plugging a, b and c into. Since the discriminant is 0, there is one real solution. Use the quadratic formula to find the solution, x. We know that the discriminant is 0, so we can just plug that in. Solution: ̶ 1

37 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 1: Solve Quadratic Equation Using the Quadratic Formula Solve the quadratic equation using the quadratic formula. Discriminant: Number of solutions: Real or non-real: Compare it to the standard quadratic equation to find a, b and c. Solve the discriminant by plugging a, b and c into. Continued on the next page… What does it mean for a discriminant to be negative?

38 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 1: Solve Quadratic Equation Using the Quadratic Formula (Cont.) Solutions: Use the quadratic formula to find the solution, x. We know that the discriminant is ̶ 3, so we can plug that in.

39 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 2: Solve Quadratic Equation Using the Quadratic Formula Solve the quadratic equation using the quadratic formula. Discriminant: Number of solutions: Real or non-real: Compare it to the standard quadratic equation to find a, b and c. Solve the discriminant by plugging a, b and c into. Continued on the next page… What does it mean for a discriminant to be positive?

40 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 2: Solve Quadratic Equation Using the Quadratic Formula (Cont.) Solutions: Use the quadratic formula to find the solution, x. We know that the discriminant is 1, so we can plug that in.

41 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Hawkes Learning Systems: Intermediate Algebra Section 7.3: Applications- Quadratic Equations

42 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Objective Solve applied problems by using quadratic equations.

43 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Strategy for Solving Word Problems 1.Read the problem carefully. 2.Decide what is asked for and assign a variable to the unknown quantity. 3.Draw a diagram or set up a chart whenever possible. 4.Form an equation (or inequality) that relates the information provided. 5.Solve the equation or inequality. 6.Check your solution with the wording of the problem to be sure that it makes sense.

44 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. The Pythagorean Theorem o Problems involving right triangles often require the use of quadratic equations. o In a right triangle, one of the angles is a right angle (measures ), and the side opposite this (the longest side) is called the hypotenuse. o The other two sides are called legs. hypotenuse leg

45 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. The Pythagorean Theorem In a right triangle, the square of the hypotenuse ( ) is equal to the sum of the squares of the legs ( and ).

46 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 1: The Pythagorean Theorem The width of a rectangle is 5 yards less than its length. If one diagonal measures 25 yards, what are the dimensions of the rectangle? Solution: Draw a diagram for problems involving geometric figures whenever possible. Let Then, by the Pythagorean Theorem,

47 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 1: The Pythagorean Theorem (Cont.) Now, solve the quadratic equation. A negative number does not fit the conditions of the problem. Length: Width:

48 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Projectiles The formula is used in physics and relates to the height of a projectile such as a thrown ball, a bullet or a rocket. height of object, in feet. time object is in the air, in seconds. beginning velocity, in feet per second. beginning height. if object is initially at ground level.

49 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 2: Projectiles A bullet is fired straight up from 6 feet above ground level with a muzzle velocity of 420 ft per sec. When will the bullet hit the ground? Solution: The bullet hits the ground when Divide both sides by 2.

50 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 2: Projectiles Use the quadratic formula to solve the equation. Therefore, the bullet hits the ground in seconds.

51 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 3: Cost per Person The Ski Club is planning to charter a bus to a ski resort. The cost will be $200 and each member will share the cost equally. At the last minute, 30 more member decide to go on the trip. The cost to each of the members will be $6 less. How many members are going to the ski resort now? Let the original number of club members going on the trip. the actual number of club members that took the trip. Initial cost per member Final cost per member Difference in cost per member

52 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 3: Cost per Person (Cont.) Multiplying each term by the LCM of the denominators results in the following: Factor out 6.

53 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 3: Cost per Person (Cont.) Use the quadratic formula to solve. The number of members that actually went to the ski resort is

54 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 4: Geometry The Smiths have a rectangular swimming pool that is 5 ft longer than it is wide. The pool is completely surrounded by a concrete deck that is 3 ft wide. The total area of the pool and the deck is 1. Find the dimensions of the pool. Let width of the pool and the deck length of the pool and the deck

55 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 4: Geometry (Cont.) Use the quadratic equation to solve. Therefore, the length of the pool is feet, and the width of the pool is feet. or

56 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Hawkes Learning Systems Intermediate Algebra Section 7.4: Equations in Quadratic Form

57 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Objectives o Make substitutions that allow equations to be written in quadratic form. o Solve equations that can be written in quadratic form. o Solve equations that contain rational expressions.

58 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Solving Equations in Quadratic Form The general quadratic equation is where. The equations and are not quadratic equations, but they are in quadratic form because the degree of the middle term is one- half the degree of the first term. Specifically, and Degree of the first term Degree of the second term

59 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Solving Equations in Quadratic Form Solving Equations in Quadratic Form by Substitution 1.Look at the middle term. 2.Substitute a first-degree variable, such as u, for the variable expression in the middle term. 3.Substitute the square of this variable, u², for the variable expression in the first term. 4.Solve the resulting quadratic equation for u. 5.Substitute the results back for u in the beginning substitution and solve for the original variable.

60 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 1: Solving Equations in Quadratic Form Solve the equation in quadratic form by substitution. Step 1: Look at the middle term. Step 2: Substitute a first-degree variable, such as u, for the variable expression in the middle term. Step 3: Substitute the square of this variable, u², for the variable expression in the first term. Step 4: Solve the resulting quadratic equation for u. Step 5: Substitute the results back for u in the beginning substitution and solve for the original variable.

61 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 2: Solving Equations in Quadratic Form Solve the equation in quadratic form by substitution. Step 1: Look at the middle term. Step 2: Substitute a first-degree variable, such as u, for the variable expression in the middle term. Step 3: Substitute the square of this variable, u², for the variable expression in the first term. Step 4: Solve the resulting quadratic equation for u. Step 5: Substitute the results back for u in the beginning substitution and solve for the original variable.

62 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 3: Solving Equations in Quadratic Form Solve the equation in quadratic form by substitution. Step 1: Look at the middle term. Step 2: Substitute a first-degree variable, such as u, for the variable expression in the middle term. Step 3: Substitute the square of this variable, u², for the variable expression in the first term. Step 4: Solve the resulting quadratic equation for u. Step 5: Substitute the results back for u in the beginning substitution and solve for the original variable.

63 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 4: Solving Equations in Quadratic Form Solve the equation in quadratic form by substitution. Step 1: Look at the middle term. Step 2: Substitute a first-degree variable, such as u, for the variable expression in the middle term. Step 3: Substitute the square of this variable, u², for the variable expression in the first term. Step 4: Solve the resulting quadratic equation for u. Step 5: Substitute the results back for u in the beginning substitution and solve for the original variable.

64 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 5: Solving Equations in Quadratic Form Solve the equation in quadratic form by substitution. Step 1: Look at the middle term. Step 2: Substitute a first-degree variable, such as u, for the variable expression in the middle term. Step 3: Substitute the square of this variable, u², for the variable expression in the first term. Step 4: Solve the resulting quadratic equation for u. Step 5: Substitute the results back for u in the beginning substitution and solve for the original variable.

65 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Solving Equations with Rational Expressions Recall that to solve equations with rational expressions, first multiply every term on both sides of the equation by the least common multiple (LCM) of the denominators. This will clear the equation of fractions. Remember to check the restrictions on the variables. That is, no denominator can have a value of 0.

66 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 6: Solving Equations with Rational Expressions Solve the following equation containing rational expressions. This equation is not in the quadratic form. Multiply both sides of the equation by the LCM, (4x – 2)(x + 3), to clear the fractions. The restrictions on x are. Simplify. Continued on next slide...

67 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 6: Solving Equations with Rational Expressions (Cont.) Use the quadratic formula to solve. There are two solutions to this equation.

68 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 7: Solving Equations with Rational Expressions Solve the following equation containing rational expressions. This equation is not in the quadratic form. Multiply both sides of the equation by the LCM, (2x + 3)(x – 2), to clear the fractions. The restrictions on x are. Simplify. Continued on next slide...

69 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 7: Solving Equations with Rational Expressions (Cont.) Use the quadratic formula to solve., so the only solution is or

70 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Solve the higher degree equation. Example 8: Solving Higher-Degree Equations Factor out x. Factor the difference of two squares. Solve for x. There are five solutions for x.

71 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 9: Solving Higher-Degree Equations Solve the higher degree equation. Factor out (x – 2). Factor the quadratic equation. Solve for x. There are three solutions for x.

72 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Hawkes Learning Systems Intermediate Algebra Section 7.5: Graphing Parabolas

73 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Objectives o Graph a parabola (a quadratic function) and determine its vertex, domain, range, line of symmetry and zeros. o Solve applied problems by using quadratic functions and the concepts of maximum and minimum.

74 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Introduction to Quadratic Functions Concepts related to various types of functions and their graphs include domain, range and zeros. In this section we will include a detailed analysis of quadratic functions, functions that are represented by quadratic expressions.

75 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Introduction to Quadratic Functions What is the graph of the function ? The nature of the graph can be investigated by plotting several points. xy

76 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Introduction to Quadratic Functions The complete graph of is shown below. This curve is called a parabola. The point is the turning point of the parabola and is called the vertex. The line is the line of symmetry or axis of symmetry for the parabola. That is, the curve is a mirror image of itself with respect to the line.

77 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Introduction to Quadratic Functions Quadratic Functions A quadratic function is any function that can be written in the form where a, b, and c are real numbers and The graph of every quadratic function is a parabola. Parabolas that open up or down are vertical parabolas and parabolas that open left or right are horizontal parabolas. Horizontal parabolas do not represent functions.

78 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Introduction to Quadratic Functions We will discuss quadratic functions in each of the following five forms where a, b, c, h and k are constants:

79 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. If The graph liesBelow the x-axisAbove the x-axis Vertex This is the only point where the graph touches the x-axis. Domain (All real numbers) Range Quadratic Functions Functions of the Form

80 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Quadratic Functions Domain: {x|x is any real number} Range: {y|y 0} In interval notation: Domain:, Range: Domain: {x|x is any real number} Range: {y|y 0} In interval notation: Domain:, Range:

81 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Quadratic Functions The graphs on the previous slide illustrate the following characteristics of quadratic equations of the form : a.If, the parabola opens upward. b.If, the parabola opens downward. c.The bigger is, the narrower the opening. d.The smaller is, the wider the opening. e.The line (the y-axis) is the line of symmetry.

82 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. If The y-valueDecreases byIncreases by ShiftDown unitsUp units Vertex Line of Symmetry Quadratic Functions Functions of the Form

83 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Quadratic Functions Domain: {x|x is any real number} Range: {y|y k} In interval notation: Domain:, Range: Domain: {x|x is any real number} Range: {y|y k} In interval notation: Domain:, Range:

84 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. If The graph liesBelow or on the x-axis Above or on the x-axis Vertex The graph opens DownUp Quadratic Functions Functions of the Form

85 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Quadratic Functions Domain: {x|x is any real number} Range: {y|y 0} In interval notation: Domain:, Range: Domain: {x|x is any real number} Range: {y|y 0} In interval notation: Domain:, Range:

86 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. If The x-valueDecreases byIncreases by ShiftLeft unitsRight units Line of Symmetry Quadratic Functions For the graph of,

87 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Graph Shift ofVertex Line of Symmetry Does not apply Up or Down Left or Right Quadratic Functions In summary,

88 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Quadratic Functions Ex: Graph the quadratic function. Find the line of symmetry and the vertex, and state the domain and range of each function. Solution: Line of symmetry is. The parabola opens upward. Vertex: Any function of the form has x = 0 for its line of symmetry. a = 2, so a is positive., so the vertex is. Continued on the next slide…

89 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Quadratic Functions Domain: or Range: or True of all functions of the form. Because.

90 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 1: Quadratic Functions Graph the quadratic function. Find the line of symmetry and the vertex, and state the domain and range of each function. Solution: Line of symmetry is. The parabola opens. Vertex: A function of the form has x = h for its line of symmetry. a = ̶ 1, so a is negative., so the vertex is. Continued on the next slide…

91 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Quadratic Functions Domain: or Range: or True of all functions of the form. Because. ( )

92 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Quadratic Functions Functions of the form combine both the vertical shift of units and the horizontal shift of units. The vertex is at. For example, the graph of the function is a shift of the graph of up 5 units and to the right 3 units and has its vertex at. The graph of is the same as the graph of but is shifted left unit and down 2 units. The vertex is at.

93 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Quadratic Functions

94 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Quadratic Functions To easily find the vertex, line of symmetry, range, and to graph the parabola, we want to change the general form into the form. This can be accomplished by completing the square using the following technique. Write the function. Factor a from the first two terms. Complete the square. Continued on the next slide…

95 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Quadratic Functions Note: the vertex must lie at. Move the negative factor out of the parentheses, first multiplying by a. Write the square of the binomial and simplify. In terms of the coefficients a, b and c, is the line of symmetry and is the vertex.

96 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Quadratic Functions Note! Rather than memorize the formulas for the coordinates of the vertex, you should just remember that the x-coordinate of the vertex is. Substituting this value for x in the function will give the y-value for the vertex.

97 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Zeros of a Quadratic Equation The points where a parabola crosses the x-axis, if any, are the x-intercepts. This is where. These points are also called the zeros of the function. We find these points by substituting 0 for y and solving the resulting quadratic equation. If the solutions are non-real complex numbers, then the graph does not cross the x-axis. quadratic function quadratic equation

98 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Zeros of a Quadratic Function Ex: Find the zeros of the function, the line of symmetry, the vertex, the domain, the range and graph the parabola. Solution: Quadratic Formula The zeros of the function. Continued on the next slide…

99 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Zeros of a Quadratic Equation Change the form of the function for easier graphing. Add inside the parenthesis.

100 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Zeros of a Quadratic Function Summary Zeros: Line of Symmetry: Vertex: Domain: Range:

101 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 2: Zeros of a Quadratic Function Find the zeros of the function, the line of symmetry, the vertex, the domain, the range and graph the parabola. Solution: Quadratic Formula. The zeros of the function. Continued on the next slide…

102 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 2: Zeros of a Quadratic Function (Cont.) Change the form of the function. Add inside the parenthesis. Factor from the first two terms. Put outside of the parenthesis. Continued on the next slide…

103 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 2: Zeros of a Quadratic Function (Cont.) Summary Zeros: Line of Symmetry: Vertex: Domain: Range:

104 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 3: Zeros of a Quadratic Function Find the zeros of the function, the line of symmetry, the vertex, the domain, the range and graph the parabola. Solution: Quadratic Formula. Continued on the next slide… There are no real zeros because the discriminant is negative. The graph will not cross the x-axis.

105 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 2: Zeros of a Quadratic Function (Cont.) To find the vertex, use another approach. First find the x-value. Simplify. Plug the x-value into the original equation. Continued on the next slide… So we have the following vertex.

106 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 2: Zeros of a Quadratic Function (Cont.) Insert graph p. 597 example 2 c. Summary Zeros: Line of Symmetry: Vertex: Domain: Range:

107 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Applications with Maximum/Minimum Values Note: The vertex of a vertical parabola is either the lowest point or the highest point on the graph of the parabola. Therefore, the vertex can be used to determine the maximum or minimum value of a quadratic function.

108 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Applications with Minimum/Maximum Values Minimum and Maximum Values For a parabola with its equation in the form 1.If, then the parabola opens upward and is the lowest point and is called the minimum value of the function. 2.If, then the parabola opens downward and is the highest point and is called the maximum value of the function.

109 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Application and Minimum/Maximum Values If the function is in the general quadratic form, then the maximum or minimum value can be found by letting and solving for y. The concepts of minimum and maximum values of a function help not only in graphing but also in solving many types of applications.

110 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 3: Maximization/Minimization Problems A movie theater sells regular adult tickets for $7.50 each. On average, they sell 5,000 tickets per day. The company estimates that each time they raise ticket prices by 50¢, they will sell 1,000 fewer tickets. What price should they charge to maximize their revenue (income) per day? What will be the maximum revenue? Let x = number of 50¢ increases in price. Then the price per ticket = and the number of tickets sold = Revenue = (price per unit)(number of units sold) Continued on the next slide…

111 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 3: Maximization/Minimization Problems (Cont.) So, The revenue represented by a quadratic function and the maximum revenue occurs at the point where For, price per ticket = And the maximum revenue =

112 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 4: Maximization/Minimization Problems A farmer plans to use 2500 feet of spare fencing material to form a rectangular area for cows to graze alongside a river, using the river as one side of the rectangular area. How should he split up the fencing among the other three sides in order to maximize the rectangular area? If we let x represent the length of one side of the rectangular area then the dimensions of the rectangular area are x feet by x feet (see image above). We will let A be the name of our function that we wish to maximize in this problem, so we want to find the maximum possible value of. MOO! Continued on the next slide…

113 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Note: If we multiply out the formula for A, we get a quadratic function. We know this function is a parabola opening down. We also know that the vertex is the maximum point on this graph. Remember, the vertex is the point. So, plugging in the values, we get the vertex Therefore, the maximum possible area is A(625): Example 4: Maximization/Minimization Problems (Cont.)

114 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Hawkes Learning Systems: Intermediate Algebra Section 7.6a: Solving Quadratic Inequalities

115 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Objectives o Solve quadratic inequalities. o Solve higher degree inequalities. o Graph the solutions for inequalities on real number lines.

116 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Quadratic Inequalities For values of x on either side of a number a, the sign for an expression of the form changes. If, then is positive. If, then is negative.

117 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. To Solve Quadratic or Higher Degree Inequalities 1.Arrange the terms so that one side of the inequality is 0. 2.Factor the algebraic expression, if possible, and find the points where each factor is 0. (Use the quadratic formula, if necessary, to find the points where a quadratic expression is 0.) 3.Mark these points on a number line. Consider these points as endpoints of intervals Continued on the next slide…

118 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. To Solve Quadratic or Higher Degree Inequalities (Cont.) 4.Test one point from each interval to determine the sign of the expression for that interval. 5.The solution consists of those intervals where the test points satisfy the original inequality.

119 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 1: Quadratic Inequalities Solve the following inequality by factoring and using a number line. Then, graph the solution set on a number line. Step 1: Add -15 to both sides so that the right-hand side is 0. Step 2: Factor the left-hand side.

120 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 1: Quadratic Inequalities (Cont.) Step 3: Set each factor equal to 0 and solve to find the endpoints. Step 4: Mark these points on a number line and test one point from each of the intervals.

121 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 1: Quadratic Inequalities (Cont.) Test one point from each interval. Test Step 5:

122 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 1: Quadratic Inequalities (Cont.) We have found that: Therefore, the solution is: or

123 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 2: Cubic Inequality Solve the following inequality by using a number line and graph each solution set on a number line. Factor the left-hand side. Set each factor equal to 0 and solve to find the endpoints.

124 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 2: Cubic Inequality (Cont.) Mark the endpoints on a number line and test one point from each of the intervals found. Endpoints : Test

125 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 2: Cubic Inequality (Cont.) Test

126 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 2: Cubic Inequality (Cont.) We have found that: Therefore, the solution is

127 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 3: Quadratic Inequality Solve the following inequality by using a number line and graph each solution set on a number line. Solution: Since this quadratic equation will not factor with integer coefficients, use the quadratic formula to find the endpoints for the intervals. The test points can be integers.

128 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 3: Quadratic Inequality (Cont.)

129 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 3: Quadratic Inequality (Cont.) Test

130 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 3: Quadratic Inequality (Cont.) We have The solution is:

131 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Hawkes Learning Systems: Intermediate Algebra Section 7.6b: Solving Inequalities with Rational Expressions

132 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Objectives o Solve inequalities containing rational expressions. o Graph the solutions for inequalities containing rational expressions.

133 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Solving Inequalities with Rational Expressions o For linear inequalities, the solution always contains the points to one side or the other of the point where the inequality has the value 0. o A rational inequality may involve the product or quotient of several first-degree expressions. For example, involves the two first-degree expressions and. o For ( ), if, then is negative; if, is positive.

134 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Solving Inequalities with Rational Expressions Procedure for Solving Polynomial Inequalities with Rational Expressions 1.Simplify the inequality so that one side is 0 and the other side has a single fraction with both the numerator and denominator in factored form. 2.Find the points that cause the factors in the numerator or in the denominator to be 0. 3.Mark each of these points on a number line. These are interval endpoints. Continued on the next slide…

135 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Solving Inequalities with Rational Expressions 4.Test one point from each interval to determine the sign of the polynomial expression for all points in that interval. 5.The solution consists of those intervals where the test points satisfy the original inequality. 6.Mark a bracket for an endpoint that is included and a parenthesis for an endpoint that is not included. Remember that no denominator can be 0.

136 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Solving Inequalities with Rational Expressions The steps are as follows: a. Find the points where each linear factor has the v value 0. b. Mark each of these points on a number line. C Consider these points as endpoints of intervals. The three intervals formed are

137 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Solving Inequalities with Rational Expressions c. Choose any number from each interval as a test value to determine the sign of the expression for all values in that interval. Remember, we are not interested in the value of the expression, only whether it is positive or negative. We have chosen the test values,, and.

138 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Solving Inequalities with Rational Expressions Substituting the values,, and into the original inequality gives: ResultsExplanation The expression is positive for all x in (ng inf,neg4) The expression is negative for all x in (-4,3) The expression is positive for all x in (3,posinf)

139 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Solving Inequalities with Rational Expressions d. The solution to the inequality consists of all the intervals that indicate the desired sign: + (for ) or – (for ). The solution for the above expression is: In algebraic notation: In interval notation: Graphically:

140 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 1: Solving and Graphing Inequalities Solve and graph the solution for the following inequality: Solution: Set each linear expression equal to 0 to find the interval endpoints. Test a value from each of the intervals:

141 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 1: Solving and Graphing Inequalities (Cont.) Substituting the values,, and into the original inequality gives: ResultsExplanation The expression is positive for all x in (neginf,-1). The expression is negative for all x in (-1,5). The expression is positive for all x in (5, inf).

142 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 1: Solving and Graphing Inequalities (Cont.) We can conclude that the solution for the above inequality in interval notation is: In algebraic notation: Graphically:

143 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 2: Solving and Graphing Inequalities Solve and graph the solution for the following inequality: Solution: Simplify to get one fraction.

144 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 2: Solving and Graphing Inequalities (Cont.) Set each linear expression equal to 0 to find the interval endpoints. Test a value from each of the intervals:

145 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 2: Solving and Graphing Inequalities (Cont.) Substituting the values -4, 0, and 4 into the original inequality gives: ResultsExplanation The expression is positive for all x in (neginf, -4) The expression is positive for all x in (2, inf). The expression is negative for all x in (-2,2).

146 HAWKES LEARNING SYSTEMS math courseware specialists Copyright © 2010 Hawkes Learning Systems. All rights reserved. Example 2: Solving and Graphing Inequalities (Cont.) We can conclude that the solution for the above inequality in interval notation is: In algebraic notation: Graphically: Note: 2 from the denominator is not included in the solution set because the quotient is undefined there.


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