6Waving the Bloody Shirt! Republicans nominated Civil War General Ulysses S. Grantgreat soldierhad no political experienceDemocrats?could only denounce military Reconstructioncouldn’t agree on anything els e= were disorganized.
7Waving the Bloody Shirt! The Republicans got Grant elected (barely) by “waving the bloody shirt”=reliving his war victoriesused his popularity to elect himpopular vote was only slightly ahead of rival Horatio Seymour.Seymour = Democratic candidatedidn’t accept a redemption-of-greenbacks-for-maximum-value platform, and thus doomed his party.Since election = close Republicans could not take future victories for granted.
10The Era of Good Stealings Despite the Civil War, the population grewPartially due to immigrationpolitics became very corruptRailroad promoters cheated gullible customers.Too many judges and legislators put their power up for hire.
11The Era of Good Stealings Jim Fisk and Jay Gouldnotorious millionairesIn 1869, they concocted a plot to corner the gold marketPlan would only work if the treasury stopped selling goldthey worked on President Grant directly and through his brother-in-lawplan failed when the treasury sold gold.
12The Era of Good Stealings Tweed Ring (AKA, “Tammany Hall) of NYCHeaded by “Boss” TweedUsed bribery, graft, and fake elections to cheat the city of as much as $200 millioncaught when The New York Times secured evidence of his misdeedsdied in jail.
13The Tweed Ring in NYCWilliam Marcy Tweed (notorious head of Tammany Hall’s political machine)[Thomas Nast crusading cartoonist/reporter]
15A Carnival of Corruption Grantfailed to see corruption going onmany of his friends wanted officeshis cabinet was totally corrupt
16Credit Mobilierrailroad construction company that paid itself huge sums of money for small railroad constructionTarred GrantNY newspaper reported it2 members of Congress were formally censuredcompany had given some of its stock to the congressmenVice President was shown to have accepted 20 shares of stock
17Whiskey Ring1875- public learned that the Whiskey Ring had robbed the Treasury of millionsgroup of officials were importing whiskey & using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars.when Grant’s own private secretary was shown to be one of the criminals, Grant retracted his earlier statement of “Let no guilty man escape.”1876, Secretary of War William Belknap was shown to have pocketed some $24,000 by selling junk to Indians
19The Election of 1872Rumors of corruption during Grant’s first term discredit Republicans.Horace Greeley runs as a Democrat/Liberal Republican candidate.Greeley attacked as a fool and a crank.Greeley died on November 29, 1872!
22The Panic of 1873 Causes: Started when… Unrestrained speculation on the railroadsToo easy creditStarted when…failure of the NY banking firm Jay Cooke & Company, which was headed by the rich Jay Cooke, a financier of the Civil War.
23 Depression, Deflation, & Inflation Greenbacks that had been issued in the Civil War were being recalledbut now, during the panic“cheap-money” supporters wanted greenbacks to be printed en mass again, to create inflation. supporters of “hard-money” (actual gold and silver) persuaded Grant to veto a bill that would print more paper money
24 Depression, Deflation, & Inflation Resumption Act of 1875government would withdraw greenbacks & maKe all further redemption of paper money in gold at face value, starting in 1879.Debtors now cried that silver was under-valued (another call for inflation),Grant refused to coin more silver dollars, which (stopped in 1873)new silver discoveries in the later 1870s shot the price of silver way down. Grant’s name remained fused to sound money, though not sound government.
25 Depression, Deflation, & Inflation greenbacks regain their valuefew greenback holders exchange their more convenient bills for gold when Redemption Day came in 18791878, the Bland-Allison Act instructed the Treasury to buy and coin between $2 million and $4 million worth of silver bullion each month. The minimum was actually coined and its effect was minimal on creating “cheap money.”
26 Depression, Deflation, & Inflation Republican hard-money policy,led to the election of a Democratic House of Representatives in 1874Spawned the Greenback Labor Party in 1878primarily composed of prairie farmers who went into debt during the Panic of 1873fought for increased monetary circulation through issuance of paper currency and bimetallism (using both gold and silver as legal tender)supported inflationarysought benefits for labor such as shorter working hours and a national labor bureau.wanted the government to print more greenbacks.
30Northern Support Wanes “Grantism” & corruption.Panic of 1873 [6-year depression].Concern over westward expansion and Indian wars.Key monetary issues:should the government retire $432m worth of “greenbacks” issued during the Civil War.should war bonds be paid back in specie or greenbacks.
402. Intense Voter Loyalty to the Two Major Political Parties
413. Well-Defined Voting Blocs Democratic BlocRepublican BlocWhite southerners (preservation of white supremacy)CatholicsRecent immigrants (esp. Jews)Urban working poor (pro-labor)Most farmersNorthern whites (pro-business)African AmericansNorthern ProtestantsOld WASPs (support for anti-immigrant laws)Most of the middle class
424. Very Laissez Faire Federal Govt. From Govt. did very little domestically.Main duties of the federal govt.:Deliver the mail.Maintain a national military.Collect taxes & tariffs.Conduct a foreign policy.Exception administer the annual Civil War veterans’ pension.
435. The Presidency as a Symbolic Office Party bosses ruled.Presidents should avoid offending any factions within their own party.The President just doled out federal jobs.1865 53,000 people worked for the federal govt.1890 166,000 “ “ “ “ “ “
44The Birth of Jim Crow in the Post-Reconstruction South Reconstruction ended …military returned northwardwhites asserted their power.Literacy requirements for voting began,voter registration laws emergedpoll taxes begantargeted at black voters.
45The Birth of Jim Crow in the Post-Reconstruction South Most blacks became sharecroppersproviding nothing but laborOr tenant farmersif they could provide their own toolsPlessy v. Ferguson:1896, the Supreme Court ruled in the case of that “separate but equal” facilities were constitutional“Jim Crow” segregation was legalized.
46Class Conflicts & Ethnic Clashes Railroad Strike:Background:1877, the presidents of the nation’s 4 largest railroads decided to cut wages by 10%.Workers struck back, stopping workPresident Hayes sent troops to stop this,violence eruptedmore than 100 people died in the several weeks of chaos.
47Class Conflicts & Ethnic Clashes Failure of the railroad strike?showed weakness of the labor movementNote: this was partly caused by friction between races, especially between the Irish and the Chinese.In San Francisco, Irish-born Denis Kearney incited his followers to terrorize the Chinese
48Class Conflicts & Ethnic Clashes Anti-Chinese sentiment:1879-Congress passed a bill severely restricting the influx of Chinese immigrants (most of whom were males who had come to California to work on the railroadsHayes vetoed the billSaid that it violated an existing treaty with ChinaAfter Hayes left office, the Chinese Exclusion Act, passed in 1882, was passed, barring any Chinese from entering the United States—the first law limiting immigration.
49James A. Garfield 1880 : Republicans nominated James A. Garfield from Ohio rose to the rank of major general in the Civil Waras his running mate, a notorious Stalwart (supporter of Roscoe Conkling) was chosen: Chester A. Arthur of New YorkDemocrats chose Winfield S. Hancock,Civil War general (appealed to the South)due to his fair treatment of it during Reconstruction & a veteran who had been wounded at Gettysburg, and thus appealed to veterans.
51James A. Garfield campaign avoided touchy issues Garfield squeaked by in the popular vote (the electoral count was wider: 214 to 155).Garfield was a good person, but he hated to hurt people’s feelings and say “no.”Garfield named James G. Blaine to Secretary of the Statehe made other anti-Stalwart acts, but on September 19, 1881, Garfield died after having been shot in the head by a crazy but disappointed office seeker, Charles J. Guiteau, who, after being captured, used an early version of the “insanity defense” to avoid conviction (he was hanged anyway).
52Republican infighting Stalwarts Republicans fighting for civil service reform during Garfield's term; they supported Cleveland.Half-breeds Favored tariff reform and social reform, major issues from the Democratic and Republican parties. They did not seem to be dedicated members of either party
531881: Garfield Assassinated! Charles Guiteau: I Am a Stalwart, and Arthur is President now!
54Chester Arthur Chester Arthur surprised many Gave cold shoulder to Stalwarts (his chief supporters)called for reformRepublican party slowly embraces reform
55Pendleton Act (1883) Civil Service Act. The “Magna Carta” of civil service reform.1883 14,000 out of 117,000 federal govt. jobs became civil service exam positions.1900 100,000 out of 200,000 civil service federal govt. jobs.
56Republican “Mugwumps” Reformers who wouldn’t re-nominate Chester A. Arthur.Reform to them create a disinterested, impartial govt. run by an educated elite like themselves.Social Darwinists.Laissez faire government to them:Favoritism & the spoils system seen as govt. intervention in society.Their target was political corruption, not social or economic reform!
57The MugwumpsMen may come and men may go, but the work of reform shall go on forever.Will support Cleveland in the 1884 election.
581884 Presidential Election Grover Cleveland James Blaine * (DEM) (REP)
59A Dirty CampaignMa, Ma…where’s my pa? He’s going to the White House, ha… ha… ha…!
61Rum, Romanism & Rebellion! Led a delegation of ministers to Blaine in NYC.Reference to the Democratic Party.Blaine was slow to repudiate the remark.Narrow victory for Cleveland [he wins NY by only 1149 votes!].Dr. Samuel Burchard
63Cleveland’s First Term The “Veto Governor” from New York.First Democratic elected since 1856.A public office is a public trust!His laissez-faire presidency:Opposed bills to assist the poor as well as the rich.Vetoed over 200 special pension bills for Civil War veterans!
64The Tariff IssueAfter the Civil War, Congress raised tariffs to protect new US industries.Big business wanted to continue this; consumers did not.1885 tariffs earned the US $100 mil in surplus!President Cleveland’s view on tariffs????wasn’t really interested in the subject at first, but as he researched it, he became inclined towards lowering the tariff, so in late 1887, Cleveland openly tossed the appeal for lower tariffs into the lap of Congress.
65The Billion Dollar Congress Speaker of the House, Thomas B. Reed= tremendous debater & very critical man.To solve the problem of reaching a quorum (having enough voters to vote) in Congress, Reed counted the Democrats who were present yet didn’t answer to the roll call, and after three days of such chaos, he finally prevailed, opening the 51st, or “Billion Dollar” Congress—one that legislated many expensive projects.
70Price Indexes for Consumer & Farm Products: 1865-1913
71Founder of the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry (1867)
72The Grange MovementFirst organized in the 1870s in the Midwest, the south, and Texas.Set up cooperative associations.Social and educational components.Succeeded in lobbying for “Granger Laws.”Rapidly declined by the late 1870s.
73The Farmers AlliancesBegun in the late 1880s (Texas first the Southern Alliance; then in the Midwest the Northern Alliance).Built upon the ashes of the Grange.More political and less social than the Grange.Ran candidates for office.Controlled 8 state legislatures & had 47 representatives in Congress during the 1890s.
75The Populist (Peoples’) Party Founded by James B. Weaver and Tom Watson.Omaha, NE Convention in July, 1892.Got almost 1 million popular votes.Several Congressional seats won.James B. Weaver, Presidential Candidate& James G. Field, VP
76Omaha Platform of 1892 Politically: Direct election of US Senators Enacting state laws by voters themselvesEconomically:Unlimited coinage of silver increase money supplyGraduated income taxGovt. ownership of RRs, telephone & telegraph companies.Loans and federal warehouses for farmers to enable them to stabilize prices for their crops8 hour day for industrial workersSub treasuries = Plan would have enabled farmers to borrow against their unsold crops from a public fund until their cotton could be profitably marketedPolitically:Direct election of US SenatorsEnatcing state laws by voters themselvesEconomically:Unlimited coinage of silver increase money supplyGraduated income taxGovt. ownership of RRs, telephone & telegraph companies.Loans and federal warehouses for farmers to enable them to stabilize prices for their crops8 hour day for industrial workers
80Causes of the 1893 Panic Begun 10 days after Cleveland took office. Several major corps. went bankrupt.Over 16,000 businesses disappeared.Triggered a stock market crash.Over-extended investments.Bank failures followed causing a contraction of credit [nearly 500 banks closed].By 1895, unemployment reached 3 million.Americans cried out for relief, but the Govt. continued its laissez faire policies!!
82Written by a Farmer at the End of the 19c When the banker says he's broke And the merchant’s up in smoke, They forget that it's the farmer who feeds them all. It would put them to the test If the farmer took a rest; Then they'd know that it's the farmer feeds them all.
83Coxey’s Army, 1894Jacob Coxey & his “Army of the Commonweal of Christ.”March on Washington “hayseed socialists!”Wanted gov’t to relieve unemployment
84Result of Election Returns Populist vote increased by 40% in the bi-election year, 1894.Democratic party losses in the West were catastrophic!But, Republicans won control of the House.
87William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925) The “Great Commoner”
88William Jennings Bryan Prairie avenger, mountain lion,Bryan, Bryan, Bryan, Bryan,Gigantic troubadour, speaking like a siege gun,Smashing Plymouth Rock with his boulders from the West.Revivalist style of oratory.
89Bryant’s “Cross of Gold” Speech You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns; you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold!
90Bryan: The Farmers Friend (The Mint Ratio) 18,000 miles of campaign “whistle stops.”
91Democratic Party Taken Over by the Agrarian Left Platform tariff reductions; income tax; stricter control of the trusts (esp. RRs); free silver.
103Populism: A political philosophy supporting the rights and power of the people in their struggle against the privileged elite.
104The Wonderful Wizard of Oz was written as an allegory to the situation that was happening in the Midwest. Every main character can be traced to either a particular person or group of people. Even the word “Oz” is used to represent the measurement of gold.
105Dorothy:Represents everyman. She is an innocent Midwest girl who is able to see what is really going on in Oz.
106Munchkins:Represent the common people, controlled by the Wicked Witch of the East (who represented the Eastern Industrialists and Bankers.
107Scarecrow:Represents the wise but naïve western farmer, taken advantage of by the industrialists and bankers.
108Tinman:Represents the dehumanized industrial worker. He is turned into a machine back the industrialists because of his hard work ethic and not having another craft to succeed in. He eventually becomes unable to love.
109Cowardly Lion:Represents William Jennings Bryan, having a loud roar but was unable to back it up (bite).
110Wicked Witch of the West: Represents the Western industrial influence and is ultimately destroyed by water (representing pure nature, a removal of machines).
111"Your Silver Shoes will carry you over the desert "Your Silver Shoes will carry you over the desert.....If you had known their power you could have gone back to your Aunt Em the very first day you came to this country." Glinda explains, "All you have to do is knock the heels together three times and command the shoes to carry you wherever you wish to go." (p.257).
112"The Silver Shoes had fallen off in her flight through the air, and were lost forever in the desert" (p.259).The drive for the gold standard to be replaced with silver was lost when Bryan lost the election and the Populist party lost its motivation or drive.
113Although the silver had been lost, the important message is a return to the Midwest farmer/family. It is where true happiness remains. Back in Oz, the Scarecrow now runs the Emerald City, the Tinman rules in the west, and the Lion rules over smaller animals in the forest. Power has been returned to the people.
115Map 18.4 The Heyday of Western Populism, 1892 (p. 537) This map shows the percentage of the popular vote won by James B. Waver, the People’s Party candidate in the presidential election of Except in California and Montana, the Populists won broad support across the West and genuinely threatened the established parties in that region.
116Why Did Populism Decline? The economy experienced rapid change.The era of small producers and farmers was fading away.Race divided the Populist Party, especially in the South.The Populists were not able to break existing party loyalties.Most of their agenda was co-opted by the Democratic Party.
117Map 18.5 The Elections of 1892 & 1896 (p. 540) In the 1890’s the age of political stalemate came to an end. Compare the 1892 map with the 1888 map an note especially Cleveland’s breakthrough in the normally Republican states of the upper Midwest. In 1896 the pendulum swung n the opposite direction, with McKinley’s consolidation of Republican control over the Northeast and Midwest far overbalancing the Democratic advances in the thinly populated western states. The 1896 election marked the beginning of forty years of Republican dominance in national politics.