NFC Short-range, high frequency Radio Frequency Identity (RFID) technology Operating distance: 4 cm to 10 cm Operating Frequency: 13.56 MHz Data rates of NFC radio: 106 kbit/s, 212 kbit/s 424 kbit/s Communication between two device: – Initiator – Target Data transmission protocols: – ISO 14443, ISO 15693, ISO 18092 NFC application specification: – NFC forum
NFC data exchange principle Source: Mifare® (14443A) 13.56 MHz RFID Proximity Antennas www.nxp.com/documents/application_note/AN78010.pdfwww.nxp.com/documents/application_note/AN78010.pdf Active Device i.e. reader Proximity coupling device (PCD) Connected to power source Generates an electromagnetic field for data exchange Passive Device i.e. NFC card or tag Proximity integrated circuit card (PICC) Harvests power from an Active device
NFC devices Active Device i.e. reader – Proximity coupling device (PCD) – Connected to power source – Generates an electromagnetic field for data exchange – E.g. Contactless Readers, NFC-enabled mobile phones Passive Device i.e. NFC card or tag – Proximity integrated circuit card (PICC) – Harvests power from an Active device – E.g. NFC tags, contactless smart cards
Modes of operation Reader / Writer Mode (PCD, ISO 14443) – Active device that transmits power – Read and modify data stored in passive tags – E.g. Mobile phone reading smart poster Card Emulation Mode (PICC, ISO 14443) – Acts like a passive target – Interacts with external active readers – E.g. Mobile phone used as transport ticket Peer-to-peer Mode (ISO 18092) Both initiator and target transmit power – Establishes bi-directional data connection – E.g. A mobile phone exchanging a virtual business card with another mobile phone.
Type of Tags http://open-nfc.org/documents/PRE_NFC_0804-250%20NFC%20Standards.pdf
Type 1 TagsType 2 TagsType 3 Tags Type 4 Tags Unique Identity4 or 7 bytes 8 bytes7 bytes Transmission Protocol ISO 14443A ISO 18092ISO 14443A Memory Size96 bytes ( up to 2 KB) 64 bytes (up to 2 KB) Variable sizes (up to 1 MB) Variable sizes (up to 32KB) Memory Organization 12 blocks, each of 8 bytes 16 pages, each of 4 bytes Blocks, each of 16 bytes Smart card based. OTP bits48 bits32 bits Lock bits16 bits Re-writableUntil locked Pre-defined Data collision protection NoYes Transmission speed 106 kbits/s 212 kbits/s or 424 kbits/s 106 kbits/s, 212 kbits/s, 424 kbits/s ExamplesTopazUltralightFeliCa LiteJava cards, DESFire NFC forum tag types
Threats on Memory Tags Tag cloning – E.g. Four Square check in tags can be cloned to falsely claim that you have been at that location (e.g. to claim loyal customer discount). – Can be prevented to some degree by calculating MAC. Modification of tag data Physical replacement of tag with another valid tag – E.g. tag that provides a geographic location of a place can be replaced with another tag with different location.
Example: Security on Type 2 tag Page addressByte Numbers 00hUID0UID1UID2BCC0 01hUID3UID4UID5UID6 02hBICC1INTLOCK0LOCK1 03hOTP0OTP1OTP2OTP3 04hData0Data1Data2Data3 05hData4Data5Data6Data7 …. 0FhData44Data45Data46Data47 Bits76543210 LOCK0L7L6L5L4L3BL 15-10BL 9-4BL OTP LOCK1L15L14L13L12L11L10L9L8 Byte 0 to 9: read only. Byte 10 to 15: One time programmable bytes; each bits in OTP bytes can only be set to 1 but can not reset back to 0 L : Lock page, BL: Block lock, Once a BL bit is set the locking configuration for the corresponding page is unchangeable.
NFC tag security Security mechanism: – Each card has unique 7-byte UID – One-time programmable page: 32 bits that can be set to one but not reset to zero – Pages can be locked to prevent writing Security assumptions: – The UID cannot be cloned or spoofed !!!? – When reading the tag, the UID and card content cannot be modified by the attacker (physical session integrity) !!!? – Attacker can freely write data to the card, and interrupt sessions (tear card away from reader)
No cryptographic security in NFC specs NFC transmission protocol does not define any specific encryption or security mechanism – ISO 14443 used in Read/Write and Card Emulation mode – ISO 18092 used in Peer-to-peer mode NDEF specifications defines signature schemes for integrity protection. – Doesnt prevents content cloning (signature doesnt cover the card UID) – Doesnt include reader authentication for access control Therefore, cryptographic security must be defined by the NFC application
Relay Attack on NFC Relaying e.g. contactless EMV payments from your pocket to a faraway shop – Requires card emulation on the proxy token – Does not require UID spoofing because EMV does not use the UID Source: L. Francis, G. P. Hancke, K. E. Mayes, and K. Markantonakis. Practical Relay Attack on Contactless Transactions by Using NFC Mobile Phones. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2011/618, 2011. http://eprint.iacr.org/2011/618.
Contactless smart cards Memory tags with some security functionality – MIFARE Ultralight: UID, lock bytes, OTP – Ultralight C: triple-DES authentication – FeliCa, DESFire: file system with access control lists Smart cards with wireless interface – CPU and operating system – Tamper-resistant environment – Secure crypto-processor – Secure file system – E.g. JavaCard, EMV contactless debit and credit cards Distinction between memory cards and smart cards is not always clear cut
NFC support in phones Integration of NFC in mobile phones is growing – Nokia Lumia 920, Samsung Galaxy S III, Nexus 4 etc. Reader/writer and P2P modes, mostly not card emulation NDEF tag reader / writer applications – Four square check in Some phones provides Secure element necessary for card emulation however they do not provide APIs to access it Potential NFC applications: – Public transport tickets – Payment – Loyalty card
Threats on NFC phones Denial of Service attacks – Mobile phone NFC stack reacts to tags within the NFC range. – Some mal-formatted tags can jam the stack – Also, most of the card manager in SE blocks itself after 10 successive authentication failure. Malware delivery via NFC – Mobile OSs are designed to reads NDEF message and open application based on the NDEF content. E.g. NDEF with URL cause phone to open the URL in a web browser – NDEF message with URL to malware download page. – NFC Message with malicious file Malicious file was sent over NFC to exploit android document viewer vulnerability to gain full rights on the device. Android privilege escalation vulnerability
Secure Environment Requirements Security Requirements – Tamper proof hardware to store keys and other secrets – Process sensitive information, e.g. cryptographic operations, isolated from the mobile OS. – Direct connection from secure hardware to NFC modem (single wire protocol) Functional Requirements – Portability when you buy a new phone – Ability to host multiple secure applications on the same phone – Remote (over-the-air) management of applications and secret Currently available Security Elements (SE): – SIM card – Secure Micro SD – Programmable Trusted Execution Environment (ObC) – Embedded Secure Element (attached to the NFC circuit board)
Security Element Architecture, e.g. SIM Card Manager SIM applet Application Firewall Credit card Applet Public-transport ticket Public-transport ticket Issuer Security Domain Issuer Security Domain Third Party Security Domain SIM is multi-application smart card Each service provider creates a separate Security Domain on the card Problems: increases the complexity of card manager; no support for over-the-air installation of new applets
Trusted Service Manager (TSM) Bank Public-transit Authority Public-transit Authority … … TSM Service Providers Mobile Network Operator (MNO) SIM Embedded SE μSD Loyalty Model currently favored by network operators: Single trusted entity serving both MNO and Service Providers Securely distributes and personalize the SP application to the customers SE over the air (OTA personalization). Verify users device and SE capabilities and resources Manage life cycle of the applications
NFC Data Exchange Format (NDEF) NDEF Message NDEF Record Header Payload NDEF is Message encapsulation format. Used to exchange messages between: NFC devices or An NFC device and a tag. Contains one or more NFC application data as NDEF Record Header defines the properties of the Payload. Start and end of NDEF records Record type definition (RTD): payload data type Length of the payload etc.
Signature Record Type Definition Provides integrity and authenticity Signature RTD contains: – Signature, RSA (1024) with SHA-1 and PKCS#1 v 1.5 padding or PSS ECDSA (P-192) with SHA-1 with no padding. – Certificate chain. Signature Record apply for – all preceding records, (from record 1) or, – Record following the preceding Signature record. NDEF Record 1 NDEF Record 1 NDEF Record 2 NDEF Record 2 Empty NDEF Signature Record 1 Empty NDEF Signature Record 1 NDEF Record 3 NDEF Record 3 NDEF Signature Record 2 NDEF Signature Record 2 Signed records Signature for record 1 & 2 Signed recordSignature only for record 3
Tag UID based NFC applications Simple Access control application based on tag UID – NFC tags is used as credential to identify the user – Reader must be connected to a backend database – Backend server maintains access policies Pros: – Simple and cheap solution (UID cannot be faked easily) – Suitable for small scale business Cons: – Backend complexity increases with the number of customers – Readers needs to be connected to the backend server all the time.
Event Ticketing One time or limited use tags – MIFARE Ultralight Reader implements cryptographic functionality – Key diversification – e.g. Hash(UID + Master key) – Encrypts data and store the cipher-text on tags. – Reads the cipher-text from tags and decrypts data. Use of OTP bytes as incremental counter Use Lock bytes to prevent rewrite MAC for integrity protection
Public transit application Proprietary solutions are widely used – MIFARE Classic – MIFARE DESFire – Uses Symmetric crypto 3 DES, AES – Value is stored on the card Standards – ITSO: Interoperable public transport ticketing using contactless smart customer media.
Open Payment Ticketing Smart Card Alliance proposal for NFC ticketing Each traveler is has a travel account in server cloud, which is operated by a service provider (SP) Travel card only stores users identity and credentials 1.User identity is verified by a reader at the station gate 2.Ticket identity and travel information sent to a backend server 3.The backend server calculates the ticket fare and forwards the information to SP for payment collection 4.Payment is collected by SP Allows credentials from different SPs to be used – E.g. Bank cards, SIM card, National ID etc.
Transport Authority Service Provider (accounting authority) Rating Engine (fare calculation) Open Payment Ticketing with Mobile Phone NFC Transport Authority Operates transport system Calculate the fare calculation based on the ID and traveling distance Collects ticketing evidence for auditing Service provider (e.g. bank or mobile operator) Manages the customer relationship and travel account; issues the travel credentials Collects evidence directly from phones and from Transport Authority for auditing Collets payment from the customer (prepaid or credit)
Identity Verification in Open Payment Challenge || ID R ReaderDeviceReaderDevice Cert D (PK D || ID D ||…) Sig D [Challenge ||ID D ||ID R ] Challenge || ID R Fresh Token MAC K [Challenge || ID D ||ID R ] The Open Payment challenge-response protocol: User Verification at the gate Exchange of data > 1KB Authentication time is around 1 sec with current NFC data speed Faster secret-key protocol: Reader and SP share a secret key Phone fetches fresh token from SP over the Internet before traveling Reader verifies the fresh token with its key Exchange of data < 100B MAC verification by SP for additional auditing; not done in real time
Mobile NFC Payment: Google Wallet First Generation Google Wallet (no longer in use) Secure Element in the phone stores credit-card information – Embedded secure element on PN65 NFC board in Google phones – Can store more than one credit card Mobile phone acts as a credit card when presented to a payment terminal – NFC card emulation mode Payment protocol is controlled by wallet applet running inside the secure element Application running in user space provides interfaces for – PIN entry, selection of credit card, displaying payment information Google acted as the TSM and distributed credit card applets to the phones
Mobile NFC Payment: Google Wallet Second Generation Google Wallet Users credit card or bank account information is stored by Google in the cloud Secure element on the phone stores a virtual payment card identity 1.During payment, user selects payment card or bank from the application on his phone 2.The virtual card is presented to the point-of-sale terminal 3.Google collects the payment from users credit card or bank account and makes the payment to the merchant Payment terminal needs to be modified to support this service
Additional reading NFC Data Exchange Format (NDEF) Technical Specification Madlmayr, G.; Langer, J.; Kantner, C.; Scharinger, J.;, "NFC Devices: Security and Privacy," Availability, Reliability and Security, 2008. ARES 08. Third International Conference on, vol., no., pp.642-647, 4-7 March 2008 doi: 10.1109/ARES.2008.105 L. Francis, G. P. Hancke, K. E. Mayes, and K. Markantonakis. Practical Relay Attack on Contactless Transactions by Using NFC Mobile Phones. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2011/618, 2011. http://eprint.iacr.org/2011/618.