2Section 1 Focus Question: How did immigration in the 1840’s influence the balance of power between the Whig & Democratic partiesBig Picture:Texas independenceImmigration & territorial gain = political change
3Expectations & Motivations Desire for religious freedom & better economic conditions.Unsafe boat rides, fake tickets, goal to find close knit groups.Arrival: NE & SouthIrish—no $ for farms & worked in urban NE.Germans—Spread from N.O. up Miss. RiverCities demanded & welcomed immigrant labor
4Germans 1860—Germany contained diverse groups, religions, & origins. Farmers & professionals.Levi StraussLanguage connectorGerman-American Communities: own schools, companies, doctors…Did not go outside their communities.Struggled to gain political positions.
5Irish 1815-1820—mostly Protestant & small land owners Mid-1840’s—poor & Catholic—800,000 immigrated to the US“Great Famine”Worked in construction, textiles, & servants
6Nativists & Policy Anti-Catholic Protestants = Nativists Feared job lossGeorge Henry Evans— National Reform AssociationTried to gain land for newcomersUnions organized to attract workersCommonwealth v Hunt 1842—allowed UnionsMass.—fired union workersDemocratsGerman & Irish support due to focus on jobsTried to push expansion & banking/tariffs to group“Forty-Eighters”WhigsTurned off immigrant supportSupported Abolitionism (job competition)Supported Moral behavior (temperance & education).Thought G/I were spreading bad behavior to public.
7Section 2 Focus Question: What economic and political forces fed westward expansion during the 1840’s?Big Picture:“West”—land W. of the Appalachians & Miss. River.
8Land & TradeLANDTranscontinental Treaty or Adams Onis Treaty (1819)—Parts of “Oregon” territory split between US & BR.1820—Mexico gains independence & takes TX & NMMexico territory undisputed.
9Land & TradeTRADEMerchants sailed around S. America to trade with California.“Californios”Catholic & SpanishTrails & trade links:St. Louis, MO to Santa Fe, NMSilver PesoBeaver pelts
10Conflict with MexicoStephen Austin owned land in Texas, passed down from his fatherHe led a group of 300 Americans to Texas to start a small colonyAmericans were told they could stay IF they agreed to become Mexican citizens and worship in the Roman Catholic Church
11Growing Conflict Thousands more flooded into Texas Disregarded Mexican lawBrought slaves and were Protestants1830 Mexico banned further U.S. settlement and tried to enforce its lawsBegan to levy heavy taxes on U.S. imports
12Declaring Independence In Mexico there was a movement for a more democratic government1833 General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna took control of governmentOver turned constitution and began a dictatorship (one person rule)
131836, under urging of Austin, Texans declared independence from Mexico
14What Did Mexicans Want?What did the Americans want?
15Texans at warSanta Anna attacked the Alamo, a mission where Texans and Mexican Texans (Tejanos) were gatheredThe Texans and Tejanos held out for 12 days under heavy cannon fire before Mexican forces overran it
17Results of the AlamoAll the defenders killed in battle or executed afterwardsInspired by their bravery, many American volunteers joined the Texan ArmyLater Sam Houston, commander of the Texan Army led a surprise attack on Santa Anna at San JacintoCaptured Santa Anna and forced him to recognize Texan independence
20Beginnings of the Mexican-American War Polk offered Mexican government cash to settle the border dispute, purchase California and the rest of New MexicoThis angered Mexico and they refusedPolk then tried to provoke the MexicansSent General Zachary Taylor into the disputed landMexicans ambushed them and Polk asked Congress for a declaration of war
21Settlement & Trails to the West By 1840—small groups settled in CA, NM, & OR.Overland Trails4 month tripSupplies: guns, but shot themselves by accidentTraveled in groups: starvation, hypothermia…“Donner Party”1840: 11,500 immigrated & only 2,000 made it“Californios” issues…
23The Doomed Donner Party April, 1846 – April, 1847
24The Doomed Donner Party CANNIBALISM ! !Margaret Patrick John Breen Breen BreenOf the 83 members of the Donner Party, only 45 survived to get to California!James Reed & Wife
25Section 3 Focus Question How did westward expansion threaten war with Britain & Mexico?Big Picture:Annex Texas?CA? NM? OR?Economic Recovery
26Whigs 1840—William Henry Harrison Dies = John Tyler VP Goal to stimulate economyRevise tariffs for internal improvementsDies = John Tyler VPSecret DemocratVetoes Whig programs like Compromise 1833 to lower tariffsRaises tariffs to give to North (sim to Jackson
27Whigs 1842—Webster Ashburton Treaty Great Britain Settled disputes between Maine & CanadaTyler thought support would lead to support for annexing TXNorthern conspiracyGreat Britain
28“Manifest Destiny”First coined by newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan in 1845.".... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federal development of self-government entrusted to us. It is right such as that of the tree to the space of air and the earth suitable for the full expansion of its principle and destiny of growth."A myth of the West as a land of romance and adventure emerged.
35AnnexationBefore Polk took office President Tyler called for admission of Texas as stateAs President, Polk negotiated a treaty with Britain to divide Oregon (Now states of Washington, Oregon, and parts of Idaho) (49th Parallel)
36Section 4 Focus Question: How did the outcome of the Mexican-American War intensify intersectional conflicts?Big Picture:Gaining CA & NM = slavery issues!
37The Mexican American War War with Mexico popular with most AmericansSupport was strongest among Westerners and Southerners who wanted more land
38Why would Westerners want more land? Why would Southerners want more land?How would the belief in “Manifest Destiny” make people support the war?
39Polk Many Northerners argued that Polk had provoked the war How had Polk “provoked” the war?Polk
40Rebellion in California Polk ordered troop under the command of Stephen Kearny to invade and capture Santa Fe, New MexicoSettlers near San Francisco had begun their own revolt against Mexico
41They raised a grizzly bear flag and declared California an independent republic John C. Fremont took control of the “Bear Flag Rebellion”Quickly captured major cities of California (Monterey and San Francisco)Fremont
42He then moved on to join forces with U. S He then moved on to join forces with U.S. troops under the command of KearnyKearny’s troops captured Santa Fe and San DiegoUnited with naval units to occupy all of southern CaliforniaKearny
43Invasion of MexicoGeneral Zachary Taylor and General Winfield Scott swept through Mexico with stunning victories even though they were often outnumberedHow do you think they still won?
44Scott’s campaign ended at Chapultepec, a stone palace above the capital of Mexico City The Mexican troops fought bravely to defend Chapultepec, but most were killedHow is this similar to the American experience at the Alamo?After Americans won the capital city, Santa Anna fledThe U.S. had won the war
45Achieving Manifest Destiny The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe HidalgoUnder the treaty, Mexico recognized the annexation of Texas and gave the U.S. large amounts of territoryMexican Cession included present day California, Nevada, Utah and parts of Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona, and New MexicoU.S. also paid $15 million for this land
46In the Gadsden Purchase of 1853, U. S In the Gadsden Purchase of 1853, U.S. paid Mexico $10 million for a narrow strip of present day Arizona and New Mexico
48How did Each Person Help bring Mexican land under u.s. control? A. General KearnyB. General Zachary TaylorC. General Winfield ScottD. John FremontE. President TylerF. President PolkG. Stephen AustinH. Sam Houston