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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 13: IMMIGRATION, EXPANSION, & SECTIONAL CONFLICT 1840-1848."— Presentation transcript:


2 Section 1 Focus Question: How did immigration in the 1840s influence the balance of power between the Whig & Democratic parties Big Picture: Texas independence Immigration & territorial gain = political change

3 Expectations & Motivations Desire for religious freedom & better economic conditions. Unsafe boat rides, fake tickets, goal to find close knit groups. Arrival: NE & South Irishno $ for farms & worked in urban NE. GermansSpread from N.O. up Miss. River Cities demanded & welcomed immigrant labor

4 Germans 1860Germany contained diverse groups, religions, & origins. Farmers & professionals. Levi Strauss Language connector German-American Communities: own schools, companies, doctors… Did not go outside their communities. Struggled to gain political positions.

5 Irish mostly Protestant & small land owners Mid-1840spoor & Catholic ,000 immigrated to the US Great Famine Worked in construction, textiles, & servants

6 Nativists & Policy Anti-Catholic Protestants = Nativists Feared job loss George Henry Evans National Reform Association Tried to gain land for newcomers Unions organized to attract workers Commonwealth v Hunt 1842allowed Unions Mass.fired union workers Democrats German & Irish support due to focus on jobs Tried to push expansion & banking/tariffs to group Forty-Eighters Whigs Turned off immigrant support Supported Abolitionism (job competition) Supported Moral behavior (temperance & education). Thought G/I were spreading bad behavior to public.

7 Section 2 Focus Question: What economic and political forces fed westward expansion during the 1840s? Big Picture: Westland W. of the Appalachians & Miss. River.

8 Land & Trade Transcontinental Treaty or Adams Onis Treaty (1819)Parts of Oregon territory split between US & BR. 1820Mexico gains independence & takes TX & NM Mexico territory undisputed. LAND

9 Land & Trade Merchants sailed around S. America to trade with California. Californios Catholic & Spanish Trails & trade links: St. Louis, MO to Santa Fe, NM Silver Peso Beaver pelts TRADE

10 Conflict with Mexico Stephen Austin owned land in Texas, passed down from his father He led a group of 300 Americans to Texas to start a small colony Americans were told they could stay IF they agreed to become Mexican citizens and worship in the Roman Catholic Church

11 Growing Conflict Thousands more flooded into Texas Disregarded Mexican law Brought slaves and were Protestants 1830 Mexico banned further U.S. settlement and tried to enforce its laws Began to levy heavy taxes on U.S. imports

12 Declaring Independence In Mexico there was a movement for a more democratic government 1833 General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna took control of government Over turned constitution and began a dictatorship (one person rule)

13 1836, under urging of Austin, Texans declared independence from Mexico

14 What Did Mexicans Want?What did the Americans want?

15 Texans at war Santa Anna attacked the Alamo, a mission where Texans and Mexican Texans (Tejanos) were gathered The Texans and Tejanos held out for 12 days under heavy cannon fire before Mexican forces overran it


17 Results of the Alamo All the defenders killed in battle or executed afterwards Inspired by their bravery, many American volunteers joined the Texan Army Later Sam Houston, commander of the Texan Army led a surprise attack on Santa Anna at San Jacinto Captured Santa Anna and forced him to recognize Texan independence



20 Beginnings of the Mexican-American War Polk offered Mexican government cash to settle the border dispute, purchase California and the rest of New Mexico This angered Mexico and they refused Polk then tried to provoke the Mexicans Sent General Zachary Taylor into the disputed land Mexicans ambushed them and Polk asked Congress for a declaration of war

21 Settlement & Trails to the West By 1840small groups settled in CA, NM, & OR. Overland Trails 4 month trip Supplies: guns, but shot themselves by accident Traveled in groups: starvation, hypothermia… Donner Party 1840: 11,500 immigrated & only 2,000 made it Californios issues…

22 Trails Westward

23 The Doomed Donner Party April, 1846 – April, 1847

24 The Doomed Donner Party James Reed & Wife Margaret Patrick John Breen Breen Breen Of the 83 members of the Donner Party, only 45 survived to get to California! CANNIBALISM ! ! CANNIBALISM ! !

25 Section 3 Focus Question How did westward expansion threaten war with Britain & Mexico? Big Picture: Annex Texas? CA? NM? OR? Economic Recovery

26 Whigs 1840William Henry Harrison Goal to stimulate economy Revise tariffs for internal improvements Dies = John Tyler VP Secret Democrat Vetoes Whig programs like Compromise 1833 to lower tariffs Raises tariffs to give to North (sim to Jackson

27 Whigs 1842Webster Ashburton Treaty Settled disputes between Maine & Canada Tyler thought support would lead to support for annexing TX Northern conspiracy Great Britain

28 Manifest Destiny First coined by newspaper editor, John OSullivan in ".... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federal development of self- government entrusted to us. It is right such as that of the tree to the space of air and the earth suitable for the full expansion of its principle and destiny of growth." A myth of the West as a land of romance and adventure emerged.

29 American Progress by John Gast, 1872

30 Manifest Destiny 1849 John OSullivan Manifest Destiny or Sea to Shining Sea Justification by God Spread influences Democracy, religion, slavery Democratic Expansionists New Party Supported by Irish & Anti-slavery advocates Over expansion = ungovernable empire

31 Annexing Texas and Oregon Election of 1844 Election was between Henry Clay (Whig) and James K. Polk Polk won by promising to annex Texas and Oregon


33 Tensions with Mexico Mexico had never formally recognized Texan independence Treaty Santa Anna signed set boundary at Rio Grande Mexican government claimed boundary was further north


35 Annexation Before Polk took office President Tyler called for admission of Texas as state As President, Polk negotiated a treaty with Britain to divide Oregon (Now states of Washington, Oregon, and parts of Idaho) (49 th Parallel)

36 Section 4 Focus Question: How did the outcome of the Mexican-American War intensify intersectional conflicts? Big Picture: Gaining CA & NM = slavery issues!

37 The Mexican American War War with Mexico popular with most Americans Support was strongest among Westerners and Southerners who wanted more land _flash.html

38 Why would Southerners want more land? How would the belief in Manifest Destiny make people support the war? Why would Westerners want more land?

39 Many Northerners argued that Polk had provoked the war How had Polk provoked the war?

40 Rebellion in California Polk ordered troop under the command of Stephen Kearny to invade and capture Santa Fe, New Mexico Settlers near San Francisco had begun their own revolt against Mexico

41 They raised a grizzly bear flag and declared California an independent republic John C. Fremont took control of the Bear Flag Rebellion Quickly captured major cities of California (Monterey and San Francisco)

42 He then moved on to join forces with U.S. troops under the command of Kearny Kearnys troops captured Santa Fe and San Diego United with naval units to occupy all of southern California

43 Invasion of Mexico General Zachary Taylor and General Winfield Scott swept through Mexico with stunning victories even though they were often outnumbered How do you think they still won?

44 Scotts campaign ended at Chapultepec, a stone palace above the capital of Mexico City The Mexican troops fought bravely to defend Chapultepec, but most were killed How is this similar to the American experience at the Alamo? After Americans won the capital city, Santa Anna fled The U.S. had won the war

45 Achieving Manifest Destiny The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Under the treaty, Mexico recognized the annexation of Texas and gave the U.S. large amounts of territory Mexican Cession included present day California, Nevada, Utah and parts of Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico U.S. also paid $15 million for this land

46 In the Gadsden Purchase of 1853, U.S. paid Mexico $10 million for a narrow strip of present day Arizona and New Mexico

47 The Mexican Cession

48 How did Each Person Help bring Mexican land under u.s. control? A. General Kearny B. General Zachary Taylor C. General Winfield Scott D. John Fremont E. President Tyler F. President Polk G. Stephen Austin H. Sam Houston



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