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Enhancing Cultural Learning for Global and Local Engagement May 2012

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1 Enhancing Cultural Learning for Global and Local Engagement May 2012
An educational module developed by inter-professional faculty for the University of Maryland Student Center for Global Education

2

3 MODULE OVERVIEW This module is a product of the University of Maryland Baltimore campus-wide Global Health Inter-professional Council (GHIC) as one of several initiatives to encourage multidisciplinary global health activities. The GHIC is comprised of faculty members from the six UMB professional schools who are committed to collaborative and innovative methods of study to prepare professionals to work across disciplines in developing and implementing effective health care delivery and advocacy. The primary focus of this educational module is to explore various cultural concepts designed to assist University of Maryland students, staff, and faculty in preparation for engagement in different global and local contexts.

4 MODULE OVERVIEW Module participants will engage in online learning, including readings, case examples, and reflection exercises. If the URLs embedded in the module content do not directly link to the reference website, please cut and paste the URL into a separate browser and click to review the recommended resource. Estimated time to complete this module is three to four (3-4) hours. You may log-in multiple times to complete this module. At the end, you will be asked to complete a journaling exercise and a questionnaire on cross-cultural adaptability.

5 LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the conclusion of this module, participants will be able to: Understand aspects of intercultural communication, cross-cultural skills, and adjustment learning. Identify and self-assess the influences of beliefs, values, and attitudes on personal assumptions and social expectations and obligations. Discuss concepts of cultural competency across different professions and understand the profile of the inter-culturally effective person (IEP). Summarize country-specific background information on Malawi and identify additional key resources. Describe global citizenship and core expectations for UM students, staff, and faculty. Re-examine the content of this module and formulate ways to integrate cultural lessons into your individual professional development.

6 MODULE OUTLINE Introduction: “What’s Up with Culture?”
Overview: Cultural Competency Across Different Professions Malawi: Global and Local Aspects Global Citizenship for Professional Development Conclusion and Final Reflection Questions

7 1. What's Up With Culture?

8 I. Introduction: “What’s Up with Culture?”
Enhancing Cultural Learning for Global and Local Engagement I. Introduction: “What’s Up with Culture?”

9 I. What’s Up with Culture?
OPEN the following website and refer to it as you continue reading: Purpose of this on-line cultural resource training is to: Introduce the multi-dimensional concept of culture. Illustrate how culture impacts one’s ability to understand and function in a new and unfamiliar environment. Intended audience: Traditional study abroad students. All university students, staff, and faculty members preparing for any type of cross-cultural engagement and experiential learning activity, both locally and internationally. The funding for the development of the website “What’s Up with Culture: On-line Cultural Training Resource for Study Abroad” was provided by a 3-year Department of Education FIPSE (Fund for the Improvement of Post-Secondary Education) grant. Further generous financial support came from both the School of International Studies, University of the Pacific, Stockton, California, and the Payson Center for International Development and Technology Transfer of Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana.

10 I. What’s Up with Culture?
OPEN the following website and refer to it as you continue reading: This is a self-guided, self-paced training and can be used as a vehicle for self-exploration. It includes many self-assessment and activity exercises from which you can learn a great deal about: Your communication style; Your cultural values; and Your attitudes toward and reactions to different ways of doing things. The funding for the development of the website “What’s Up with Culture: On-line Cultural Training Resource for Study Abroad” was provided by a 3-year Department of Education FIPSE (Fund for the Improvement of Post-Secondary Education) grant. Further generous financial support came from both the School of International Studies, University of the Pacific, Stockton, California, and the Payson Center for International Development and Technology Transfer of Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana.

11 I. What’s Up with Culture?
COMPLETE Module 1: What to Know Before You Go: (1.1 through 1.7) at: 1.1 If you are going abroad soon… 1.2 Culture: The Hidden Dimension 1.3 Culture: Yours, Ours, and Theirs 1.4 Whose Fault? Why Values Matter 1.5 Packing Up! 1.6 Communication Across Cultures: What are they trying to say? 1.7 Surprises and Shocks STOP! *Please Note: Each section may take up to minutes to read and work carefully through the exercises. Section If you are Going Abroad Soon.. Presents the first of four self-assessment exercises on Adaptation and Expectations, which students can use to reflect upon their attitudes. This one is intended for students who are going abroad in the near future. Section Culture: The Hidden Dimension  Defines culture and why cultural characteristics are so important, even though they are often “hidden” or unrecognized. Discusses why US-Americans have a definable culture that is readily identifiable by outsiders. Examines the relationship between the concepts "culture general" and "culture specific," and between values and behavior. Section Culture: Yours, Ours, and Theirs Examines the relationship between universal, cultural, and personal expressions of culture. Shows how human beings construct meaning and attribute motivations to our own and other’s actions. Introduces the concepts of "individualist" and "collectivist" cultures, and why those beliefs might lead to conflict when members from different cultures interact. Section 1.4 – Whose Fault? Why Values Matter  Explores the differences between personal and social obligations that are commonly encountered abroad. Presents the ideas of "universalism" versus "particularism" to explain why different cultures can appear to have very different ideas about loyalty and justice. Introduces the contrast set of "high context" versus "low context" cultures to explain why communication across cultures can be difficult at times, even with the best of intentions on both sides. Outlines how cultures conceive of time and value it differently using the comparison between "polychronic" and "monochronic" time. Section 1.5 – Packing Up!   Lists and discusses major US-American values and why these often contrast with the social ideas and cultural patterns of other countries. Assists learners in understanding the extent to which the culture we grew up in influences our core values and social behaviors, and why we often feel so strongly when our ideas are challenged. Section 1.6 – Communication Across Cultures: What are They Trying to Say?   Examines the fascinating ways in which humans communicate using nonverbal channels to convey meaning including touch, eye contact, personal body space, body language, and gestures. Explores your communication "comfort zone" and why it is important to understand it before you go abroad. Discusses communication styles and why your "normal" US-American ways of expressing yourself might be misunderstood or ineffective. Considers "intensity factors" that are related to increased stress while trying to adapt to a new country. Section 1.7 – Surprises and Shocks Discusses various reactions a sojourner might experience as part of the study abroad adaptation process. Defines "culture surprise," "culture fatigue", "culture stress," and "culture shock." Distinguishes among levels of cultural competency. Provides extensive tips and advice on how to recognize the symptoms of culture shock and what to do to minimize its negative effects.

12 I. What’s Up with Culture?
You have now completed the first seven sections of Module 1: What to Know Before You Go Summary How successful you will be depends on your ability to: Transcend the mind-set of the culture(s) in which you have spent most of your life; and Utilize “culture learning” techniques and figure out how to interact appropriately within a new cultural environment. Since the ways people think and act in different countries and communities may differ significantly from your home culture, the more you know about what culture is and how it works, the better you will be able to manage and adapt to a new cross-cultural context.

13 I. What’s Up with Culture?
Key Reflection Questions Which self-evaluation/self-assessment activity did you find most useful? Least useful? Why? How might knowing your preferred communication style (high-context vs. low-context) be helpful to you in intercultural situations? What are some ways to avoid culture “fatigue” and culture “shock”? Describe 2 or 3 methods to track your adjustment and cultural awareness progress?

14 II. Cultural Competency
I. What's Up With Culture? II. Cultural Competency

15 II. Overview: cultural competency across different professions
Enhancing Cultural Learning for Global and Local Engagement II. Overview: cultural competency across different professions

16 II. Cultural Competency
“Multiculturalism (…) does not assume that any cultural tradition is ideal or perfect. It looks to the equitable participation of all individuals in society. It assumes that our nation can be both united and diverse, that we can be proud of our heritage and of our individual group identities while at the same time working together on common goals. It is a reciprocal process based on democratic principles and a shared value system.” ~Elizabeth Pathy Salett, President National Multicultural Society Washington, D.C., 2004 Introduction The concept of “cultural competency” emerged as a response to the changing demographics in the U.S. and the increasing acknowledgement of multiculturalism, diversity, globalization, and disparities across populations. To increase the effectiveness and impact the quality of education, health care, and social service systems, specific cultural competency standards and strategies have been adopted by many different U.S. professional groups in an effort to improve the ways they (i.e. educators, health care providers and advocates) interact with people from different communities and different cultures.

17 II. Cultural Competency
What is Cultural Competence? The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services defines cultural competence as a “set of behaviors, attitudes and policies that come together in a system, agency or program or among individuals, enabling them to function effectively in diverse cultural interactions and similarities within, among and between groups.” No single definition. Evolved from diverse perspectives, interests and needs. Incorporated in state legislation, Federal statutes and programs, private sector organizations, and academic settings.

18 II. Cultural Competency
What is Cultural Competence? Viewed by other experts as a point on a continuum representing a developmental process that evolves over an extended period. Groups and associations have integrated specific domains and acquisition of levels of awareness, knowledge, and skills along a cultural competence continuum into the ethics and standards of practice for individuals in their respective professions. Source: National Center for Cultural Competence

19 II. Cultural Competency
Across different professional perspectives Standards in Social Work Practice Standard 1: Ethics and Values Standard 2: Self Awareness Standard 3: Cross-cultural Knowledge Standard 4: Cross-cultural Skills Standard 5: Service Delivery Standard 6: Empowerment and Advocacy Standard 7: Diverse Workforce Standard 8: Professional Education Standard 9: Language and Diversity Standard 10: Cross-Cultural Leadership Related Resources:

20 II. Cultural Competency
Across different professional perspectives Discussions in Law Schools and Legal Practice Beyond Bias: Cultural Competence as a Lawyer Skill (Miller, 2008) Disappearing Act: The Lack of Values Training in Legal Education - A Case for Cultural Competency (Moran, 2010) The Role of Law Schools in Shaping Culturally Competent Lawyers (Ward and Miller, 2010) The Case for Cultural Competency (Frink-Hamlett, 2011)

21 II. Cultural Competency
Across different professional perspectives Holistic Model of Cultural Competence in Physical Therapy Examination through reflective practice; Learn about the diversity dimensions that influence health outcomes, and affect the human experience both positively and negatively; Recognize the need for patient-centered approach to delivery of culturally competent physical therapy services; Value effective communication between the patient and the therapist as fundamental for delivery of culturally competent care; Apply core knowledge about culture, belief systems, and traditions to enhance patient-therapist interaction. Source: APTA Blueprint for Teaching Cultural Competence in Physical Therapy Education, 2008

22 II. Cultural Competency
Across different professional perspectives Physical Therapy Practice Vision 2020 (Professionalism) Core values: aspiring to and wisely applying principles of altruism, excellence, caring, ethics, respect, communication and accountability; and By working together with other professionals to achieve optimal health and wellness in individuals and communities. APTA “Normative Model”, specifically Professional Practice Expectation 7: Cultural Competence: (7.1) Identify, respect, and act with consideration for patients’/clients’ differences, values, preferences, and expressed needs in all professional activities.

23 II. Cultural Competency
Across different professional perspectives Pharmacy Education and Practice With knowledge and understanding about a patient’s cultural background, pharmacists can deliver pharmaceutical care that accommodates the patient’s needs, beliefs, and health practices. Cultural competence in pharmacy focuses on: Communication styles; Familial structure; Spiritual beliefs; and Genetic, biochemical, and physiological traits of particular ethnic or sociological groups. Source: American College of Clinical Pharmacy

24 II. Cultural Competency
Across different professional perspectives Related Resources in Pharmacy American Association of College Pharmacy (ACCP) Cultural Competence ACCP White Paper: Cultural Competence in Health Care and Its Implications for Pharmacy, Part 1- Overview of Multicultural Health Care (O’Connell et al, 2007) ACCP White Paper: Cultural Competence in Health Care and Its Implications for Pharmacy, Part 2- Emphasis on Pharmacy Systems and Practice (O’Connell et al, 2009)

25 II. Cultural Competency
Across different professional perspectives Dentistry and Dental Hygiene Practice Dental School Accreditation Standard states that “graduates must be competent in managing a diverse patient population and have interpersonal and communication skills to function successfully in a multicultural work environment.” Bridging the Gap – Does culturally competency make a difference in the provision and efficacy of oral health care? CE course written for dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants (Spencer and Trigilidas, 2008) Source: Dimensions of Dental Hygiene

26 II. Cultural Competency
Across different professional perspectives Related Resources in Dentistry and Dental Hygiene Competencies for the Advanced Dental Hygiene Practitioner (Adopted by the ADHA Board of Trustees, 2008) Assessing the Cultural Competency of Dental Students and Residents (Gregorczyk and Bailit, 2008) Exploring Dental Students’ Perceptions of Cultural Competence and Social Responsibility (Rubin et al, 2008) Cultural Competency: Dentistry and Medicine Learning from One Another (Formicola et al, 2003)

27 II. Cultural Competency
Across different professional perspectives Medical Education and Practice Cultural competence is integrated throughout all years of medical school and requires identification and assessment utilizing the TACCT (Tool for Assessing Cultural Competence Training) that includes five domains: Domain I: Cultural Competence—Rationale, Context, and Definition A. Definition and understanding of the importance of cultural competence; how cultural issues affect health and health-care quality and cost; and, the consequences of cultural issues B. Definitions of race, ethnicity, and culture, including the culture of medicine C. Clinicians’ self-assessment, reflection, and self-awareness of own culture, assumptions, stereotypes, biases Source: Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Cultural Competence Education for Medical Students https://www.aamc.org/download/54338/data/culturalcomped.pdf

28 II. Cultural Competency
Across different professional perspectives Medical Education and Practice TACCT Content Domains (continued) Domain II: Key Aspects of Cultural Competence A. Epidemiology of population health B. Patient/family-centered vs. physician-centered care: emphasis on patients’/families’ healing traditions and beliefs [for example, ethno-medical healers] C. Institutional cultural issues D. Information on the history of the patient and his/her community of people Domain III: Understanding the Impact of Stereotyping on Medical Decision-Making A. History of stereotyping, incl. limited access to health care & education B. Bias, stereotyping, discrimination, and racism C. Effects of stereotyping on medical decision-making Source: Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Cultural Competence Education for Medical Students https://www.aamc.org/download/54338/data/culturalcomped.pdf

29 II. Cultural Competency
Across different professional perspectives Medical Education and Practice TACCT Content Domains (continued) Domain IV: Health Disparities and Factors Influencing Health A. History of health-care design and discrimination B. Epidemiology of specific health and health-care disparities C. Factors underlying health and health-care disparities—access, socioeconomic, environment, institutional, racial/ethnic D. Demographic patterns of health-care disparities, both local and national E. Collaborating with communities to eliminate disparities—through community experiences Source: Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Cultural Competence Education for Medical Students https://www.aamc.org/download/54338/data/culturalcomped.pdf

30 II. Cultural Competency
Across different professional perspectives Medical Education and Practice TACCT Content Domains (continued) Domain V: Cross-Cultural Clinical Skills A. Knowledge, respect, and validation of differing values, cultures, and beliefs, including sexual orientation, gender, age, race, ethnicity, and class B. Dealing with hostility/discomfort as a result of cultural discord C. Eliciting a culturally valid social and medical history D. Communication, interaction, and interviewing skills E. Understanding language barriers and working with interpreters F. Negotiating and problem-solving skills G. Diagnosis, management, and patient-adherence skills leading to patient compliance Source: Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Cultural Competence Education for Medical Students https://www.aamc.org/download/54338/data/culturalcomped.pdf

31 II. Cultural Competency
Across different professional perspectives Nursing Education and Practice Integration of cultural competence in graduate nursing education deepens the development of the leadership role in eliminating health disparities. This leadership role encompasses: Socially and empirically derived understanding of complex causes of disparities; Implementing culturally competent nursing care; Addressing social justice; Advocating for patients and policies that advance health care; Developing competency in collaboration with patients, key persons, agencies, and various stakeholders; Attitude modification and personal transformation; and Contributing to culturally competent scholarship. Source: American Association of Colleges of Nursing

32 II. Cultural Competency
Across different professional perspectives Related Resources in Nursing Tool Kit of Resources for Cultural Competent Education for Baccalaureate Nurses Tool Kit of Resources for Establishing a Culturally Competent Master’s- and Doctorally Prepared Nursing Workforce Culturally competent care: providing patients with health care that is sensitive to the values that emerge out of their particular background (National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services in Health Care ,U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001).

33 II. Cultural Competency
Key Reflection Questions Do you observe any differences among the professions’ definitions of cultural competence? If so, how do they differ? How are they similar? How does the concept of cultural competency reflect your professional values and ethics? Do you see any conflicts or potential challenges?

34 II. Cultural Competency
Key Reflection Questions At what point on the cultural competency continuum do you think you currently operate? Why? Describe specific settings or situations when being a culturally competent professional would help to improve your effectiveness and the quality of care or services you provide to individuals? To families? To communities?

35 II. Cultural Competency
Summary Developing cultural competence over time, throughout the course of your career practice: Will continually improve the ways you, as an individual, are able to interact with people from different communities and different cultures; and Has the potential to be a dynamic strategy, both organizationally and professionally, to address current health disparities and reduce social inequities that exist across populations.

36 II. Cultural Competency
I. What's Up With Culture? II. Cultural Competency Global & Local Aspects III. Malawi:

37 III. Malawi: global & local aspects
Enhancing Cultural Learning for Global and Local Engagement III. Malawi: global & local aspects

38 III. Malawi: Global & Local Aspects
Introduction In practical terms, cultural competency suggests that individuals are conscious of the region’s unique cultural, economic, political, and historical attributes. Sensitivity to regional customs and manners helps convey sincere interest in community members and ensures global and local partnerships are appropriate, respectful, and applicable. Background knowledge and basic information eases transition into a new community, locally and internationally. Source: Student Handbook for Global Engagement, University of Michigan

39 III. Malawi: Global & Local Aspects
Key areas for important background knowledge: Socio-political and historical background Cultural background, customs, and geography Basic Logistics and Fast Facts Health, Safety, and Security Host Organization and Primary Local Contacts

40 III. Malawi: Global & Local Aspects
Socio-political & historical background Critical to know the socio-political situation in a country prior to traveling there, for both safety and cultural adaptation. Read both scholarly works and current events in local news sources. (Online Newspapers) Important to know historical background in order to understand the present-day situation and interact appropriately with local residents. (Lonely Planet Guide)

41 III. Malawi: Global & Local Aspects
Socio-political & historical background Several reputable websites provide essential information a traveler should have prior to arrival, including: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mi.html (CIA World Fact book) (World Bank Data) (United Nations Mission)

42 III. Malawi: Global & Local Aspects
Cultural background, customs and geography Additional Online Resources: (Culture Crossing) (Africa Guide) (Every Culture) (World Atlas) (National Geographic)

43 III. Malawi: Global & Local Aspects
General Etiquette and Considerations The Basics Communication Style Greetings Personal Space & Touching Eye Contact Views of Time Gender Issues Gestures Taboos Law and Order Videos and Other Stuff Business Basics Dress Titles & Business Cards Meetings Gift Giving Student Basics Class Rules Socializing Miscellaneous For more details: Culture Crossing,

44 III. Malawi: Global & Local Aspects
Communication Style Malawians do not tend to be direct in their communication style.  When someone is too direct it is usually considered rude. Most people choose a roundabout way to explain things assuming that the listener will understand what the speaker is trying to communicate. People usually don’t want to disappoint so they’ll try and tell someone what they think they may want to hear rather than the truth.  Source: Culture Crossing,

45 III. Malawi: Global & Local Aspects
Communication Style (continued) It is a good idea to ask the same question in a variety of ways in order to make sure you are getting the whole truth. Public displays of anger are rare and considered bad form. Being humble and polite is important. People tend to be sensitive to arrogance. Source: Culture Crossing,

46 III. Malawi: Global & Local Aspects
Personal Space & Touching Personal space differs from place to place based on tribal and religious influences, but people tend to speak to one another at very close distances. Generally, an arm’s length is appropriate. Personal space tends to be less between members of the same gender and considerably greater between members of opposite genders. Source: Culture Crossing,

47 III. Malawi: Global & Local Aspects
Personal Space & Touching (continued) It is common for men to touch each other when speaking; sometimes on the arms, hands and legs no matter what the relationship; business, family, stranger, etc. Men and women rarely touch in public. It is also appropriate for two men to walk hand in hand in public. This does not have any implication on their sexual preferences; it's just a sign of friendship and closeness. This is the same for women. Source: Culture Crossing,

48 III. Malawi: Global & Local Aspects
Dress Malawians usually dress for the people around them not as a personal expression. For Men – A suit or nice pants and collared shirt and tie is appropriate in most situations.  Business casual attire may be appropriate in many situations. For Women - A business suit or a dress with a nice shirt/blouse is appropriate in most situations. Business casual attire may be appropriate in many situations. Source: Culture Crossing,

49 III. Malawi: Global & Local Aspects
Dress (continued) Jeans and less causal attire is not appropriate for business situations. Clean well-ironed attire is important. If someone is underdressed or dressed like a slob it could change the way they are treated. It is difficult for a Malawian to understand why a wealthy person would intentionally dress informally. Source: Culture Crossing,

50 III. Malawi: Global & Local Aspects
Meetings People are usually formally introduced at the beginning of the meetings and then there is someone chosen to lead the meeting. Business meetings rarely begin on time, however it is a good idea for a foreigner to be punctual. It's important to greet the most senior individuals first. Small talk always precedes any formal conversations.  It's appropriate to inquire about one's health, families, etc., before dealing with business. Source: Culture Crossing,

51 III. Malawi: Global & Local Aspects
Key Reflection Questions How do you prepare to enter into a new culture? How would you describe Malawian culture? Explore sources for information about Malawi’s culture(s) and customs and prepare a list of similarities and differences between your culture and Malawian culture. Describe the core cultural contrasts between your culture and Malawian culture.

52 III. Malawi: Global & Local Aspects
Basic Planning Approval and release time from employer (if applicable) Passports and Visas Air Tickets Travel insurance Immunization and Malaria prophylaxis Passport health, travel medicine CDC travel guidelines Country-specific information from U.S. State Dept. website & other resources

53 III. Malawi: Global & Local Aspects
Basic Logistics and Fast Facts Time GMT/UTC + 2 Population 12 million Borders Tanzania, Mozambique, Zambia; all main border crossings are open from 6am to 6pm Seasons Cool and dry (May-Aug), hot and dry (September to mid-November), hot and wet (mid-November to April) Language(s) English, Chichewa Telephone Country code 265; international access code 101 ATMs In major cities Budget US$15 to US$25 per day Capital Lilongwe Visa Free (for most nationalities) for 30 days; issued at point of entry Area 118, 484 sq km Money Malawi Kwacha; US$1 = MK140 Source:

54 III. Malawi: Global & Local Aspects
Health, Safety, and Security General information and checklists for use prior to travel are available on the (Student Resources) website. Specific information about Malawi and other countries is found on: (U.S. Department of State website) Country Information – scroll drop down box on the left. (Peace Corps Wiki) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

55 III. Malawi: Global & Local Aspects
Key Reflection Questions What would be most challenging about living and working in Malawi? What is the most important information to have as you contemplate living and working in Malawi and why?

56 III. Malawi: Global & Local Aspects
General Recommendations for Cultural Sensitivity Actively learn about the social, political, and economic framework of the host country, community and organizational politics, as well as power structures within the groups/institutions you will be working. Discuss cultural similarities and differences with host colleagues, avoiding stereotypes and judgment, and inform others of your culture. Be aware of the difference in power and privileges between collaborators within and between countries/communities. Act with humility. Dress in a culturally appropriate manner. Source: Student Handbook for Global Engagement, University of Michigan

57 III. Malawi: Global & Local Aspects
General Recommendations for Cultural Sensitivity Avoid unnecessary displays of wealth and/or privilege. Understand technological discrepancies may exist and work to eliminate them. Recognize and help define with host colleagues your role and the role of others with whom you will be working. Value the knowledge and experience of collaborators (individuals and groups/institutions). Source: Student Handbook for Global Engagement, University of Michigan

58 III. Malawi: Global & Local Aspects
Summary When working professionally overseas (or domestically among multicultural communities), it is critical to: Be proactive and prepared; Gather relevant background knowledge; and Learn the socio-cultural context that will help facilitate the successful transition into a new community and new environment. Developing a global lens on local issues and a local lens on global issues is essential and depends greatly on: Planning and communication process established between collaborators; Expectations and reciprocity; and Strength of community and institutional partnerships.

59 II. Cultural Competency
I. What's Up With Culture? II. Cultural Competency Global & Local Aspects III. Malawi: IV. Global Citizenship

60 IV. Global citizenship for professional development
Enhancing Cultural Learning for Global and Local Engagement IV. Global citizenship for professional development

61 IV. Global Citizenship for Professional Development
Introduction In an increasing globalized world, it is necessary for individuals to understand and work to address the ways in which global flows of influence and capital affect the most vulnerable members of global society. The concept of “global citizenship” and the accompanying processes of advocacy and community engagement are useful ways to frame professional education activities that emerge from local communities and institutional partnerships and respond to shared social commitment and collaborative priorities. Adapted from: Student Handbook for Global Engagement, University of Michigan

62 IV. Global Citizenship for Professional Development
Global Citizenship vs. Internationalization Internationalization: Process by which a person becomes accustomed to the politics, language, and culture of a given country or countries. Often results in an overly narrow perspective of society which can ignore its positioning within the global order. Global citizenship: Promotes a more contextualized approach to understanding the workings of a given society; beyond understanding a certain country in a vacuum. Fosters a desire to both learn how the world’s most marginalized populations are impacted by globalization and help alleviate poverty and disease in the most effective, collaborative ways possible. Adapted from: Student Handbook for Global Engagement, University of Michigan

63 Source: Student Handbook for Global Engagement, University of Michigan
IV. Global Citizenship Global citizenship requires an intimate understanding of both local and global aspects of social issues. Important steps in the process of becoming an engaged global citizen: Learning about a country or specific cultural group and their global position by focusing on language, culture, politics, history, economy, etc. Engaging with marginalized citizens within the same country. It is critical to gain their perspective in better understanding how social attributes of the country affect their lives. Learning about previous attempts at humanitarian aid and/or social support from locals as well as the impact on the community by the presence of foreigners and external organizations. Collaborating with locals in a community-based participatory framework when initiating projects and interventions. Finding appropriate channels of communication for advocacy and determining the best audience(s) to maximize impact. Source: Student Handbook for Global Engagement, University of Michigan

64 Key Reflection Questions
IV. Global Citizenship Key Reflection Questions Do you think global citizenship is a useful concept for mobilizing action? If so, why? If not, why not? In what ways are cultural competency and global citizenship similar? Different? How do these frameworks enhance professional practice?

65 IV. Global Citizenship What is an Inter-culturally Effective Person (IEP)? An individual who is: Able to live contentedly and work successfully in another culture. Able to communicate with people of another culture in a way that earns their respect and trust. Capable of adapting his/her professional skills (both technical and managerial) to fit local conditions and constraints. Capable of adjusting personally so that s/he is content and generally at ease in the host culture. Source: Center for Intercultural Learning, Foreign Affairs & International Trade, Canada

66 IV. Global Citizenship Profile of an Inter-culturally Effective Person (IEP) Demonstrates Nine Core Competencies: Adaptation skills An attitude of modesty and respect An understanding of the concept of culture Knowledge of the host country and culture Relationship-building Self-knowledge Intercultural communication Organizational skills Personal and professional commitment Source: Center for Intercultural Learning, Foreign Affairs & International Trade, Canada

67 Core Expectations for UM Students, Staff, and Faculty when Traveling Overseas
Prepare your personal and academic life to be able to make a commitment to be abroad and engaged during the entire course experience. Recognize that you are responsible 24 hours a day, 7 days a week for your personal conduct and professional performance. Recognize that you will be perceived, in your host schools & communities as a representative of the University and people, cultures, values & traditions of the U.S. Exercise judgment and personal responsibility to protect your health, safety, and well-being, and that of others. Engage with host communities and schools in a spirit of cooperation, and mutual learning and respect. Learn, live, and share activities within the rules and regulations of UM and its international programs, and the local & national laws of the country you are visiting. Recognize that your successful experience is based on the local trust and confidence you build by living and learning in, and respectfully integrating yourself into, your host schools & communities. Source: Before You Go Abroad, UM Student Center for Global Education

68 Key Reflection Question
IV. Global Citizenship Key Reflection Question Identify and describe 2 or 3 core competencies of the Inter-culturally Effective Person (IEP) that you would most like to strengthen.

69 IV. Global Citizenship Summary Global Citizenship:
Requires an intimate understanding of both local and global aspects of social issues. Fosters a desire to decrease the negative impact of globalization on the most marginalized and vulnerable populations. Primary efforts of global citizens are aimed at alleviating poverty and reducing health inequities. These goals can be integrated into professional practice and addressed through advocacy and community engagement both at home in the U.S. as well as internationally.

70 V. Conclusion & Final Reflection
I. What's Up With Culture? II. Cultural Competency Global & Local Aspects III. Malawi: IV. Global Citizenship V. Conclusion & Final Reflection

71 V. Conclusion and final reflection
Enhancing Cultural Learning for Global and Local Engagement V. Conclusion and final reflection

72 V. Conclusion Summary of Part I: What’s Up with Culture?
How successful you will be depends on your ability to: Transcend the mind-set of the culture(s) in which you have spent most of your life; and Utilize “culture learning” techniques and figure out how to interact appropriately within a new cultural environment. Since the ways people think and act in different countries and communities may differ significantly from your home culture, the more you know about what culture is and how it works, the better you will be able to manage and adapt to a new cross-cultural context.

73 V. Conclusion Summary of Part II: Cultural Competency across different professions Developing cultural competence over time, throughout the course of your career and practice: Will continually improve the ways you, as an individual, are able to interact with people from different communities and different cultures; and Has the potential to be a dynamic strategy, both organizationally and professionally, to address current health disparities and reduce social inequities that exist across populations.

74 V. Conclusion Summary of Part III: Malawi – Global & Local Aspects
When working professionally overseas (or domestically among multicultural communities), it is critical to: Be proactive and prepared; Gather relevant background knowledge; and Learn the socio-cultural context that will help facilitate the successful transition into a new community and new environment. Developing a global lens on local issues and a local lens on global issues is essential and depends greatly on: Planning and communication process established between collaborators; Expectations and reciprocity; and Strength of community and institutional partnerships.

75 V. Conclusion Summary of Part IV: Global Citizenship
Requires an intimate understanding of both local and global aspects of social issues. Fosters a desire to decrease the negative impact of globalization on the most marginalized and vulnerable populations. Primary efforts of global citizens are aimed at alleviating poverty and reducing health inequities. These goals can be integrated into professional practice and addressed through advocacy and community engagement both at home in the U.S. as well as internationally.

76 V. Final Reflection Questions
What’s Up with Culture? Which self-evaluation/self-assessment activity did you find most useful? Least useful? Why? How might knowing your preferred communication style (high-context vs. low-context) be helpful to you in intercultural situations? What are some ways to avoid culture “fatigue” and culture “shock”? Describe 2 or 3 methods to track your adjustment and cultural awareness progress?

77 V. Final Reflection Questions
Cultural Competency Across Different Professions Do you observe any differences among the professions’ definitions of cultural competence? If so, how do they differ? How are they similar? How does the concept of cultural competency reflect your professional values and ethics? Do you see any conflicts or potential challenges? At what point on the cultural competency continuum do you think you currently operate? Why? Describe specific settings or situations when being a culturally competent professional would help to improve your effectiveness and the quality of care or services you provide to individuals? To families? To communities?

78 V. Final Reflection Questions
Malawi: Global and Local Aspects How do you prepare to enter into a new culture? How would you describe Malawian culture? Explore sources for information about Malawi’s culture(s) and customs and prepare a list of similarities and differences between your culture and Malawian culture. Describe the core cultural contrasts between your culture and Malawian culture. What would be most challenging about living and working in Malawi? What is the most important information to have as you contemplate living and working in Malawi and why?

79 V. Final Reflection Questions
Global Citizenship for Professional Development Do you think global citizenship is a useful concept for mobilizing action? If so, why? If not, why not? In what ways are cultural competency and global citizenship similar? Different? How do these frameworks enhance professional practice? Identify and describe 2 or 3 core competencies of the Inter-culturally Effective Person (IEP) that you would most like to strengthen.

80 Thank you for participating!
Enhancing Cultural Learning for Global and Local Engagement Thank you for participating! Your feedback on this on-line module is important to us. Please your comments and suggestions to:


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