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Presentation on theme: "PERSUASIVE TECHNIQUES INTRODUCTION PRE-WRITING PROCESS SAMPLE ESSAYS LANGUAGE."— Presentation transcript:

1 PERSUASIVE TECHNIQUES INTRODUCTION PRE-WRITING PROCESS SAMPLE ESSAYS LANGUAGE

2 An argument Persuades the audience to believe in your opinion on the topic. Uses reasoning, facts, examples, and quotes to convince the reader.

3 Persuasive Techniques are Everywhere! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jaGJNx CxB-s&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jaGJNx CxB-s&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jaGJNx CxB-s&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jaGJNx CxB-s&feature=related

4 What is the objective or goal of persuasive writing? to state the writers opinion to give reasons why the reader should agree to convince the reader to take action to state the writers opinion to give reasons why the reader should agree to convince the reader to take action Copying permitted

5 Every good speech, discussion or essay needs strong closure to force the reader or listener to think carefully about what you have just said or written. Emphasizes critical thinking and analysis skills Relativity: Provides practice for college admissions/cover letter writing Required to demonstrate this skill on the Standardized Testing Where else? Home Page

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7 Read the prompt carefully before you begin. Writing Situation: Many eighteen year olds who are old enough to vote, choose not to register, not participating in elections. Do you think it is important to register and exercise your right to vote? Consider the reasons one would want to register and participate in elections. Write an essay in support of or against voting. OR Writing Situation: For your annual seventh grade field trip, your principal has decided to allow the students to help decide where the trip will take place. The person who provides the best argument will get to decide where the students go. Write a letter to your principal explaining where you want to go and why it is the best place.

8 Identify in the WRITING TASK If youre writing a letter and to whom. Write a letter to the newspaper = Dear Editor, Write a letter to board members = Dear Board of Education Members, Write a letter to your principal = Dear Principal, Write a letter to the mayor = Dear Mayor, Write an essay = You do not need an opening salutation

9 Purpose & Audience It is important to always keep your PURPOSE for writing in mind. –Persuasive –Expository –Narrative –Descriptive Knowing your AUDIENCE determines the tone and language or vocabulary of your writing –FORMAL WRITING-for a teacher, boss, principal, parent, political representative, etc… –INFORMAL WRITING-for a friend, cousin, close family member, etc… It is important to always keep your PURPOSE for writing in mind. –Persuasive –Expository –Narrative –Descriptive Knowing your AUDIENCE determines the tone and language or vocabulary of your writing –FORMAL WRITING-for a teacher, boss, principal, parent, political representative, etc… –INFORMAL WRITING-for a friend, cousin, close family member, etc…

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11 PLANNING Use MEETS Imagine you are writing an essay in support of school uniforms. Use MEETS Imagine you are writing an essay in support of school uniforms.

12 Pick your position: which side of the problem/issue are you on? SUPPORTAGAINST MEETSMEETS MEETSMEETS

13 M: Money Parents can save money on clothes because they are buying uniforms. Can you think of another reason for or against?

14 E: Education Students will concentrate more on their school work and less on what other people are wearing. Can you think of another reason for or against? Students will concentrate more on their school work and less on what other people are wearing. Can you think of another reason for or against?

15 E: Effort You do not have to think about what you are going to wear every day. Can you think of another reason for or against? You do not have to think about what you are going to wear every day. Can you think of another reason for or against?

16 T: Time You can sleep later in the morning because you already know what you are going to wear. Can you think of another reason for or against? You can sleep later in the morning because you already know what you are going to wear. Can you think of another reason for or against?

17 S: Safety There will be less teasing because everyone is dressed the same. Can you think of another reason for or against?

18 FIRST BODY PARAGRAPH: Transition Word: ______ First Body Paragraph Reason Supporting Detail 1 Supporting Detail 2 Supporting Detail 3 SECOND PARAGRAPH: Transition Word: ______ Second Body Paragraph Reason Supporting Detail 1 Supporting Detail 2 Supporting Detail 3 INTRODUCTION PARAGRAPH: List your hook, opinion and 3 reasons THIRD BODY PARAGRAPH: Transition Word: ______ Third Body Paragraph Reason Supporting Detail 1 Supporting Detail 2 Supporting Detail 3 CONCLUSION : Can you state a possible alternative? (Another option) Restate your opinion with your three reasons. End with a closing, thought-provoking sentence. Home Page

19 Five Paragraph Essay Structure Introduction Introduction -GRAB your readers attention. Go from GENERAL to SPECIFIC. The last line is your thesis statement! Body #1: Body #1: Begin with a transition and discuss your first example Include persuasive techniques! Body #2 Body #2 : Begin with a transition and discuss your second (weakest) example. Include persuasive techniques! Body #3: Body #3: Begin with a transition and discuss your third example Include persuasive techniques! Conclusion Conclusion : Final paragraph should restate thesis IN A NEW WAY. Wrap up your topic with a call for action and a clincher sentence. MAKE IT MEMORABLE!

20 INTRO USE A LEAD!!! Direct lead – defines the problem or solution Parents of a school are demanding a rule that would forbid students from going across the street to the store in the morning Question lead – the writer asks the reader a rhetorical question What would happen at our school if students had no consequences for their behavior? Statistical lead – facts (real or pretend) According to the Journal of Education, 3 out of 5 children score higher on standardized tests when they are in a self contained classroom. Narrative lead – start with an interesting story or personal anecdote Last year, in my old school, getting ready in the morning was much easier because we wore uniforms. Word Lead This starts with a great word, WORD CHOICE, and makes the reader think, followed by a creative statement Nutrition... it will be a thing of the past if students gorge themselves on Big Macs every day! Direct lead – defines the problem or solution Parents of a school are demanding a rule that would forbid students from going across the street to the store in the morning Question lead – the writer asks the reader a rhetorical question What would happen at our school if students had no consequences for their behavior? Statistical lead – facts (real or pretend) According to the Journal of Education, 3 out of 5 children score higher on standardized tests when they are in a self contained classroom. Narrative lead – start with an interesting story or personal anecdote Last year, in my old school, getting ready in the morning was much easier because we wore uniforms. Word Lead This starts with a great word, WORD CHOICE, and makes the reader think, followed by a creative statement Nutrition... it will be a thing of the past if students gorge themselves on Big Macs every day!

21 The Descriptive Lead This lead splashes images like poetry, painting vivid characters, animals, objects, or unusual settings. The smell of fries gives me a rush as soon as I exit the school building. I follow my nose until the golden arches come into sight, and I burst through the gleaming glass doors like a man with a mission. The whirring of milk shakes and sizzle of burgers on the griddle excite me, and Im looking forward to a hot lunch as Ive never looked forward to lunch in our school cafeteria. I wish parents would try to understand this instead of asking for a rule that would forbid us from leaving the building for lunch. I strongly oppose their demands. The Imagine Lead The writer asks the reader to imagine something. It is closely related to the descriptive lead. Can you imagine having the freedom to choose your lunch from a delicious variety of selections served piping hot? Isnt it great to be able to sit and talk to your friends for forty minutes without the blasting noise of the cafeteria? Well, thats what the students from our school have been enjoying for the past month; however we may lose that privilege if the groups of parents who oppose this practice are supported by the school board. I personally take pleasure in this relaxing lunch and would like it to continue. The Combination Lead This technique combines two or more of the above leads in an opening. For example, the question and descriptive leads work well together. I can just smell it now. I love fast food restaurants. They are the best for me. I cant live without them, can you? Ever since Burger King opened up across the street from my school, each day has been so delicious. Up until last week, I read an article in the school newspaper which brought me to my feet. It stated that some parents are demanding a school rule that would forbid students from entering the restaurant during school hours. After reading the article I started thinking. Then I realized that I oppose this controversial issue. I find this demand very inappropriate for many reasons. The Descriptive Lead This lead splashes images like poetry, painting vivid characters, animals, objects, or unusual settings. The smell of fries gives me a rush as soon as I exit the school building. I follow my nose until the golden arches come into sight, and I burst through the gleaming glass doors like a man with a mission. The whirring of milk shakes and sizzle of burgers on the griddle excite me, and Im looking forward to a hot lunch as Ive never looked forward to lunch in our school cafeteria. I wish parents would try to understand this instead of asking for a rule that would forbid us from leaving the building for lunch. I strongly oppose their demands. The Imagine Lead The writer asks the reader to imagine something. It is closely related to the descriptive lead. Can you imagine having the freedom to choose your lunch from a delicious variety of selections served piping hot? Isnt it great to be able to sit and talk to your friends for forty minutes without the blasting noise of the cafeteria? Well, thats what the students from our school have been enjoying for the past month; however we may lose that privilege if the groups of parents who oppose this practice are supported by the school board. I personally take pleasure in this relaxing lunch and would like it to continue. The Combination Lead This technique combines two or more of the above leads in an opening. For example, the question and descriptive leads work well together. I can just smell it now. I love fast food restaurants. They are the best for me. I cant live without them, can you? Ever since Burger King opened up across the street from my school, each day has been so delicious. Up until last week, I read an article in the school newspaper which brought me to my feet. It stated that some parents are demanding a school rule that would forbid students from entering the restaurant during school hours. After reading the article I started thinking. Then I realized that I oppose this controversial issue. I find this demand very inappropriate for many reasons.

22 State The Problem/Situation After your write a lead, you need to give a clear statement of what your problem is. Let the reader know what your essay will be focused on After your write a lead, you need to give a clear statement of what your problem is. Let the reader know what your essay will be focused on

23 Thesis Statements THESIS STATEMENT A THESIS STATEMENT is one sentence that states the purpose of your paper. A specific subject + A particular stand, feeling or position THESIS STATEMENT THESIS STATEMENT A THESIS STATEMENT is one sentence that states the purpose of your paper. A specific subject + A particular stand, feeling or position THESIS STATEMENT

24 Creating a Thesis… Your thesis should ANSWER a single QUESTION you have about your topic. STEP 1STEP 1: Come up with a specific question about your topic based upon your opinion. STEP 2STEP 2: Answer the question. –The answer to your question should be the beginning of your thesis statement. Your thesis should ANSWER a single QUESTION you have about your topic. STEP 1STEP 1: Come up with a specific question about your topic based upon your opinion. STEP 2STEP 2: Answer the question. –The answer to your question should be the beginning of your thesis statement.

25 First Body Paragraph ALWAYS NEED A TRANSITION WORD/PHRASE: S TATE ONE REASON WHY YOU AGREE OR DISAGREE S TATE ONE REASON WHY YOU AGREE OR DISAGREE CAN APPEAL TO THE AUDIENCE S LOGIC, EMOTIONS, OR MORALS CAN APPEAL TO THE AUDIENCE S LOGIC, EMOTIONS, OR MORALS E XPLAIN 3 SUPPORTING DETAILS TO SUPPORT / PROVE YOUR REASON : E XPLAIN 3 SUPPORTING DETAILS TO SUPPORT / PROVE YOUR REASON : S UPPORTING DETAIL S UPPORTING DETAIL Include specific examples and allusions. BONUS POINTS!

26 Second Body Paragraph ALWAYS NEED A TRANSITION WORD/PHRASE: S TATE ONE REASON WHY YOU AGREE OR DISAGREE S TATE ONE REASON WHY YOU AGREE OR DISAGREE CAN APPEAL TO THE AUDIENCE S LOGIC, EMOTIONS, OR MORALS CAN APPEAL TO THE AUDIENCE S LOGIC, EMOTIONS, OR MORALS E XPLAIN 3 SUPPORTING DETAILS TO SUPPORT / PROVE YOUR REASON : E XPLAIN 3 SUPPORTING DETAILS TO SUPPORT / PROVE YOUR REASON : S UPPORTING DETAIL S UPPORTING DETAIL Include specific examples and allusions. BONUS POINTS!

27 Third Body ParagraphALWAYS NEED A TRANSITION WORD/PHRASE: S STATE ONE REASON WHY YOU AGREE OR DISAGREE CAN APPEAL TO THE AUDIENCES LOGIC, EMOTIONS, OR MORALS EXPLAIN 3 SUPPORTING DETAILS TO SUPPORT/PROVE YOUR REASON: UPPORTING DETAIL UPPORTING DETAIL UPPORTING DETAIL This is where you can acknowledge the opposition. Prove the other side is wrong. Choose one argument from the other side and prove it is wrong. Include specific, real- life examples and allusions. BONUS POINTS!

28 CONCLUSION PARAGRAPH T RANSITION P HRASE : A S ONE CAN SEE …..T RANSITION P HRASE : A S ONE CAN SEE ….. 1. R ESTATE YOUR OPINION AND THREE REASONS.1. R ESTATE YOUR OPINION AND THREE REASONS. S TATE A POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVE { ANOTHER OPTION }. (N OT IN EVERY ESSAY ) S TATE A POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVE { ANOTHER OPTION }. (N OT IN EVERY ESSAY ) 2. I NCLUDE A SENTENCE OR A QUESTION TO BRING CLOSURE. T HOUGHT - PROVOKING STATEMENT OR QUESTION T HOUGHT - PROVOKING STATEMENT OR QUESTION

29 Call For ACTION! Offer a solution to your problem/thesis. Give your audience suggestions as to what they can do to support your position/opinion. –EX –EX: ~Write a letter to the principal. ~Start a petition. ~Attend the Board of Education meeting this Thursday to support school uniforms.

30 Final Thoughts… Wrap up your final thoughts, and restate your opinions in the last paragraph on the essay. Restate (in a creative way) the important points/main idea in the essay Regain your audiences interest in your ideas Address your audience with a call of action or question Most important part of the essay: Spend time editing and planning your conclusion carefully!! CONCLUSION Home Page

31 PERSUASIVE WORDS A – Z Persuasive words motivate readers. Imagine the impact of persuasive words in your writing. Here are a few sparks for igniting the power of your persuasive essay. AbundantAccelerateAccurateAchieveActiveAdoptAdvantage AffectedAlignAmazingAmpleAnticipateAppealingArticulate AssessAudibleAwesomeBeautifulBoost Breakthrough Brilliant BuildCaptureCertainClarityClarifyComfortablecommunicate ComplimentComprehendConcreteConfidentConsiderConnectConvince CreateDazzlingDecideDefineDeliverDevelopDiscover DistinguishDreamDriveEccentricEffectiveEmbraceEmphasize EnsureEnvisionEstablishEvaluateExactlyExamineExpect ExploreExquisiteFascinatingFlowForeseeFoundationGain GatherGenerateGenerousGiganticGorgeousGraspGrip HorizonHunchHushHustleIdeaIdentifyIgnite IlluminateIllusionIllustrateImagineImplementImportantImprove ImproviseIncreaseIncredibleInnovateInspirationInspireIntensify InterestingJubilantKnowledgeLearnLeverageLivelyMagnificent

32 PERSUASIVE WORDS A – Z Persuasive words motivate readers. Imagine the impact of persuasive words in your writing. Here are a few sparks for igniting the power of your persuasive essay. marvelousMasterMaximizemeasureMobilizeMotivateNoticeObserveOutlook outrageousOvercome PerceptionPersuadePetitephenomenalPinpointPlanPopular Position PositivePrepareProclaimProfitProfitableProudQualityQuest Realize Reconsider ReduceRefreshRemarkReplaceRespondRetainRoaring Rush Sacrificing ScanSceneScopeSensitiveShatterShiftShout Silence simplifySoftlySolidSolveSpeakspeechlessSuperbStimulate Succeed Superior Supplement Support Tantalizing TemptingTogethertranquil Transform Tremendous Truly Trustworthy Understand UnleashVibrantViewVisionVoice WitnessWorkable Worthwhile

33 TRANSITION WORDS WORDS THAT CAN BE USED TO SHOW LOCATION: AboveAcrossAgainstAlongAmongAroundBehindBelowBeneath BesideBetweenBeyondByDownIn back ofIn front ofInsideInto NearOffOntoOutsideOverThroughoutTo the right Underunderneath WORDS USED THAT CAN BE USED TO SHOW TIME: WhileAfterAtBeforeDuringFirstSecondThird NowUntilMeanwhileTodayTomorrowNext weekYesterdaySoon LaterAfterwardAboutFinallyThenNextAs soon asWhen suddenly WORDS THAT CAN BE USED TO COMPARE TWO THINGS: LikewiseAlsoWhileIn the same way LikeAsSimilarly

34 TRANSITION WORDS WORDS THAT CAN BE USED TO CONTRAST TWO THINGS: ButStillAlthoughOn the other hand HoweverYetOtherwiseEven though WORDS THAT CAN BE USED TO CLARIFY: That isFor instanceIn other words WORDS THAT CAN BE USED TO EMPHASIZE A POINT AgainTrulyEspeciallyFor this reason To repeatIn factTo emphasize WORDS THAT CAN BE USED TO ADD INFORMATION AgainAnotherFor instanceFor example AlsoAs wellNextAnd BesidesFinallyMoreoverAlong with In additionFor exampleAdditionallyOther

35 Concluding Transitions C learly H ence E vidently Ergo (a continuing thought) Thus Therefore As one can see C learly H ence E vidently Ergo (a continuing thought) Thus Therefore As one can see CHEETTA

36 NO SECOND PERSON PRONOUNS! NO SECOND PERSON PRONOUNS! YOU YOUR YOURS SHOULD NOT BE USED IN FORMAL WRITING! You is sometimes acceptable in the introduction paragraph for your HOOK only, but nowhere else. It is considered informal. We should NOT write how we speak, put your tuxedo and best dress on when you write! Use we, us, our, ours or one or students

37 Having a Strong VOICE in your Writing You feel a strong connection to the writers… –Emotion –Energy –Conviction –Integrity feel –…you feel SOMETHING!

38 Voice is… Person behind the words Reader Writer Involvement Awareness of audience Individualistic Expressive

39 Whos Voice is This? 8:00 am – Dog food! My favorite thing! 9:30 am – A car ride! My favorite thing! 9:40 am – A walk in the park! My favorite thing! 10:30 am – Got rubbed and petted! My favorite thing! 12:00 pm – Lunch! My favorite thing! 1:00 pm – Played in the yard! My favorite thing! 3:00 pm – Wagged my tail! My favorite thing! 5:00 pm – Milk bones! My favorite thing! 7:00 pm – Got to play ball! My favorite thing! 8:00 pm – Wow! Watched TV with the people! My favorite thing! 11:00 pm – Sleeping on the bed! My favorite thing!

40 Whos Voice is This? Day 983 of my captivity. My captors continue to taunt me with bizarre little dangling objects. They dine lavishly on fresh meat, while the other inmates and I are fed hash or some sort of dry nuggets. Although I make my contempt for the rations perfectly clear, I nevertheless must eat something in order to keep up my strength. The only thing that keeps me going is my dream of escape. In an attempt to disgust them I once again vomit on the carpet. Today I decapitated a mouse and dropped its headless body at their feet. I had hoped this would strike fear into their hearts, since it clearly demonstrates what I am capable of. However, they merely made condescending comments about what a good little hunter I am. There was some sort of assembly of their accomplices tonight. Day 983 of my captivity. My captors continue to taunt me with bizarre little dangling objects. They dine lavishly on fresh meat, while the other inmates and I are fed hash or some sort of dry nuggets. Although I make my contempt for the rations perfectly clear, I nevertheless must eat something in order to keep up my strength. The only thing that keeps me going is my dream of escape. In an attempt to disgust them I once again vomit on the carpet. Today I decapitated a mouse and dropped its headless body at their feet. I had hoped this would strike fear into their hearts, since it clearly demonstrates what I am capable of. However, they merely made condescending comments about what a good little hunter I am. There was some sort of assembly of their accomplices tonight.

41 Whos Voice is This? I was placed in solitary confinement for the duration of the event. However, I could hear the noises and smell the food. I overheard that my confinement was due to the power of allergies. I must learn what this means and how to use it to my advantage… Today I was almost successful in an attempt to assassinate one of my tormentors by weaving around his feet as he was walking. I must try this again tomorrow – but at the top of the stairs. I am convinced that the other prisoners here are flunkies and snitches. The dog receives special privileges. He is regularly released – and seems to be more than willing to return. He is obviously an idiot. The bird has got to be an informant. I observe him communicating with the guards regularly. I am certain that he reports my every move. My captors have arranged protective custody for him in an elevated cell, so he is safe. For now… I was placed in solitary confinement for the duration of the event. However, I could hear the noises and smell the food. I overheard that my confinement was due to the power of allergies. I must learn what this means and how to use it to my advantage… Today I was almost successful in an attempt to assassinate one of my tormentors by weaving around his feet as he was walking. I must try this again tomorrow – but at the top of the stairs. I am convinced that the other prisoners here are flunkies and snitches. The dog receives special privileges. He is regularly released – and seems to be more than willing to return. He is obviously an idiot. The bird has got to be an informant. I observe him communicating with the guards regularly. I am certain that he reports my every move. My captors have arranged protective custody for him in an elevated cell, so he is safe. For now… Home Page

42 Be certain to: Read each paragraph carefully more than once to see what makes this sample essay a good one. Review actual graded NJ ASK persuasive essays on the class website. Note the scores and understand WHY they received them. Note the strengths AND the weaknesses!! Be certain to: Read each paragraph carefully more than once to see what makes this sample essay a good one. Review actual graded NJ ASK persuasive essays on the class website. Note the scores and understand WHY they received them. Note the strengths AND the weaknesses!!

43 Summer: 15 Days or 2 1/2 Months? Student Example – INTRODUCTION paragraph Schools should continue using the traditional calendar and not a year-round schedule (position). It has no positive effects on education (1)it adds to costs (2), it disrupts the long-awaited summer vacation (3) The final bell rings. Its the last day of school, and summer has finally come! Students dont have to think about school for at least another 2 1/2 months. That is the way it should always be. Schools should continue using the traditional calendar and not a year-round schedule (position). There are numerous downsides to year-round schooling. It has no positive effects on education (1), it adds to costs (2), and it disrupts the long-awaited summer vacation (3). Students Opinion Students 3 reasons OPINION + 3 REASONS = THESIS STATEMENT

44 Paragraph 2 – Reason 1 = Student Example Contrary to the well-accepted belief, year- round schooling has no constructive impact on education. (1) (2) (3) why is the change necessary? Contrary to the well-accepted belief, year- round schooling has no constructive impact on education. (1) Most year-round schedules use the 45-15 method: 45 days of school followed by 15 days off. Because of this, there are many first and last days of school. All those transitions disrupt the learning process. Also, (2) there is no evidence of higher test scores. Due to that, many schools that change to year-round schedules end up switching back. For example, (3) since 1980, 95 percent of schools that tried the year-round schedule changed back to a traditional calendar. It is obvious that changing to year-round schooling does not help students; therefore, why is the change necessary? Reason 1 Supporting Detail 2 Supporting Detail 1 Supporting Detail 3 Get the reader thinking with a thought-provoking question.

45 Paragraph 3 – Reason 2 - Student Example Like any other facility, keeping a school open requires a great deal of money. (1) (2) (3) Is year-round school really where the money should go? Like any other facility, keeping a school open requires a great deal of money. When a school changes to a year-round schedule, the costs skyrocket. (1) Keeping school open in the middle of summer requires air conditioning, and that adds significantly to the schools expenses. The usual utility bills grow because of the additional open- school time. Finally, (2) teachers must be paid for all the weeks they are working. With all these factors, the cost of keeping schools open becomes immensely high. For example, (3) a high school in Arizona had a cost increase of $157,000 when they switched to year- round schooling. Some schools may not be able to handle such increases, and other schools that can handle these expenses could be doing better things with the money. Is year-round school really where the money should go? Reason 2 Supporting Detail 3 Supporting Detail 2 Supporting Detail 1

46 Paragraph 4 – Reason 3 - Student Example An important part of a childs life is summertime. With year-round schedules, students would hardly have any time to relax. (1) (2) (3) (4) Why should this invaluable part of a young persons life be taken away? An important part of a childs life is summertime. With year-round schedules, students would hardly have any time to relax. (1) During the 15- day breaks, they would be thinking about their quick return to school. (2) It would also be difficult to coordinate family vacations with parents work schedules. (3) Similarly, children would not be able to go to most summer camps. (4) One expert, Dr. Peter Scales, says, The biggest plus of camp is that camps help young people discover and explore their talents, interests, and values. Most schools dont satisfy all these needs. Kids who have these kinds of [camp] experiences end up being healthier and have fewer problems. Obviously, the summer is crucial to a childs learning and development. Why should this invaluable part of a young persons life be taken away? Reason 3 Supporting Detail 1 & 2 Supporting Detail 3 & 4 Get the reader thinking with a thought- provoking question.

47 Counterargument – Could be part of your 3 rd Body Paragraph (4 th paragraph of your essay) Student Example (1) Teachers and other education professionals spend a lot of time at the beginning of the school year reviewing material from the previous year. (2) there are no classes taking place during summer hours, the building is still being used, therefore utility costs remain consistent throughout the year. (3), there has been a significant increase in families staying home during the summer months due to the downturn in the economy. travel and vacations have become practically nonexistent for families with school age children. But does this really make sense to everyone? (1) Teachers and other education professionals spend a lot of time at the beginning of the school year reviewing material from the previous year. These days and weeks of review could be used more effectively if the lessons continued to move forward, not backward. Also, By having their children in school with short breaks in between sessions, parents would not have to pay for additional, expensive childcare. Even if (2) there are no classes taking place during summer hours, the building is still being used, therefore utility costs remain consistent throughout the year. (3) And finally, there has been a significant increase in families staying home during the summer months due to the downturn in the economy. Because of this, travel and vacations have become practically nonexistent for families with school age children. According to AAA, last year alone, there was a 53% decrease in air travel. Reason 1 Reason 2 Reason 3

48 Paragraph 5 – Conclusion - Student Example As one can see, it is evident that year-round schooling is not the best option for the school calendar. There is absolutely nothing wrong with the traditional school year Lets make sure this bell means that the real summer vacation has come. As one can see, it is evident that year-round schooling is not the best option for the school calendar. There is absolutely nothing wrong with the traditional school year. Why change something that works so well? The final bell rings. Lets make sure this bell means that the real summer vacation has come. Concluding transition phrase Home Page

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50 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0cThuaPUD_Q&feature=PlayList&p=16B069ABF7 F24A36&playnext=1&playnext_from=PL&index=15 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0cThuaPUD_Q&feature=PlayList&p=16B069ABF7 F24A36&playnext=1&playnext_from=PL&index=15 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0cThuaPUD_Q&feature=PlayList&p=16B069ABF7 F24A36&playnext=1&playnext_from=PL&index=15 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0cThuaPUD_Q&feature=PlayList&p=16B069ABF7 F24A36&playnext=1&playnext_from=PL&index=15 In an episode of Everybody Loves Raymond, Marie writes a persuasive letter to the FBI interviewer whom is interviewing Robert (her son)… What is the issue that Marie is arguing to the FBI boss? What reasons/examples does she use in her letter to persuade the boss?

51 Persuasive Techniques…how to convince your audience Facts (surprising) Rhetorical Questioning Examples Statistics Comparison/Analogies Anecdotes Repetition of Ideas Quotations Facts (surprising) Rhetorical Questioning Examples Statistics Comparison/Analogies Anecdotes Repetition of Ideas Quotations Remember FRESCA for refreshing ways to persuade your audience!

52 Allusion – Reference to something outside the text. Including allusions in our writing can also enhance our essays. Historical figures A time period in history Current event in the media Literary character Movie Book Poem Song Quote by another author

53 Real-Life Examples & Allusions in Body Paragraphs It is also important that we try to include real-life examples in our body paragraphs. Including real- life examples will enhance your writing. SAMPLE: –T–Topic: Athlete's are overpaid. –R–Real life example in body paragraph: I remember my thirteenth birthday party like it was yesterday. It was a wonderful day until my father informed me that he could not afford to purchase the tickets to the Giants game I wanted so badly to attend. At first I became angry, but then I realized that the tickets were over $200 each for average seats. I then realized I could enjoy the game more with my family at home and big bowl of popcorn.

54 Explain and refute the opposite view within your essay… These newscasters argue that cell phones SHOULDNT be allowed in schools. One newscaster tries to refute or negate their argument, but she doesnt do a great job. What other argument could you use to negate the opposition (prove the other side wrong). These newscasters argue that cell phones SHOULDNT be allowed in schools. One newscaster tries to refute or negate their argument, but she doesnt do a great job. What other argument could you use to negate the opposition (prove the other side wrong). How would you refute or negate the two newscasters opinion that cell phones shouldnt be permitted in schools? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZTK Z6jovfso

55 Types of Arguments L OGOS (logic) means an argument based on reason. P ATHOS (passion or emotions) is the use of emotional arguments to get the audience to accept ones viewpoint. It is intended that the message inspire followers. E THOS (ethics or morals) is a moral or ethical argument that appeals to the readers morals or values; what the reader believes is morally or ethically right. Aristotle called it the moral rightness of an argument. L OGOS (logic) means an argument based on reason. P ATHOS (passion or emotions) is the use of emotional arguments to get the audience to accept ones viewpoint. It is intended that the message inspire followers. E THOS (ethics or morals) is a moral or ethical argument that appeals to the readers morals or values; what the reader believes is morally or ethically right. Aristotle called it the moral rightness of an argument.

56 Rhetoric = The Art of Persuasion The history of rhetoric and the concepts of ethos, pathos and logos began in Greece.

57 Who was Aristotle? Aristotle was a famous Greek philosopher who studied the art of persuasion. Aristotle taught Alexander the Great how to properly argue and perform a public speech. Plato, another famous Greek philosopher, was his teacher.

58 Ethos, Logos and Pathos In approximately 300 B.C.E. Aristotle, who was a famous Greek philosopher, wrote a book entitled, The Art of Rhetoric. In his book, Aristotle identified the three methods of persuasion. He called them ethos, pathos and logos.

59 Ethos = a MORAL argument The word "ethos" came from the Greek word ethikos meaning moral or showing moral character. Aristotle contends (argues or says) that a speaker must establish moral credibility in the minds of the audience at the beginning of his or her speech. An ethos argument demonstrates a moral or ethical argument that appeals to the readers morals or values; what the reader believes is morally or ethically right. For example, when a trusted doctor gives you advice, you may not understand all of the medical reasoning behind the advice, but you nonetheless follow the directions because you believe that the doctor knows what she/he is talking about.

60 Pathos = an EMOTIONAL argument An effective use of pathos will alter the mindsets of the audience through the use of emotional appeal. Appeals to pathos touch a nerve and compel people to not only listen, but to also take the next step and act in the world. Those who wish to persuade you will play with your emotions. They may persuade you with fear, love, patriotism, guilt, hate or joy.

61 Logos Logos means logic Logos refers to any attempt to appeal to the intellect OR, our brains. Logos appeals to the left side of the audience's brain. The audience relies on reasoning and facts to make its decision. –Numbers, polls and statistics are also examples of the persuasive use of logic.

62 REVIEW Ethos, Pathos and Logos 1.ETHOS= an ethical or moral argument 2.PATHOS= an emotional argument 3.LOGOS= a logical argument

63 Logos (logic) means an argument based on reason. Examples: –OnStar service inside your car is better than carrying a cell phone because a cell phone cant call for you when youre injured. –There was no discernible difference in the ACT scores of graduating seniors who wore school uniforms and those who didnt. –We are the only company who will roll over and save your unused phone minutes each month. –Stand firm, parents. If you say no at first and then give in later, you are only teaching your children to beg, whine and pester you.

64 P ATHOS (passion or emotions) is the use of emotional arguments to get the audience to accept ones viewpoint. It is intended that the message inspire followers. Examples: –A politician says that we have to fight the war over there so that we dont have to fight it here at home. –A commercial offers to tell you what your friends wont. –A newspaper editorial for private-school vouchers states that our public schools are dens of thieves and thugs. –A high school runs an article about drinking and driving with detailed descriptions and graphic pictures of automobile crashes.

65 E THOS (ethics or morals) is a moral or ethical argument that appeals to the readers morals or values; what the reader believes is morally or ethically right. Examples: –Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country. John Fitzgerald Kennedy –I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. – Martin Luther King Jr. –The way ahead is not easy. We shall need all the wisdom, imagination, and courage we can muster. We must and shall guarantee the civil rights of all our citizens. – Harry Truman addressing the NAACP Home Page


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