CAUSATIVE "HAVE" or "GET - is used to express the wish of the subject that something should/has to be done by someone else: Jack: I dont wash my car myself, I have it washed every month. How often do you have your car washed? Bill: I dont have my car washed, I wash it in my backyard every Saturday. SUBJECT HAVE or GET SOMETHING PAST PARTICIPLE DATI NEŠTO NAPRAVITI 2
RE-WORD THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES BY USING THE CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET CONSTRUCTION: 1. Someone washed my car for me yesterday. 2. Someone cleans the windows in our office every week. 3. I asked someone to paint the gate last week. 4. Someone tuned her piano for her yesterday. 5. I have asked a man to mend my shoes. 6. Somebody sends Mary her dresses from Paris. 7. Your hair wants cutting. You must.... I HAD MY CAR WASHED YESTERDAY. WE HAVE THE WINDOWS IN OUR OFFICE CLEANED EVERY WEEK. I HAD/GOT THE GATE PAINTED LAST WEEK. SHE HAD HER PIANO TUNED YESTERDAY. I HAVE HAD MY SHOES MENDED. MARY HA S HER DRESSES SENT FROM PARIS. YOU MUST HAVE YOUR HAIR CUT. 3
8. Tell someone to translate it into English. Dont trust Google. 9. Our season tickets need renewing. We must... 10. I'll ask someone to make a new one. 11. We ordered someone to whitewash the ceiling. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS NEGATIVELLY USING THE CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET CONSTRUCTION: 1. Did you redecorate your room yourself? 2. Shall we cut the grass ourselves? 3. Are you going to mend the puncture yourself? 4 HAVE IT TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH. WE MUST HAVE / GET OUR SEASON TICKETS RENEWED. ILL HAVE A NEW ONE MADE. WE HAD THE CEILING WHITEWASHED. NO, I DIDNT. I HAD IT REDECORATED. NO, WE SHANT. WELL HAVE IT CUT. NO, IM NOT. IM GOING TO HAVE IT MENDED.
5 4. Does she polish the floors herself? 5. Are you going to shorten the trousers yourself? 6. Does he wash his car himself? 7. Will you type the reports yourself? 8. Would you adjust your brakes yourself? 9. Do you iron the curtains yourself? 10. Did Peter adjust the brakes himself? 11. Have you repaired the clock yourself? NO, SHE DOESNT. SHE HAS THEM POLISHED. NO, IM NOT. IM GOING TO HAVE / GET THEM SHORTENED. NO, HE DOESNT. HE HAS IT WASHED. NO, I WONT. ILL HAVE THEM TYPED. NO, I WOULDNT. I WOULD HAVE THEM ADJUSTED. ITS SAFER. NO, I HATE IRONING. I HAVE THEM IRONED. GOD NO! HE HAS NO IDEA HOW TO DO IT. HE HAD THEM ADJUSTED. NO WAY, IVE HAD IT REPAIRED.
6 INSERT PROPER VERBAL FORMS: 1. Years ago, after some new methods (apply) ___________________________ our production (increase) ____________________ significantly. 2. Look at that man (repair) ______________________ Peter's car. (Watch) ________________ him, you (learn) ______________________ something. 3. Something must (do) __________________ about that fuel pump which (replace) _____________ only two weeks ago. 4. The storage battery (fill) ______________________ yesterday and now it (wait) _______________ (put) ___________________________ back in the engine. 5. Temperature and pressure in every nuclear power plant (have) _____________ (control) __________________________ every day. 6. Before (start) __________________ this new DVD, (read) _______________ the instructions very carefully. 7. This problem (solve) _______________________ tomorrow. The new engineer (say) _____________ that at the meeting yesterday.
7 8. While we (test) ________________________ our new air conditioning system last night, somebody (turn) _______________________ the current off. 9. Since the new manager (come) ___________________ to our factory, our output (improve) __________________________ greatly. 10. If this plan must (make) ____________________ by tomorrow, everything else (have) ________________________ (wait) ____________________. 11. Who (you, hear) _______________________________ from that 20 new computers (buy) ___________________________ next month? 12. After the computers (install) _____________________________, we all (go) ________________ home. 13. So far nothing (do) ________________________ about our production plan for the next year. 14. This machine must (transport) _______________________ by train. It (be) _________________ too heavy (put) _______________________ on a truck. 15. (Discuss) ________________________ production control problems at the meeting yesterday, our new engineer (say) ______________________ he (make) ____________________ a report about it.
8 16. All the chips (fabricate) ____________________ in our factory, (prove) __________________ (be) _____________________ good but too expensive. 17. I (just, write) ___________________________ some letters and I (go) ____________________ (take) _________________________ them to the post Office. They (deliver) ___________________ by noon. 18. Mary (be) ____________________ in London for three months now but I (not, get) ___________________ any letters from her yet. 19. The College Board (allow) ______________________ (buy) ____________ the new equipment only after the Minister's office (approve) ________________. 20. While we (watch) _________________________ a basketball match on TV, Mary (come) _________________ and (tell) __________________ us what (happen) _______________________. 21. If you (think) ____________________ that these techniques (not, be) _________________ good, our technology concept (have) _________________ (change) ______________________. 22. The house (build) ________________ at the end of our street (look) _________________ very nice, indeed. Who (know) ________________ how much it (cost) ____________________?
9 23. (Not, talk) ____________________ now, please. I (try) _________________ (solve) ________________________ a very difficult equation. 24. (You, want) ___________________________ me (help) _______________ you with your homework? No, thanks. We (tell) _________________________ (not, ask) _____________ for help. Anyway, I (almost, finish) _____________________________ it. 25. What (your mother, do) ___________________________ when you (tell) _______________ her about your bad marks? You (not, want) _________________________ (hear) ________________ that! I (ground) __________________________ for a month. 26. This machine (not, lubricate) __________________________________ since it (buy) ___________________________. 27. Your TV set (already, repair) ______________________________ and (return) ________________ to you tomorrow. 28. All these elevators (drive) ____________________________ by d.c. motors.
10 29. (enter) ____________________ the manager's office this morning, I (be) ____________ sure that the man (sit) _____________________ there (be) ________________ our new designer. 30. This dynamo (have) ______________ (repair) _______________________ tomorrow morning. 31. The best experts from abroad (be) ___________________________ here for three months but their efforts (not, show) __________________________ any results yet. 32. Railway carriages must (equip) ________________________ with hand brakes. 33. I (tell) ___________________ that you (buy) __________________ a new DVD last week. How much (you, pay) __________________________ for it? 34. I (can, not) ______________________ (start) ____________________ the engine this morning because I (leave) ____________________________ the ignition key at home. 35. The letter which (bring) ___________________________ yesterday (wait) _________________ on your desk (translate) ________________________. 36. The letter (bring) ________________________ yesterday and now it (wait) ___________________ (translate) _____________________________.
11 37. When (you, go) _____________________________ (wash) _______________________ your car? It (be) _______________ so dirty. 38. How long (you, work) ____________________________________ here? 39. While we (pack) ____________________________ our bags, a friend (call) _______________ and (say) ________________________ that all the flights (delay) ________________________ because of the fog. 40. Why (you, get) __________________________ up? It (be) ____________ Saturday. I must (go) ______________ to the office. We (work) ___________________ on a new project.
12 ENERGY CRISIS A word about the energy crisis: the worlds supply of petroleum (create) ______________________ over millions of years ago and cannot (replace) _____________________ or (renew) _____________ in our time. Estimates (vary) _________________ on how long the supply (last) _________________ but according to some experts not much more than thirty years at the present rate of consumption. Automobiles, diesels, and jets (use) __________________ enormous amounts of fuel (derive) _______________ from petroleum so do households and power plants that (produce) ____________ electricity. Petroleum (be) ________________ also the basis for petrochemical products (include) ______________________ many of todays plastics, fertilizers, and insecticides. Therefore there (be) ____________ a mounting interest in engines that (not, use) _______________ petroleum as fuel. Some power plants (already, convert) _________________________ from oil to coal, but while coal (be) __________ in much greater supply than petroleum it (be) __________ another non-renewable
13 energy source which (eventually, exhaust) ________________________. Experiments (be) _______________ under way (harness) _________________ such energy sources as the wind, the tides, and the sun. Nuclear fusion - the release of energy when atoms (join) _______________ together – (explore) ______________________ as a safer alternative to nuclear fission with its hazardous by-products of radioactive wastes that (pose) _________________ a serious threat to the environment and to human life. The difficulty with fusion (be) _____________ that it (require) ______________ an enormously high degree of heat (start) __________________ the reaction; to date it (not, be) ____________________ possible (generate) ____________________ that much heat even under laboratory conditions. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS Current (move) _______________ from a point of high potential energy to one of low potential. It can only (do) ______________ so if there (be) ___________ a path for it (follow) _____________. This path (call) ______________ an electric circuit. All circuits (contain) ______________ four elements: a source, a load, a transmission system and a control. The source (provide) _______________ the electromotive force. This (establish) ________________ the difference in potential which (make) _______________ current flow possible. The source can (be) ____________ any device which
14 (supply) ______________ electrical energy. For example, it may (be) __________ a generator or a battery. The load (convert) _______________ the electrical energy from the source into some other form of energy. For instance, a lamp (change) _______________ electrical energy into light and heat. The load can be any electrical device. The transmission system (conduct) ________________ the current round the circuit. Any conductor can (consider) ____________________ part of a transmission system. Most systems (consist) _________________ of wires. It (be) ___________ often possible, however, for the metal frame of a unit (be) ______ one section of its transmission system. For example, the metal chassis of many electrical devices (use) _______________ (conduct) __________ current. Similarly the body of a car (be) ______________ part of its electrical transmission system. The control (regulate) _______________ the current flow in the circuit. It may (control) ____________ the current by (limit) ________________ it, as (do) _______________ a rheostat, or by (interrupt) _______________ it, as (do) _________ a switch.
15 MODULATION We can only (communicate) ___________________ information by radio waves by (change) _______________ the wave in some way. This change (know) ______________ as modulation. The simplest form of modulation (be) __________ (turn) ______________ the wave on and off. This method (use) _______________ in the early days of radio for telegraphic signals. The wave (stop) _______________ and (start) ______________ (represent) ________________ the dots and dashes of the Morse code by means of a telegraph key. Speech and music (produce) _______________ audio frequencies which cannot (transmit) _______________ directly. But they can (use) _______________ (modulate) _______________ radio waves. This modulated radio wave (then, transmit) ____________________. When it (receive) _______________, the wave (demodulate) ___________________ and the original audio-frequency signal (recover) __________________. The high frequency radio wave (act) ______________ only (carry) ________________ the audio-frequency signal and (call) _________________ the carrier wave. The audio-frequency signal (term) ________________ the modulating signal. The wave (have) _______________ three quantities: amplitude, frequency and phase. Any of these quantities can (modulate) _________________. The two commonest methods of modulation (be) ______________ amplitude modulation,
16 am, and frequency modulation, fm. In amplitude modulation, the amplitude of the carrier wave (change) _________ according to the amplitude of the modulating signal. The frequency of the carrier (keep) _______________ constant. In frequency modulation, the amplitude of the carrier wave (keep) __________ constant, but the frequency (vary) ________________ in proportion to the amplitude of the modulating signal. Frequency modulation (have) ___________ several advantages over amplitude modulation. The most notable (be) _________ that reception (be) _______________ less likely (disturb) _________________. This (be) _____________ because atmospheric disturbances and noise (generate) __________________ in the receiver itself (result) ______________ in a change in the amplitude of the received signal. However, changes in only the frequency would distort the modulated information.