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College English Vol. 3 Jonathan Hart Lorin Yochim.

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1 College English Vol. 3 Jonathan Hart Lorin Yochim

2 Unit 1 Text: Difficulties in Noise Control Language Points Exercises Vocabulary / Structure / Translation Enjoy English Grammar Numeral Cardinal Numbers Writing Skill Types of Paragraphs (1) (1)

3 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Text (Para.1) The 1 roar of 2 traffic, the screech of 3 brakes, the click of typewriters, the 4 howl of transistor radios, the chug-chug of machinery! It is noise, noise everywhere and all the time. How often we hear someone say, I wish I could get away from all this noise. But he cannot get away. He has to live with noise day after day and hour after hour. Noise has become the 5 curse of modern times.

4 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Language Points (Para.1) 1. roar [r ɔ :]n.&v. 1) n. loud burst of sound The roar of his laughter could be heard from 10 blocks away. 10 Johns roar of anger scared away all his friends. 2) vi. to make a loud noise A lion cannot roar until it is at least two years old. The old machine roared into action.

5 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Language Points (Para.1) 2. traffic ['træfik]n. 1) n. movement of vehicles or persons The noise of traffic grows louder during rush hour. The newly built bridge will be open to traffic this Monday. 2) n.&vt. illegal trade or to deal illegally Many devices were invented to traffic drugs. They deny conspiring together to traffic drugs.

6 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Language Points (Para.1) 3. brake [breik]n.&vi. 1) n. a restraint used to slow or stop a vehicle It is dangerious to ride a bike without brakes. Where is your emergency brake? 2) vt. to stop a vehicle, slow down a vehicle We had to brake suddenly when a dog crossed the road. Don't brake the car when it has a sudden flat tire.

7 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Language Points (Para.1) 4. howl [haul]n.&v. 1) n. cry out I can hear the howl of the wolves in the forest. A sudden howl pierced the silence. 2) v. to cry out The howl of the wind made him restless during the night. The speaker was howled down by the angry audience.

8 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Language Points (Para.1) 5. curse [kə:s]n.&v. 1) n. swear word This car seemed to be under a curse because every owner of it had bad accidents. Stop using those curse words. 2) v. to wish evil on someone or something Daddy seems to curse a lot these days. Its better to light a candle than curse the darkness.

9 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Text (Para.2 ) Who 6 is responsible for all this noise? Nobody 7 in particular. Man has been busy 8 inventing things for hundreds of years now, such as the train, the car and the aeroplane, besides machines of various kinds. Each of these inventions added its share of noise when it came. Thus the noise of modern times has come to us gradually over a long period of time. It is, therefore, difficult to put the 9 blame on anyone in particular.

10 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Language Points (Para.2) 6. be responsible for … Who should be responsible for this traffic accident? The shipping company will be responsible for the damage. 7. in particular [in pə'tikjulə]ad. I would like to mention in particular the contribution made by the volunteers. The whole meal was good but the wine in particular was excellent.

11 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Language Points (Para.2) 8. invent [in'vent]vt. 1) vt. to creat, to design Not only did American invent skyscrapers but also the telephone. China was the first country to invent paper. 2) vt. to concoct; to fabricate Who invented the story that I was married? He has to invent an excuse for his absence.

12 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Language Points (Para.2) 9. blame [bleim]n.&vt. 1) n. an accusation or approach He tried to dump the blame on me. We were ready to take the blame if the suggestion was refused by the expert. 2) vt. to put or pin the blame on Why do you blame their quarrel on me? I was blamed for making such a stupid mistake.

13 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Text (Para.3) But how are we to control noise? It is not easy. There are difficulties in finding ways to control noise. 10 In the first place, 11 though noise makes people deaf or partly deaf, deafness is not the same as, say, blindness. You can easily see that a man is blind, but you cannot 12 find out that a man is deaf until you talk to him. Besides, a man can continue to work after he has gone deaf. Blindness, 13 on the contrary, forces a man to stop working and everybody feels sorry for him. Nobody feels sorry for the deaf man in the same way.

14 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Language Points (Para.3) 10. in the first place In the first place, career can give us an aim to live on; secondly, it gives us money. In the first place, we should continue the experiment and pay no attention to blames.

15 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Language Points (Para.3) 11. though [ðəu]conj.&ad. 1) conj. despite, in spite of Though she knew the answer, she did not respond. Though we tried our best, we lost the game. 2) ad. anyway( ) I have to tell you the truth. It might be unpleasant, though. I cannot stay. I will have a coffee though.

16 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Language Points (Para.3) 12. find out [faind aut]v. to discover, learn about Go and find out what is needed most in the market. Jack has spent two hours trying to find out how this dishwasher works. 13. on the contrary ['k ɔ ntrəri]prep. opposite of what has been stated Others, on the contrary, are strongly against it. He didnt stay home; on the contrary, he went out with his friends.

17 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Text (Para.4) Secondly, people feel differently about the same noise. My neighbors radio set heard through the wall is noise to me, but it can be a 14 delight to my neighbor. The ding-dong of the ice-cream wallah is a joy to children but not to people who do not like ice-cream. There are plenty of young men who enjoy the roar of a motor-cycle, but it drives others mad. One mans noise is another mans music.

18 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Language Points (Para.3) 14. delight [di'lait]n.&v. 1) n. a feeling of extreme pleasure or satisfaction His delight to see her was obvious to all. Her eyes were lit up with delight and surprise. 2) vt.to give pleasure to or be pleasing to … I am delighted to have been able to do you this service. He delighted everyone with his flattering words.

19 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Text (Para.5) Finally, limiting or 15 reducing noise is 16 costly. 17 Take_the case of the jet aircraft flying into Santa Cruz airport. These aircrafts make a lot of unpleasant noise. One way of limiting the noise is to move the airport to a place far away from Bombay. This would cause inconvenience to air travelers coming to Bombay and it would cost them more money. Another way of limiting the noise is to make smaller and lighter aircraft. This would mean carrying fewer passengers, or less fuel, or both. The price of air tickets would then go up and the flight would take more time.

20 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Language Points (Para.5) 16. reduce [ri'dju:s]v. 1) vt. cut down on The only way to get rid of the present difficulties is to reduce expenses. The teacher asks the student to reduce the passage to half the number of the words.

21 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Language Points (Para.5) 16. 2) vt. bring to humbler or weaker state or condition That tyrant had reduced the population to slavery. They were reduced to begging or starving. 3) vi. to become less fat No sugar, thank you I am trying to reduce my body fat. She is determined to reduce for that beautiful dress.

22 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Language Points (Para.5) A car is costly to buy and even more costly to maintain. Love is romantic but costly in modern times. take the case of … Take the case of television it has a very bad influence on people. Take the case of the Black Death in European history; it killed millions of people.

23 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Text (Para.6) These are some of the difficulties in the way of controlling noise, and because of these, we have not been able to do much to make our streets less noisy. But we 18 are now aware of the dangers of noise and we are trying to do something to control it. That in itself is a good thing.

24 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Language Points (Para.6) 18.be aware of Many people are not aware of how serious noise pollution has become. He is aware of the issue reported last week.

25 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Exercises II. Structure 2.1 Use despite / in spite of to replace although or though in the following sentences. 1) Though noise makes people deaf, deafness is not the same as blindness. 2) Although safety is given great consideration, the death rate on inter-state highways is still high. Answers: 1) In spite of the fact that noise makes people deaf, deafness is not the same as blindness. 2) In spite of safety considerations, the death rate on inter-state highways is still high.

26 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Exercises 2.1 Use despite / in spite of to replace although or though in the following sentences. 3) Although the weather is bad, we still go fishing. 4) College education is rewarding though the starting costs are very high. Answers: 3) In spite of the bad weather, we went fishing. 4) College education is rewarding in spite of the starting costs.

27 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Exercises 2.2 Use not …until ( … … …) to translate the following sentence into English 1) 2) Answers: 1) You cant find out that a man is deaf until you talk to him. 2) People didnt realize the harm of noise pollution to their health until recently. (It was not until recently that people began to realize the harm of noise pollution to their health)

28 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Exercises 2.2 Use not …until ( … … …) to translate the following sentence into English. 3) 4) Answers: 3) I cant make any decision whether I hire you until I see you. 4) He didnt find his wallet lost until he arrived at the railway station.

29 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Exercises 2.3 In English copulas / linking verbs ( ) could generally be divided into two groups: static and dynamic. The former defines or describe the nature or characteristics of something while the latter express a process of change. Please use the dynamic copulas to finish the following sentences. come true / prove difficult / fall broken / run dry / turn yellow / become aware of / grow old 1) Leaves ______ in autumn. 2) He ______ his shortcomings and is trying to overcome them. 3) The old man ______ after a thunder storm. Answers: 1 1) turn yellow 2) became aware of 3) went deaf

30 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Exercises II. Please use the dynamic copulas to finish the following sentences. come true / prove difficult / fall broken / run dry / turn yellow / become aware of / grow old 4) The river ______ during that serious draught. 5) A person does not necessarily ______ as his age progresses. 6) The vase ______ onto the ground. 7) Noise reduction _______. 8) The pop singers dream ______ in the end. Answers: 4) ran dry 5) grow old 6) fell broken 7) proved difficult 8) came true The river ______ during that serious draught. 5) A person does not necessarily ______ as his age progresses. 6) The vase ______ onto the ground. 7) Noise reduction _______. 8) The pop singers dream ______ in the end.

31 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Exercises III. Translation 1) She was found out when she tried to cash the stolen checks. 2) Their criticism did not discourage me. On the contrary, I worked even harder. 3) To everyones delight, Ashley Fisher has given his best performance. Answers: 1) 2) 3) ·

32 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Exercises III. Translation 4) The general's decision to invade was a costly mistake. 5) We need to make ourselves aware of [the fact] that if we don't make any changes to our way of living we will kill ourselves. 6) In spite of the progress made in science and technology, problems remain as to how to solve pollution. Answers: 4) 5) 6)

33 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Grammar: Numeral Cardinal Number 1. 1) 2) 2. 1) (cardinal numeral) one, twenty 2) (ordinal numeral) first, twentieth

34 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Grammar: Numeral Cardinal Number 1) teen [`ti:n] thirteen [`W[:`ti:n] 2) ty [ti] 3) - twenty-one 4) /hundred [`hQndrid] 1, 000 / thousand [`Wauz[nd] 1,000,000 / million [`milj[n] 1,00,000,000 / hundred million 1,000 million / (= billion)

35 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Grammar: Numeral Cardinal Number 5) / four hundred and ninety-nine 2,876 / two thousand eight hundred and seventy-six 37,453 / thirty-seven thousand four hundred and fifty-three 788,921 /seven hundred eighty-eight thousand nine hundred and twenty- one 8,641,457 / eight million six hundred forty-one thousand four hundred and fifty-seven 50,000,000 / fifty million 500,000,000 / five hundred million 5,000,000,000 / five billion 50,000,000,000 / fifty billion

36 Unit 1 Difficulties in Noise Control Grammar: Numeral Cardinal Number 3 Two plus three is five. Four of them joined the army this year. There are so many apples. Give me two. I dont like to hear the number 13. My sister is just thirteen. Marx was already fifty when he began to study Russian. There are sixty students in our class. The teenager bought two packs of cigarettes

37 Besides the developmental paragraphs found in the body of essays, there are other types of paragraphs that are important for the smooth development of any essay. These are the introductory, transitional, and concluding paragraphs. The introductory paragraph: this paragraph prepares readers for the body of the essay. It arouses their interest and curiosity. It may also project your attitude toward your subject and thus set the tone for the rest of the essay. In short, it places readers in a proper frame of mind to accept what you have to say.

38 Here are a few examples of introductory paragraphs: 1. Man still has a lot to learn about the most powerful and the complex part of his body the brain. 2. I would like to propose that for sixty to ninety minutes each evening, right after the early evening news, all television broadcasting in our country be prohibited. 3. Why do you teach? My friend asked the question when I told him that I didnt want to be considered for an administrative position. He was puzzled that I didnt want what was obviously a step up toward what all Americans are taught to want when they grow up: money and power.

39 Exercise: Now answer the following questions. Do these introductory paragraphs tell us what the writer is going to dwell upon in other paragraphs? Which one is a direct introduction and which ones are not?

40 The transitional paragraph: This type of paragraph allows the readers to move from one section of material to another in an essay and achieve a smooth progression. It functions as a signpost that reminds the readers where they have been and where they will go next. These paragraphs are usually brief sometimes no more than a sentence or two and are often highlighted by transitional words and phrases.

41 Here are some examples of transitional paragraphs: 1. I have left out, however, the most important reason why I teach. 2. So far I have spoken from my own experiences as a teacher in high school. 3. You may think it too personal to prove the failure of American education. 4. There are many other witnesses who can be called to the stand. Note: Not all essays include transitional paragraphs. Transitions between paragraphs are done at the end or the beginning of paragraphs

42 Unit Two Text: Animals of the Desert Language Points Exercises about the text Vocabulary Structure / Translation / Enjoy English Grammar NumeralOrdinal Numbers Writing Skill Types of Paragraphs (2) (2)

43 Unit 2 Animals of the Desert Text (Para.1) Some desert animals can 1 survive the very strong summer heat and dryness because they have very unusual characteristics. 2 The camel, for example, can bear an increase in the temperature of its body and its blood of 9. 3 In addition, 4 it can drink an enormous amount of water at one time, then store sufficient water in its red blood cells and other parts of its body to supply its needs for two weeks or more.

44 Unit 2 Animals of the Desert Language Points (Para.1) 1. survive [sə'vaiv]v. 1) vt. to continue in existence after … … Many desert plants have survived this extremely dry season. She was the only one to survive the crash. 2) vt. to live longer than … … Marie survived her husband and went on to marry three other noblemen. The company survived its founder but only by one month.

45 Unit 2 Animals of the Desert Language Points (Para.1) 1. 3) vi. to continue to live, endure or last Perhaps the most difficult challenge is how to survive without money. The space for wildlife to survive is becoming less and less.

46 Unit 2 Animals of the Desert Language Points (Para.1) 2. The camel, for example, can bear an increase in the temperature of its body and its blood of 9.: 9 in the temperature of its body and its blood The camel can bear an increase of 9. The camel can bear an increase of 9 in the temperature of its body and its blood.

47 Unit 2 Animals of the Desert Language Points (Para.1) bear 1) vt. endure ( ) There is no limit to what anyone can bear. I cant bear to see you crying like this. I cant bear to be laughed at. Most people cant bear to see animals treated cruelly.

48 Unit 2 Animals of the Desert Language Points (Para.1) I cant bear to see my daughter unhappy. The husband couldnt bear his wifes betrayal. 2) vt. have …, wear … … … Her face still wore signs of tears. Because of the love we bear for peace, we try our best to avoid war.

49 Unit 2 Animals of the Desert Language Points (Para.1) 3) vt. produce This land bears no crops. I was born in 1962 in Shanghai. 1962

50 Unit 2 Animals of the Desert Language Points (Para.1) 3. in addition … Animals can be mankinds friends. In addition, they can be made to work for man. In addition, there was a crop failure in many provinces. in addition furthermore, similarly, moreover, besides, as well, also

51 Unit 2 Animals of the Desert Language Points (Para.1) 4. …it can drink an enormous amount of water at one time, then store sufficient water in its red blood cells and other parts of its body to supply its needs for two weeks or more.: to supply its needs for two weeks or more …drink…, then store… in order to

52 Unit 2 Animals of the Desert Language Points (Para.1) amount 1) n. She displayed a great amount of tenderness that touched him. A large amount of damage was done during the earthquake. 2) vi. to add up to … to The net profit amounts to 600 pounds per ton. 600 I dont think whatever they say will amount to much. Keeping what belongs to another amounts to stealing.

53 Unit 2 Animals of the Desert Text (Para.1-2) …The kangaroo rat, 5 on the other hand, obtains all the water it needs from water that it produces during respiration. However, most animals need to 6 maintain a 7 fairly 8 constant body temperature, and will die if it rises more than 5. Therefore, they need to find some way to 9 avoid the suns strong rays. 10 Not many animals either store or produce water in their bodies, as the camel and kangaroo rat can. So they must find ways to reduce water loss from their bodies to the lowest degree.

54 Unit 2 Animals of the Desert Language Points (Para.1-2) 5. The kangaroo rat, on the other hand, obtains all the water it needs from water that it produces during respiration.: on the other hand My brother is diligent, but on the other hand he progresses slowly. I hope you will succeed, but on the other hand I do not want to see you burnt out. On the one hand I admire her talents, but on the other I disagree with her in many aspects.

55 Unit 2 Animals of the Desert Language Points (Para.1-2) 6. maintain [mein'tein]v. 1) vt. keep in good condition To maintain a family with eight children is not easy. 8 Part of my job is to maintain good relationships with our suppliers. 2) vt.&vi. to insite to state or to assert He maintained that such things should never be done again. The defendant maintained her innocence.

56 Unit 2 Animals of the Desert Language Points (Para.1-2) 7. fairly ['f ɛ əli]ad. 1) moderately ( ) The two children are getting along fairly well. He is fairly rich, while his sister is fairly poor. 2) quite When I speak before a large audience, I am fairly beside myself with shyness. His suggestion fairly took my breath away.

57 Unit 2 Animals of the Desert Language Points (Para.1-2) 7. 3) justly I hope the case will be decided fairly. The boss didnt treat us fairly.

58 Unit 2 Animals of the Desert Language Points (Para.1-2) 8. constant ['k ɔ nstənt] a. 1) a. continuous Her constant complaints bored me. The scholar is a constant customer of the bookshop. 2) a. firm, steadfast He drove at a constant speed. Keep the birth rate constant.

59 Unit 2 Animals of the Desert Language Points (Para.1-2) 9. avoid ['k ɔ nstənt] vt. I avoided him as much as possible. She tried to avoid this awkward question. All the students study hard to avoid being left behind. I can see she is trying her best to avoid losing her temper.

60 Unit 2 Animals of the Desert Language Points (Para.1-2) 10. Nor can many animals either store or produce water in their bodies, as the camel and kangaroo rat can.: nor

61 Unit 2 Animals of the Desert Text (Para. 2) Because very few desert animals can survive the suns strong rays, the temperature, and the evaporation rate of a 11 typical summers day, most of them are active during the night. 12 Only after the sun has set does the desert come fully to life. The night is 13 relatively cool, and 14 the darkness provides protection, not only from the sun, but also from other animals and birds. So the coming of darkness is the signal for the large majority of animals and insects to continue their search for water and food. When morning comes, most of them 15 seek shelter again: many go 16 underground; nearly all find somewhere shady and they can avoid the suns rays there.

62 Unit 2 Animals of the Desert Language Points (Para. 2) 11. typical ['tipikəl] a. Shanghai is a typical manufacturing city. This is his typical concluding remark. be typical of It was typical of him to say that. This meal is typical of Mexican.

63 Unit 2 Animals of the Desert Language Points (Para. 2)

64 Unit 2 Animals of the Desert Text (Para. 3) For many kinds of insects, living in the desert is easier than for animals. Like many desert plants, they have a waterproof skin which prevents water loss by evaporation. In addition, some insects spend all or most of their life below ground. Here, for most of the year at least, there is some wetness, and it is generally cooler than 17 on the surface


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