Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Carles Casas Esplugas Paulo Fonseca Teixeira Andrés.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Carles Casas Esplugas Paulo Fonseca Teixeira Andrés."— Presentation transcript:

1 THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Carles Casas Esplugas Paulo Fonseca Teixeira Andrés López-Pita Adrina Bachiller Saña 9th International Conference on Competition and Ownership in Land Passenger Transport. Lisboa 5 – 9 September 2005

2 THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Casas Esplugas, Fonseca Teixeira, López Pita, Bachiller Saña, Lisboa 7 Sept 2005 2 CENIT APPARITION OF LCC IN EUROPE AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION CONCLUSIONS EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE Contents of the presentation APPARITION OF LOW COST AIR CARRIERS IN EUROPE –The liberalisation of European Skies –Expansion and effects of low cost air carriers AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION IN EUROPE –The apparition of High Speed Rail in Europe –Rail competitive advantages and disadvantages –Rail success –From Competition to Complementarity EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE –Modeling Technique –Implementation and validation of the model –Application of the model CONCLUSIONS –Considerations on the model –Final considerations APPARITION OF LCC IN EUROPE AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION CONCLUSIONS EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE

3 THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Casas Esplugas, Fonseca Teixeira, López Pita, Bachiller Saña, Lisboa 7 Sept 2005 3 CENIT APPARITION OF LCC IN EUROPE AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION CONCLUSIONS EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE Liberalisation of European Skies Airlines industry in Europe traditionally characterized by national or flag companies –Unique operator in corresponding internal markets –Political agreements for the international flights The lack of competition had an end with the liberalisation process of the European skies during the nineties. Different companies have evolved fast to concentration and alliances while reorganizing their services in hubs. Passengers have taken benefit of the liberalisation process. –A boost in frequencies –Multiplication of available destinations APPARITION OF LCC IN EUROPE

4 THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Casas Esplugas, Fonseca Teixeira, López Pita, Bachiller Saña, Lisboa 7 Sept 2005 4 CENIT APPARITION OF LCC IN EUROPE AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION CONCLUSIONS EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE Liberalisation of European Skies The airline sector has been deeply affected by the liberalisation process. Three aspects can be highlighted: APPARITION OF LCC IN EUROPE Progressive privatizations of national air companies and the search of partners and alliances. Growth of regional companies, in several cases with bases in secondary hubs and allies of the big airlines The apparition of low cost air companies

5 THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Casas Esplugas, Fonseca Teixeira, López Pita, Bachiller Saña, Lisboa 7 Sept 2005 5 CENIT APPARITION OF LCC IN EUROPE AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION CONCLUSIONS EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE Expansion and effects of low cost air carriers Low Cost companies have boosted in Europe Increase of destinations served and of the availability of low fares Low Cost companies have margin to grow and that, they will last in the European market. APPARITION OF LCC IN EUROPE Potential Marketshare of 25%

6 THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Casas Esplugas, Fonseca Teixeira, López Pita, Bachiller Saña, Lisboa 7 Sept 2005 6 CENIT APPARITION OF LCC IN EUROPE AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION CONCLUSIONS EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE The apparition of High Speed Rail in Europe The apparition of High Speed Rail (HSR) services in Europe with the inauguration of the Paris-Sud-Est line in 1981 was a break point for Air-Rail marketshare. Before the arrival of high speed services, railways were constantly losing marketsare in benefit of roads (mostly for freight traffic) and air. Rail was the only mode that had not done a technological jump on the second half of the XX cent. Railways have emerged as a suitable and sustainable alternative in order to satisfy transport demand. The support of rail mode has therefore become one of the main axes of European transport policy AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION

7 THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Casas Esplugas, Fonseca Teixeira, López Pita, Bachiller Saña, Lisboa 7 Sept 2005 7 CENIT APPARITION OF LCC IN EUROPE AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION CONCLUSIONS EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE Rail competitive advantages and disadvantages Fare level was one of the key factors for HSR success, but not the only one, frequency and quality among others also had a significant role besides of the indispensable competitive travel time. AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION

8 THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Casas Esplugas, Fonseca Teixeira, López Pita, Bachiller Saña, Lisboa 7 Sept 2005 8 CENIT APPARITION OF LCC IN EUROPE AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION CONCLUSIONS EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE Rail competitive advantages and disadvantages Among the advantages of railways services, can be highlighted the following aspects that influence the modal election: –Safety –Punctuality –Comfort –Environmental aspects –City centre to city centre Among the disadvantages can be highlighted: –Investment Costs –Weak flexibility AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION Parameter Transport mode RailPlaneRoad Energy (epl/pas/km) CO 2 (kg/pas/km) NO (g/pas/km) SO 2 (g/pas/km) 0,026 0,045 0,038 0,036 0,078 0,186 0,646 0,097 0,059 0,140 0,173 0,082

9 THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Casas Esplugas, Fonseca Teixeira, López Pita, Bachiller Saña, Lisboa 7 Sept 2005 9 CENIT APPARITION OF LCC IN EUROPE AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION CONCLUSIONS EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE Rail success AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION

10 THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Casas Esplugas, Fonseca Teixeira, López Pita, Bachiller Saña, Lisboa 7 Sept 2005 10 CENIT APPARITION OF LCC IN EUROPE AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION CONCLUSIONS EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE From competition to complementarity Despite the apparition of HSR, passengers air traffic in Europe didnt stop growing Congestion and saturation problems in the European airspace were increasing. Idea of complementarity between high-speed railway and airplane started to take shape in the late 80s and early 90s. To synthesize, three main fields of cooperation between railway and airplane can be identified: –Railway links to the airports –Intra-European middle and long distance journeys –Transport chain Each mode used where it is more efficient Another concept starting to develop is the System of airports that seeks coordinating airports linked by HSR AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION

11 THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Casas Esplugas, Fonseca Teixeira, López Pita, Bachiller Saña, Lisboa 7 Sept 2005 11 CENIT APPARITION OF LCC IN EUROPE AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION CONCLUSIONS EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE LCC EFFECTS IN RAIL MARKETSHARE Sands (1993) defined High Speed Train as twice as fast as the auto, half as expensive as air. This definition is clearly no longer applicable with Low Cost Companies as players in the same market. Within this context of success and big investments in the rail network, Low Cost airlines are a completely new player that, due to their low fares, can affect not only the other airlines but also the success of High Speed rail. The influence of low cost airlines is already a fact EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE

12 THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Casas Esplugas, Fonseca Teixeira, López Pita, Bachiller Saña, Lisboa 7 Sept 2005 12 CENIT APPARITION OF LCC IN EUROPE AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION CONCLUSIONS EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE Modelling technique EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE

13 THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Casas Esplugas, Fonseca Teixeira, López Pita, Bachiller Saña, Lisboa 7 Sept 2005 13 CENIT APPARITION OF LCC IN EUROPE AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION CONCLUSIONS EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE Modelling technique The modelling technique chosen to evaluate the modal split has been a bimodal logit model. Where: F: is the average fare, vot: is the value of time, Wh and th weights and times of each step of the trip EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE Utility of the alternative i for the passenger A: HS marketshare: Measurable utility: Generalized Cost:

14 THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Casas Esplugas, Fonseca Teixeira, López Pita, Bachiller Saña, Lisboa 7 Sept 2005 14 CENIT APPARITION OF LCC IN EUROPE AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION CONCLUSIONS EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE Implementation of the model Selected city pairs with already high speed rail services and direct air services. To obtain the weighted time, the trip was divided in five stages; access to the terminal, check-in, Main trip, Check out and Ride to destination. The value of time applied was of 37 /hour as proposed by Hammadou & Jayet (2002) as the average value of time for air transport in France in 2002. The determination of the average fares for each relation is a difficult issue as there is a big variability of fare levels, even more with the day-by-day variation of the low cost air carriers. To establish a representative average fare, four fare levels were kept, full price for business and tourist class and economy price for tourist and economy class. EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE

15 THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Casas Esplugas, Fonseca Teixeira, López Pita, Bachiller Saña, Lisboa 7 Sept 2005 15 CENIT APPARITION OF LCC IN EUROPE AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION CONCLUSIONS EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE Implementation of the model High Speed TrainPlane Corridor Weight ed time (wt) Kept Fare GC HS Weight ed time (wt) Kept Fare GC Air Paris-Brussels163,7561,675162,65266,25182,15346,34 Paris-lyon198,7556,318178,88266,2595,2259,39 Madrid-Sevilla228,7568,215209,28251,25104,42259,36 Paris-Londres258,75105,37264,94271,25111,18278,46 Paris-Amsterdam328,7591,875294,60271,25104,71271,99 Roma-Milano363,7549,075273,39261,2574,747235,85 Paris-Nice (2002)413,7596,52351,67281,25135,7309,14 Paris-Marseille258,7583,045242,61271,2581,05248,32 Paris-Toulouse393,7574,222317,04271,25108,75276,02 EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE

16 THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Casas Esplugas, Fonseca Teixeira, López Pita, Bachiller Saña, Lisboa 7 Sept 2005 16 CENIT APPARITION OF LCC IN EUROPE AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION CONCLUSIONS EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE Implementation of the model The expression of the measurable utility once calibrated: EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE -0,019 R2R2 0,8998 Rail marketshare:

17 THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Casas Esplugas, Fonseca Teixeira, López Pita, Bachiller Saña, Lisboa 7 Sept 2005 17 CENIT APPARITION OF LCC IN EUROPE AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION CONCLUSIONS EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE Validation of the model Roma – Bologna and Köln – Paris corridors which have not been used for the calibration and to the Paris- Amsterdam corridor with an hypothetic reduction of trip time due to a high speed rail service (new trip time: 183 minutes). CORRIDORModelReal Paris-Köln33% HS77% HS Roma-Bolonia74,3% HS74% HS The reduction of time in the Paris Amsterdam relation gives an hypothetic marketshare for HS rail of 58,8% which is consistent with the data available of relations with the same travel time and distance (Paris – London 62%). EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE

18 THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Casas Esplugas, Fonseca Teixeira, López Pita, Bachiller Saña, Lisboa 7 Sept 2005 18 CENIT APPARITION OF LCC IN EUROPE AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION CONCLUSIONS EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE Application of the model Successive reductions of air fares (by 10%) have been applied to each corridor keeping all the other parameters unchanged. EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE

19 THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Casas Esplugas, Fonseca Teixeira, López Pita, Bachiller Saña, Lisboa 7 Sept 2005 19 CENIT APPARITION OF LCC IN EUROPE AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION CONCLUSIONS EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE Application of the model Predicted Rail marketshare – Rail travel time for air fares reduction of 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%. EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE

20 THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Casas Esplugas, Fonseca Teixeira, López Pita, Bachiller Saña, Lisboa 7 Sept 2005 20 CENIT APPARITION OF LCC IN EUROPE AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION CONCLUSIONS EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE Considerations on the model The logit model shows a good behavior in terms of: –Rail markeshare corresponding to a drop in travel times –Stability of rail marketshare in clearly favourable relations against decreases in air fares –Drop of rail marketshares in relations where rail position is weak. Nevertheless, several aspects have been excluded at this stage and should be gradually incorporated altogether with additional data: –Captive travelers, case –Comfort –Frequency –Useful time at destination –….and more…. CONCLUSIONS

21 THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Casas Esplugas, Fonseca Teixeira, López Pita, Bachiller Saña, Lisboa 7 Sept 2005 21 CENIT APPARITION OF LCC IN EUROPE AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION CONCLUSIONS EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE Considerations on the model Further research should be carried out in order to define a better-suited generalized cost. The model provides potential marketshares of each mode instead as the capacity to provide transport is not considered. It has also been noted a high sensitivity of marketshare on rail and air fares. As a final consideration of the logit model, it is a technique with potential to reproduce real market behaviour but the model needs further development in order to allow a detailed analysis of the different factors influencing modal split. At this stage of development, the model can be useful to determine general tendencies in modal split behaviour face to alterations in the transport offer of rail and air modes. CONCLUSIONS

22 THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Casas Esplugas, Fonseca Teixeira, López Pita, Bachiller Saña, Lisboa 7 Sept 2005 22 CENIT APPARITION OF LCC IN EUROPE AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION CONCLUSIONS EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE Final considerations High Speed Rail has proved to be a big competitor of air for short and medium distances (corresponding to short haul flights). This success has been based in an better transport offer in terms of time, frequency, comfort and quality but also in terms of fares. The irruption of low cost air carriers into the market forces has forced an overall reduction in air costs for the last years due to the competition between air carriers. As an airline competitor in some intra- european relations high speed rail is also affected by the entrance of these new players. CONCLUSIONS

23 THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Casas Esplugas, Fonseca Teixeira, López Pita, Bachiller Saña, Lisboa 7 Sept 2005 23 CENIT APPARITION OF LCC IN EUROPE AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION CONCLUSIONS EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE Final considerations The modelling has shown that rail is able to keep a dominant, position in terms of modal split against air, even with considerable reduction of air fares for relations up to 2h30 of travel time. It has also shown that, on the other hand, relations beyond this value are sensitive to a decrease in air fares. Rail quality offer is far from being based only in fares and travel time. Rail has a margin to compete with air that has not been exploited. As the reaction of Thalys services demonstrate, rail can compete at lower fares keeping most of its quality factors as city centre to city centre services, spatial comfort, frequency and punctuality. CONCLUSIONS

24 THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Casas Esplugas, Fonseca Teixeira, López Pita, Bachiller Saña, Lisboa 7 Sept 2005 24 CENIT APPARITION OF LCC IN EUROPE AIR AND RAIL COMPETITION CONCLUSIONS EFFECTS OF LCC IN RAIL MARKETSHARE Final considerations HSR can, then, compete with success with low cost airlines as it has been doing the last years with traditional air carriers. Besides of this, the extension of new fare levels (for example with cheap non reimbursable tickets) to all the High Speed Rail services can induce an overall growth of High Speed Rail marketshare in Europe. It is rather difficult to consider a Low Cost network one of the Structural or Key aspects of the European transport policy. On the other hand, HSR lines have already demostrated its capacity to affect in a structural way not only transport but also economic systems CONCLUSIONS

25 THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Carles Casas Esplugas (carles.casas@upc.edu)carles.casas@upc.edu Paulo Fonseca Teixeira Andrés López-Pita Adrina Bachiller Saña 9th International Conference on Competition and Ownership in Land Passenger Transport. Lisboa 5 – 9 September 2005


Download ppt "THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGH SPEED RAIL TRANSPORT IN COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-COST AIR OPERATORS Carles Casas Esplugas Paulo Fonseca Teixeira Andrés."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google