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2008 FALLEC Websites Development1 System Development Dr. John Sum Institute of Electronic Commerce National Chung Hsing University.

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Presentation on theme: "2008 FALLEC Websites Development1 System Development Dr. John Sum Institute of Electronic Commerce National Chung Hsing University."— Presentation transcript:

1 2008 FALLEC Websites Development1 System Development Dr. John Sum Institute of Electronic Commerce National Chung Hsing University

2 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 2 Reference K.Laudon and J.Laudon, Management Information Systems, 9th ed., Prentice Hall, 2006.

3 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 3 Business Processes, IS/Websites and IT

4 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 4 Example 1: Travelocity.COM

5 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 5 Example 1: Travelocity.COM Services support Car rental information Room rate enquiries, on-line hotel room booking Flight ticket enquires, on-line flight ticket booking Tour schedule enquires, on-line tour booking Users General public (which customer segment) Administration (which departments, which roles) Technical support (Webmaster, etc) Suppliers?

6 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 6 Example 2: Global-Trade.COM

7 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 7 Example 3: iSteelAsia.COM

8 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 8 Example 4: Forbes.COM

9 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 9 Website and Information System A website is simply a part of the company s information system K.Laudon and J.Laudon, Management Information Systems, 9th ed., Prentice Hall, 2006 Definition: An information system is a set of interrelated components that collect (or retrieve), process, store, and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization.

10 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 10 Processes, IS and IT Information technologies provide the infrastructure and support to build an information system. Information Systems Information Technologies Business Processes

11 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 11

12 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 12 Information Technologies Software technologies Including operating systems and DBMS MS Words improves the quality of management reports Window XP controls operation of a computer JDK provides platform for developing web application Hardware technologies Mobile phone support mobile data transfer provides the standard for wireless local area networks USB flash memory provides an alternative way to store information

13 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 13 Information Technologies System development Object-oriented development Component-based development Unified modeling language Other technologies Artificial Intelligence Parallel processing architecture Optimization algorithm

14 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 14 Information Technologies Bar code scanner (IO) Overhead project (IO) Camera (IO) Telephone (IO, Com.) FAX machine (IO, Com.) Computer (Terminal) Calculator (Calculation) Palm/PDA (IO, DB) Mobile phone (Com.) Optic fibers (Com.) Virtual private network (Com.) Internet (Com) Web technology (System) Mobile agent (System) Rational Rose UML (Development)

15 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 15 Information Technologies Prog. Lang. Assembly C/C++ Java JavaScript Java Servlet/Applet Java Network Programming Visual Basic/VBScript Perl HTML/DHTML/XML Operating Systems MS Window Unix Linux Database System IBM DB2 MS Access Oracle Sybase MySQL

16 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 16 Information Technologies The world is moving. So, many new technologies are coming. Mobile computing Grid computing P2P networks (BT, Gnutella, SKYPE) Chinese computing Biometric Autonomic computing Search IBM.COM for more

17 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 17 Information Technologies Mobile Computing A type of computing model in which the computers can be networked together even the computers are moving anywhere. How to connect? How to share resource? Autonomic computing A type of computing model in which the system is self-healing, self-configured, self-protected and self-managed.

18 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 18 Information Technologies Each technology has its own limitation Security problems Programming difficulties Training – programmer or user Version problem – Window 95/98/2000/XP User account support Transparency – Window versus Linux Maintenance and Support

19 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 19 Information Technologies Development team should have enough knowledge to select the appropriate technologies for the system. Does a development team should learn all these technologies, such as Java, Ajax, RSS Feed, etc.?

20 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 20 Types of Information Systems By management level (Conventional Approach) Transaction processing system (operational) Management information system Decision support system Executive information system (Strategic) Education levels and computer usage skills?

21 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 21 Types of Information Systems

22 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 22 Types of IS: Conventional

23 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 23 Types of IS: Contemporary

24 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 24 Types of IS: Contemporary Where should the website (or websites) be located? What business process (or processes) should it support? Business operations = Business logic = Business processes. All three terms will be used interchangeably.

25 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 25 Conventional VS Contemporary Conventional Designed in a way to fit in the operations of a business unit. Different department will have a different system. Scope of the system is smaller. Analysis and design are simpler. Easy to maintain. Contemporary Designed in a way to fit in the operations of the whole enterprise. Processes or services oriented. Scope of the system is huge. Analysis and design are complicated ? Difficult to maintain ?

26 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 26 Global Changes

27 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 27 Changes in Information Management Factors leading to the changes Business environment Management Practice Technologies Disaster Misc

28 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 28 Changes in Information Management Business environment Moving towards Asia, then possibly SE Asia and Latin America Globalization Management Total quality management Customer satisfaction Cost-effective

29 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 29 Changes in Information Management Technologies Wired to wireless Powerful PC, notebook, mobile phone, PDA Disaster 911 Attack Earthquake Tsunami Misc Energy Water, Air Food

30 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 30 Changes in Information Management Implications Change in the information requirement Hourly data versus daily data Multiple languages Change in culture and habit of using computer Hardcopy document versus web document Fixed line telephone versus Internet phone (Skype) Change in the volume/speed of information flow Change in the cost and profit of a company

31 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 31 Changes in Information Management Implications Customer-oriented thinking (customer controls everything) Need of disaster recovery plan Corporate social responsibility Technologies are cheaper and cheaper Profit margin is decreasing (Dont expect too much on earning) Install new system or using new technology is not for making money, just for surviving in the industry.

32 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 32 Business Environment

33 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 33 Business Environment (80 s – 90 s)

34 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 34 Business Environment (00 s – 08 s)

35 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 35 Business Environment (Beyond 2008)

36 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 36 Business Environment (Beyond 2008)

37 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 37 What Have Not Changes? System is still in a supporting role (not a decision role) of a company. System itself does not accounted for making money, but the products or services that the company provides. System itself does not accounted for profitable, but the business processes that the system supports.

38 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 38 Overview of Systems Development

39 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 39 Key Concepts in Systems Development Initiating a systems development Participants involved in a SD project Reasons for having a new system Information systems planning High level system requirement Feasibility analysis (Financially and technologically) Selection of system development model Objectives and schedule for SD

40 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 40 Key Concepts in Systems Development Build the system (System Development) Detail analysis – Precise system requirements (user accepted), a list of user acceptance tests System design – modules, interfacing amongst modules, hardware requirements, programming language, OS Coding In-house testing – unit test, system test, stress test User acceptance test

41 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 41 Participants in Systems Development

42 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 42 Participants in Systems Development Stakeholders Individuals who either themselves or through the organization are beneficiaries of the systems development effort. Users Individuals who interact with the system regularly System Analyst Professional who specializes in analyzing and designing business systems. Programmers Individual responsible for modifying or developing programs to satisfy user requirements.

43 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 43 Application of IT Business Process Staff, Clients Management Team Suppliers Business Process

44 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 44 Reasons to Initiate a Development Project

45 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 45 Information Systems Planning The translation of strategic and organizational goals into systems development initiatives. Creative Analysis The investigation of new approaches to existing problems. Critical and difficult task Planning

46 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 46 Critical Analysis The unbiased and careful questioning of whether system elements are related in the most effective or efficient ways. Critical and difficult task One approach, not universal Planning

47 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 47 Planning Design objectives Performance objectives Quality or usefulness of the output The speed at which the output is generated Cost objectives Development costs Costs related to the uniqueness of the system application Fixed investments in hardware and related equipment On-going operating costs of the system

48 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 48 Planning Challenges We would like to have a website for IEC. We would like to have a website for IEC, which is similar to the following: We would like to have a website for IEC, with design, outlook and functions similar to the above.

49 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 49 System Development Model Waterfall model Spiral Model Component-based Development Prototyping Rapid Application Development Others

50 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 50 Systems Investigation Problems and opportunities are identified Systems Analysis Existing systems and work processes are studied Systems Design Defines how the information system will do what it must do to solve the problem. Waterfall Model

51 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 51 Systems Implementation System components are assembled and the new or modified system is placed into operation. Systems Maintenance and Review Ensures the system operates and is modified to keep up with business changes. Waterfall Model

52 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 52 Spiral Model

53 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 53 Spiral Model

54 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 54 Component-based Model

55 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 55 Operational Prototype Accesses real data files, edits input data, makes necessary computations and comparisons, and produces real output. Nonoperational Prototype A mockup or model that includes output and input specifications and formats. Prototyping

56 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 56 Rapid Application Development

57 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 57 Factors Affecting System Development Resource Constraint Analysis Project Schedule and Tracking Systems Configuration Management Selected Project Management Software Packages Use of Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Tools Systems Investigation Requirements Analysis Systems Analysis

58 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 58 Project Schedule and Tracking Use of project management tools Schedule Milestone Deadline Critical path Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) Gantt chart

59 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 59 Gantt Chart

60 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 60 Systems Investigation Identify potential problems and opportunities and consider them in light of the goals of the company. It is the second round analysis. The first round analysis has been conducted during system planning.

61 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 61 Systems Investigation Feasibility Analysis

62 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 62 Systems Investigation Report A report that summarizes the results of the systems investigation and the process of feasibility analysis and recommends a course of action. The investigation is usually conducted by a system investigation team and a steering committee. Steering committee is an advisory group consisting of senior management and users from the IS department and other functional areas. Systems Investigation

63 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 63 Table of Contents for a Systems Investigation Report Systems Investigation

64 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 64 Requirements Analysis It is the third round analysis. An assessment used to determine the need of the users, the stakeholders, and the organization. Converting organizational goals into systems requirements Requirement Analysis

65 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 65 Systems Analysis External and Internal Sources of Data It is the forth and the last round analysis. The analysis must be very precise. The results will be used in system design.

66 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 66 Data Collection To understand what exactly the users needs What data/information should be processed in the system, and what sort of interface design the users expect. Steps in Data Collection Systems Analysis

67 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 67 Techniques Structured Interview Unstructured Interview Direct Observation Questionnaires Statistical Sampling Steps in Data Collection Systems Analysis

68 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 68 Data Analysis Manipulating the collected data so that it is usable for the development team members who are participating in systems analysis. Data Modeling A commonly accepted approach to modeling organizational objects and associations that employ both text and graphics. Activity (Process) Modeling A method to describe related objects, associations, and activities. Data Flow Diagram A diagram that models objects, associations, and activities by describing how data can flow between and around them. Systems Analysis

69 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 69 Entity-Relationship Diagram (ERD) Data Flow Diagram (DFD) Semantic Description of a Business Process

70 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 70 Application Flowcharts Charts that show relationships among applications or systems. Application Flowchart

71 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 71 Grid Charts A table that shows relationships among the various aspects of a systems development effort. Grid Charts

72 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 72 User Interface

73 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 73 User Interface

74 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 74 User Interface

75 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 75 Systems Analysis Report Strength and weaknesses of existing system from stakeholders perspective. User/stakeholder requirements for the new system. Organizational requirements. Description of what new information systems should do to solve the problem

76 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 76 Systems Analysis Report

77 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 77 Remarks on System Development

78 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 78 Major Problems in SD Communication gaps between the user (non- IT) and the developer (IT) No common language Lack of IT knowledge (non-IT) Lack of business sense (IT) Lack of mutual trust Lazy

79 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 79 Solutions User and developer should have a common ground knowledge General and essential IT knowledge General and essential business knowledge Patient Quality assurance process

80 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 80 Technically How? Spend more time on requirement analysis Documentation Project plan Quality plan Analysis model Design model Testing plan Project schedule User manual Maintenance manual

81 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 81 Who? Requirement/System analysis Director, department manager, operational staff, IT manager & programmer System design Department manager, IT manager & programmer System Implementation Department manager, operational staff, IT manager & programmer System Maintenance & Review Operational staff & programmer

82 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 82 Road map (1) Service model Define the products or services to be provided by the company. Identify target customers Identify suppliers

83 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 83 Road map (2) Revenue model Evaluate the size of the customer bases for each product or service. Expected earning of each product or service Might need to analysis the cumulative figures and presented in quarterly or yearly basis.

84 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 84 Road map (3) Business process model Interaction amongst customers, your company and the suppliers Identify the roles (persons) who will take part in each operation, such as data entry staff, customer service staff, clerk, department manager, and so on. Optimize the business processes Refine IS requirement model if necessary

85 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 85 Road map (4) IS requirement model Identify which tasks within these operations can be replaced by using IT Refine business model if necessary Identify the users of the system

86 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 86 Road map (4) Cost model Investment on the entire project Staff salary, rental fee, electricity & water bills, insurance/pension IT equipments, leased line subscription fee, maintenance cost Might need to analysis the cumulative figures and presented in quarterly or yearly basis.

87 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 87 Road map (6) Profit & Lost analysis In quarterly or yearly basis Identify when is the break-even point

88 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 88 Road map, why? Traceable analysis model If there is any change on the service model, IS requirement model, the effects can easily be identified.

89 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 89 Effort Estimates Planning Analysis Design Implementation Industry Standard For Web15% 20% 35% 30% Applications Time Required in Person Months

90 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 90 Exemplar Website Development

91 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 91 An eBay-like website for on-line auction

92 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 92 eBay-like website for on-line auction

93 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 93 eBay-like website for on-line auction

94 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 94 eBay-like website for on-line auction

95 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 95 eBay-like website for on-line auction

96 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 96 Do you really understand!

97 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 97 Review Questions Select one website from Travelocity.COM, Global- Trade.COM, iSteelAsia.COM and Forbes.COM and describe the underlying information technologies being used to build that website. What is the definition of an information systems? What are the differences between a website and an information systems? What are the roles of network technologies playing in business information system?

98 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 98 Review Questions Describe in your own words (1) why development team should have enough knowledge to select the appropriate technologies for the system, and (2) should a development team learn all the latest technologies? With an aid of diagrams, explain the differences between an information system that is followed by conventional and contemporary design approaches. Describe what Asia business environment has been changing since 1980s, and its affect on the requirement of an information system.

99 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 99 Review Questions Describe in details the roles and responsibilities of each participant in a system development project? Describe the purposes, the similarities and differences amongst creative analysis, critical analysis, feasibility analysis, requirement analysis, system analysis. Describe what is waterfall model and the limitation of such development approach.

100 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 100 Review Questions With an aid of diagrams, describe in detail any 3 development approaches, and state their differences. State any five reasons to initiate a development project. With an aid of diagrams, describe the relationships amongst business processes, information systems and information technologies.

101 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 101 Review Questions In system analysis, data are collected for further analyzed. Describe in detail the techniques for which the data are collected, and in what situations the techniques can be applied. If necessary, you can add examples to help your discussion. Data flow diagram is an analysis model describing the how data is processed. Describe, with an example, what are the four components in a DFD. Describe in detail, step by step, how data flow diagrams are obtained.

102 2008 FALL EC Websites Development 102 Review Questions DFD, application flowchart, grid charts and screen layouts are four analysis models obtained after system analysis. Describe what are the purposes to obtain such models. Describe what are the tentative contents that should be included in the System Investigation Report and the System Analysis Report. In the Road Map for system development, describe in detail what are the six issues that a system developer could follow in order to achieve a traceable analysis model.


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