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1 - Dwayne D. Gremler Physical Evidence and the Servicescape (Chapter 11) Gap 2 Physical Evidence Servicescapes Guidelines for Physical Evidence Strategy.

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Presentation on theme: "1 - Dwayne D. Gremler Physical Evidence and the Servicescape (Chapter 11) Gap 2 Physical Evidence Servicescapes Guidelines for Physical Evidence Strategy."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 - Dwayne D. Gremler Physical Evidence and the Servicescape (Chapter 11) Gap 2 Physical Evidence Servicescapes Guidelines for Physical Evidence Strategy

2 2 - Dwayne D. Gremler Company Perceptions of Customer Expectations Customer-Driven Service Designs and Standards Key Factors Leading to Provider Gap 2 Key Factors Related to Physical Evidence: Incompatible or inconsistent Overpromising through Lack of Failure to develop Tangibles in line with customer expectations Servicescape design does not Inadequate maintenance and updating of Gap 2

3 3 - Dwayne D. Gremler Physical Evidence includes: (1) = the environment where the service is performed and where background characteristics (furnishings, noise, color) signs (2) that facilitate performance or communication of the service can include appearance of personnel or materials examples: bank statements, travel brochures, business cards mementos, souvenirs

4 4 - Dwayne D. Gremler Elements of Physical Evidence Facility exterior Exterior design Signage Parking Landscape Surrounding environment Facility interior Interior design Equipment Signage Layout Air quality/temperature Business cards Stationery Billing statements Reports Employee dress Uniforms Brochures Internet/Web pages Virtual Servicescape Table 10.1

5 Examples of Physical Evidence from the Customers Point of View ServicePhysical evidence ServicescapeOther tangibles Insurance Not applicablePolicy itself Billing statements Periodic updates Company brochure Letters/cards Hospital Building exterior Parking Signs Waiting areas Admissions office Patient care room Medical equipment Recovery room Uniforms Reports/stationery Billing statements Airline Airline gate area Airplane exterior Airplane interior (décor, seats, air quality) Tickets Food Uniforms Express mail Not applicablePackaging Trucks Uniforms Computers Sporting event Parking, Seating, Restrooms Stadium exterior Ticketing area, Concession Areas Entrance,Playing Field Signs Tickets Program Uniforms Table 10.2

6 6 - Dwayne D. Gremler Servicescape Issues Servicescape Usage: (customer only) (both customer and employee) (employee only) Complexity of the Servicescape:

7 7 - Dwayne D. Gremler Typology of Service Organizations Based on Variations in Form and Use of the Servicescape Table 11.3

8 8 - Dwayne D. Gremler Roles of the Servicescape P conveys Influences F facilitates provides information (how am I to act?) facilitates the ordering process (how does this work?) S facilitates interaction between: D sets provider apart from e.g.,

9 9 - Dwayne D. Gremler A Framework for Understanding Environment- User Relationships in Service Organizations Source: Adapted from Mary Jo Bitner (1992) PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTAL DIMENSIONS HOLISTIC ENVIRONMENT INTERNAL RESPONSES BEHAVIOR Ambient Conditions Space/Function Signs, Symbols, and Artifacts Perceived Servicescape Cognitive Emotional Physiological Cognitive Emotional Physiological Employee Responses Customer Responses Individual Behaviors Social Interactions between and among customer and employees Individual Behaviors Figure 11.2

10 10 - Dwayne D. Gremler Dimensions of the Servicescape Ambient Conditions Spatial Layout and Functionality Signs, Symbols, Artifacts Colors

11 11 - Dwayne D. Gremler Use of Color in the Servicescape interior design (warm colors) red: love, romance, sex, courage, danger, fire, sinful, warmth, excitement, vigor, cheerfulness, enthusiasm, and stop yellow: sunlight, warmth, cowardice, openness, friendliness, gaiety, glory, brightness, caution orange: sunlight, warmth, openness, friendliness, gaiety, glory interior design (cool colors) blue: coolness, aloofness, fidelity, calmness, piety, masculine, assurance, sadness green: coolness, restful, peace, freshness, growth, softness, richness, go violet: coolness, retiring, dignity, rich

12 12 - Dwayne D. Gremler Guidelines for Physical Evidence Strategy


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