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Physical Evidence and the Servicescape (Chapter 11)

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Presentation on theme: "Physical Evidence and the Servicescape (Chapter 11)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical Evidence and the Servicescape (Chapter 11)
Gap 2 Physical Evidence Servicescapes Guidelines for Physical Evidence Strategy ã Dwayne D. Gremler

2 Key Factors Leading to Provider Gap 2
Company Perceptions of Customer Expectations Key Factors Related to Physical Evidence: Incompatible or inconsistent Overpromising through Lack of Failure to develop Tangibles in line with customer expectations Servicescape design does not Inadequate maintenance and updating of Customer-Driven Service Designs and Standards ã Dwayne D. Gremler

3 Physical Evidence includes:
(1) = the environment where the service is performed and where background characteristics (furnishings, noise, color) signs (2) that facilitate performance or communication of the service can include appearance of personnel or materials examples: bank statements, travel brochures, business cards mementos, souvenirs Servicescape = the physical facility see Table 10.1 the design of the servicescape can influence customer choices, expectations, satisfaction, and other behaviors Pink jail cells (and pink locker rooms…U of Iowa) – an attempt to subdue inmates (& football players) McDonald’s – hard seats (don’t stay too long) now some have leather coaches elements of the servicescape that affect customers include exterior attributes (signage, parking, landscape) interior attributes (design, layout, equipment, decor) servicescape can also influence employee behavior Q: How? (productivity, motivation, satisfaction) Physical Evidence Table 10.2 two roles: (1) communicate something about the service to customers and/or (2) facilitate performance of the service some services communicate heavily through physical evidence (hospitals, resorts, child care) other provide limited physical evidence (insurance, express mail) Equipment: Coeur d’Alene Resort Employee Dress: DG as student - Q: If I were dressed like this on the first day, what impressions would you have? Receipts: Disney receipts ã Dwayne D. Gremler

4 Elements of Physical Evidence
Facility exterior Exterior design Signage Parking Landscape Surrounding environment Facility interior Interior design Equipment Layout Air quality/temperature Business cards Stationery Billing statements Reports Employee dress Uniforms Brochures Internet/Web pages Virtual Servicescape Table 10.1 ã Dwayne D. Gremler

5 Examples of Physical Evidence from the Customer’s Point of View
Service Physical evidence Servicescape Other tangibles Insurance Not applicable Policy itself Billing statements Periodic updates Company brochure Letters/cards Hospital Building exterior Uniforms Parking Reports/stationery Signs Billing statements Waiting areas Admissions office Patient care room Medical equipment Recovery room Airline Airline gate area Tickets Airplane exterior Food Airplane interior (décor, seats, air Uniforms quality) Express mail Not applicable Packaging Trucks Uniforms Computers Sporting Parking, Seating, Restrooms Signs event Stadium exterior Tickets Ticketing area, Concession Areas Program Table 10.2 Entrance, Playing Field Uniforms

6 Servicescape Issues Servicescape Usage:
(customer only) (both customer and employee) (employee only) Complexity of the Servicescape: ã Dwayne D. Gremler

7 Typology of Service Organizations Based on Variations in Form and Use of the Servicescape
Table 11.3 ã Dwayne D. Gremler

8 Roles of the Servicescape
conveys Influences F facilitates provides information (how am I to act?) facilitates the ordering process (how does this work?) S facilitates interaction between: D sets provider apart from e.g., ã Dwayne D. Gremler

9 A Framework for Understanding Environment-User Relationships in Service Organizations
PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTAL DIMENSIONS HOLISTIC ENVIRONMENT INTERNAL RESPONSES BEHAVIOR Cognitive Emotional Physiological Individual Behaviors Employee Responses Ambient Conditions Space/Function Signs, Symbols, and Artifacts Perceived Servicescape Social Interactions between and among customer and employees Customer Responses Individual Behaviors Figure 11.2 Cognitive Emotional Physiological Source: Adapted from Mary Jo Bitner (1992) ã Dwayne D. Gremler

10 Dimensions of the Servicescape
Ambient Conditions Spatial Layout and Functionality Signs, Symbols, Artifacts Colors ã Dwayne D. Gremler

11 Use of Color in the Servicescape
interior design (warm colors) red: love, romance, sex, courage, danger, fire, sinful, warmth, excitement, vigor, cheerfulness, enthusiasm, and stop yellow: sunlight, warmth, cowardice, openness, friendliness, gaiety, glory, brightness, caution orange: sunlight, warmth, openness, friendliness, gaiety, glory interior design (cool colors) blue: coolness, aloofness, fidelity, calmness, piety, masculine, assurance, sadness green: coolness, restful, peace, freshness, growth, softness, richness, go violet: coolness, retiring, dignity, rich ã Dwayne D. Gremler

12 Guidelines for Physical Evidence Strategy
ã Dwayne D. Gremler

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