22equipmentTo survive in space you need a suit that protects your body from the heat and cold, and surrounds you with air to breathe. Space suits are pressurised, meaning they are full of air to support your body, which is why they look puffed up. A space suit is like a tiny spaceship for one. It is a very complicated machine, with air conditioning, heating, air to breathe and water to drink. It even has a built in toilet! Some space suits attach to a rocket powered backpack, which allows the astronaut wearing it to fly around in space. And because we are flying to Jupiter we shall also have some special tech!
3Because you are flying to Jupiter you get these fantastic floatation boots, because Jupiter is a gas planet you shall need to hover above the surface so this what you shall get. You shall get into your space suit made to basically turn of all the gravity around you and reaching 1 meter away from you. and because the winds reaching speeds of up to about 150 miles per hour and in the red storm survival course 384 miles per hour it will also reduce the speeds of the wind to. On the survival course your boots will be turned on to suction mode to stop you being blown away but obviously not to strong to suck you down into the core. (for more info of the survival course turn to page 7)3
4The journeyNow obviously the ride to Jupiter will take long but not to long. to get there it should take about two weeks, but time will fly because our company have bought space shuttle one from NASA which you shall see some features of on the next page. The cost is quiet pricey, (remember we are flying to Jupiter) it is 10,000 pounds per adult, for kids under 16 its 5,000 pounds or a family ticket witch is for 2 adults and 2 children under 16 for 15,000 pounds order tickets online or by phone now and you could be the first human being on Jupiter!4
5This is what you shall be flying to Jupiter in and staying in, so basically this is your giant motor home. you will be staying in the flight deck (circled) but of course you wont be flying the shuttle our astronaut will be. We don't need to tell you anymore, you can read the background!home5Flight deck
6Jupiter's Red stormJupiter's Great Red Spot is a huge, long-lasting storm in the atmosphere of the Southern Hemisphere of Jupiter. It is an anti-cyclonic (high pressure) storm, much like a gargantuan hurricane. Its colour is actually pink to orange. This whirlwind varies in size and colour from year to year. It is about 17,000 miles (28,000 km) long and 9,000 miles (14,000 km) wide; it is the biggest storm in this solar system. It is so big that the three Earths would fit in it with room to spare. Jupiter's Great Red Spot was discovered in 1664 by Robert Hooke. Part of the reason it lasts so long in comparison with Earth storms (other than the huge difference in scale and the existence of an internal heat source on Jupiter) is that this storm never goes over land; on Earth, hurricanes loses most of their energy and die when they stray over land. The smaller white spots are also giant storms. The colours we see are the result of chemical reactions occurring in the atmosphere. This is where you will be doing your survival course (if you have chosen to) from a still picture this actually doesn't look hard at all but I tell you, it is.6
7Facts!fact ONEJupiter has a liquid metal ocean (metallic hydrogen) at its centre, surrounded by thousands of kilometres of hydrogen and helium gas. FACT TWOJupiter's famous Red Spot is in fact a storm the size of Earth that has raged for hundreds of years. FACT THREEJupiter has a thin set of rings, hardly visible, even with telescopes, from Earth. FACT FOURJupiter is the vacuum cleaner of the Solar System. It sucks in comets, asteroids and meteorites which could be on a collision course for Earth. The comet, Shoemaker-Levy 9, was pulled apart by Jupiter's gravity and eventually collided with the planet in 1994.FACT FIVEJupiter takes only 9 hours and 55 minutes to spin on its axis. This means a day on Jupiter is less than 10 hours long. Its fast rotation causes the planet to be squashed, being wider at the equator than from North to South.7
8More facts!FACT SIXJupiter is the planet with the strongest pull of gravity in the Solar System. If we were able to stand on the surface of Jupiter, we would weigh three times as much as we would weigh on Earth. The only other object in the Solar System with a stronger pull of gravity is the Sun FACT SEVENThe mass of Jupiter is 318 greater than the mass of Earth FACT EIGHTJupiter's moon, Ganymede, is the biggest moon in the Solar System FACT NINEIf we were able to see Jupiter's radiation belt from Earth, Jupiter would appear as big as the Sun FACT TENJupiter's gravity is used to catapult space-craft on deep space missions further away. This is how the Voyager missions of 1975 managed to succeed FACT ELEVENIf you weigh 30kg on earth you would weigh 69kg on Jupiter!8
99IoIo (pronounced "eye-oh") was discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei along with the three other Galilean satellites (Europa, Ganymede and Callisto) when he noticed four points of light orbiting Jupiter, the largest planet in the Solar System. There are at least 59 other moons orbiting Jupiter, although these appear to be small rocks like asteroids. Io is the first of Jupiter's large moons - the Galilean Moons - and is about 421,000 kilometers away from Jupiter. This is just slightly further away than Earth's Moon is from Earth. It is also slightly larger than Earth's Moon (Io is 3636 kilometers wide - Earth's Moon is 3475 kilometers). What makes Io different to most other moons and also to planets like Mercury, Pluto and possibly Mars and Venus is that it is still volcanically active. In fact, the first actual volcano eruption ever observed anywhere apart from on Earth was on Io during the Voyager mission in Eight volcanic eruptions were seen on Io during Voyager's visit to the moon, making Io the most volcanic place in the Solar System. These volcanoes are caused because the centre of the moon is so hot, despite it being so far away from the Solar System's main heat source, the Sun. Jupiter has a very strong gravitational pull on the moon. However, Europa and Ganymede, the moons after Io, also have gravitational pulls which both attract Io. This results in a tug-of-war happening between Jupiter, Europa and Ganymede, causing friction inside Io, the heating up of the inside of the moon, and the volcanic eruptions. It is a more intense version of the gravitational pulling of the Moon and the Sun on the Earth, causing its tides. The whole process on Io is known as 'Tidal Pumping.' The moon still has a freezing surface, about -143 °C although temperatures in lava lakes (lakes of lava pumped from under the moon's surface onto the surface from a volcano) measure up to 17 °C, showing that a moon so far away from the Sun can still be warm inside. The discovery that Io is still volcanically active tells us that Earth is not the only known living planet in the Solar System and that objects in the Solar System are still actually forming!
10europa10Jupiter's sixth moon, the second of the large Galilean Satellites (four moons discovered by Galileo in 1610) is Europa. Europa is slightly smaller than Earth's moon at 3,066 kilometers wide, but is bigger than Pluto which is only 2,280 kilometers wide so it could be a planet if it was orbiting the Sun and not Jupiter. Europa's surface is extremely smooth with hardly any craters. This is because it is believed that Europa is another living moon, like the volcanic Io. Europa has an icy surface, about 5 kilometers thick and under that, it is believed that there are oceans about 50 kilometers deep. Its neighbor Io is heated inside by the friction caused by the gravitational pull of Jupiter on one side and Europa and Ganymede on the other. This is what causes its frequent volcanic eruptions. A similar process takes place on Europa with Jupiter and Io's gravities pulling the planet on one side and Ganymede and Callisto on the other. This heats the planet internally and results in warm water reaching the surface and freezing. So, any impact craters from meteors and asteroids can be covered up by water filling them and freezing to form a solid surface. In a similar way, the cracks on Europa's surface may be where the surface has fractured but filled up with water which has frozen again. Below you can see ridges on Europa's surface, which show that the surface is often disrupted by what goes on under the surface. It is rare for a moon to be affected by underground activity. Surface appearances are usually only affected by impacts of meteors and asteroids. It is also possible that the ridges open up in parts to let out gases, similar in a way to how volcanoes work, only with water instead of hot lava. These releases of gas from water, similar to steam from a boiling kettle, release oxygen into Europa's very thin ozone.
11europa11The presence of frozen and liquid water on Europa has led people to ask whether life is actually possible there. Of course, it will not be life like the life experienced on Earth. Jupiter is too radioactive, pumping out 500 times more radiation than people can survive in. This is at Jupiter's surface, but Europa is still close enough to receive high amounts of radiation from the planet. Temperatures on Europa's surface are much too cold for living organisms (people, animals, plants) to survive in. However, life has been discovered in some of the most extreme places on Earth - places which cannot possibly receive light or heat from the Sun. These conditions may also be similar to the conditions on Europa, under its icy surface, in its oceans of water. In fact, a satellite picture of Earth's North Pole shows a surface similar to Europa's with ridges frozen under its surface. Compare the picture above of Europa's surface with the picture below of the surface at Earth's North Pole It is also known that Europa has an ozone (Earth also has a protective ozone) and a thin layer of oxygen atmosphere. There is a possibility that primitive micro-organisms (very small, very simple living beings) could be living under Europa's surface right now. If we do find life outside Earth, it will also help us to understand what are the minimal conditions for life to exist and maybe even explain how life began. And also, in millions of years time, when the Sun uses up its hydrogen supply and begins to expand, eating up the inner planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars), temperatures on Europa and other distant moons will rise as the Sun gets closer to them. This will possibly make life more likely in other parts of the Solar System.
12ganymede12Ganymede is the largest moon in the Solar System. It is 5,270 kilometres wide. It is over twice the size of Pluto, 500 kilometres wider than Mercury and about 1,500 kilometres smaller (in width) than Mars! The moon possibly has a rocky core (the part at the very centre), surrounded by a water or icy mantle, and then a crust (surface) of rock and ice. Ganymede may also have a very thin atmosphere of oxygen caused by Jupiter's strong magnetic field going under its surface and releasing water particles. This is what gives a planet or moon an ozone. Earth has an ozone mainly because it has so much water on its surface. Ganymede appears to have two different surfaces. One side seems extremely old, covered in craters like we see on the Moon, Mercury and Mars. The other side appears younger, with less craters and more ridges, suggesting movement of the crust. This could be linked in with the fact that the moon has a watery/icy centre, which could form part of the surface similar to how Europa's entire surface may have also been formed.
1313callistothe final of the four large Galilean moons is Callisto. It is the third largest moon in the Solar System, about 4890 kilometres wide, just over the width of Mercury(by only 10 kilometres!) but more than twice the size of Pluto! It is a more familiar-looking moon than the three other large moons of Jupiter, resembling Earth's moon, and has a surface more cratered than any other moon in the Solar System. It is believed that Callisto has a large rocky core and is made up mainly of water ice and rock. The bright spots on its surface are rings around craters where water has spread and frozen, reflecting brightly in the sunlight. The moon is unlikely to have changed for millions of years, with impact craters on the surface remaining from the formation of the Solar System four billion years ago!
14You can chose one of These four Galilean moons as your final trip on the s holiday , you don't haft to if you don't want to but I'm sure you would. These moons however are all different, Ganymede may look solid, but under its shell of ice is 900 km of slushy ice and water, callisto is scarred with craters from bombardments early in the solar systems life, the surface of Io is a mass of volcanoes caused by it being stretched and squeezed by Jupiter's massive gravity Europa is primarily made of silicate rock and probably has an iron core. So witch one would you like to visit? If its ganymede you will have a heat suit, calisto a normal space suit, io you will have a lava protective suit, and europa a normal space suit.14
15Back to earthGetting back to earth wont be easy of course. It will take the same length of time to get back to earth as it did to get to Jupiter which will take two weeks (roughly). You will land back on earth in our space centre runway and will get a special badge that looks like thisthat will be sown onto you clothes. Then you will pick up your things and go, so if you ever go on this outstanding holiday we hope you enjoy it!15