SMUCSE 7349 Current Applications Logistics –Military supply logistics Gulf War I: Double orders to ensure arrival Gulf War II: RFID makes supply chain reliable – Proctor & Gamble Elimination of dock bottleneck: fast loading of palettes onto trucks Inventory control (i.e., theft-prevention) – Air Canada tracking of food carts – Gillette Tracking Mach3 razor blades Ordered 3 million Refining the retail experience Payment technologies – Exxon/Mobil Speedpass
SMUCSE 7349 Future Applications Maintaining shelf stocks in retail environments Tagging pets Proximity badges for building access Clothing – anti-forgery, customer returns Parenting logistics – Water park uses RFID bracelets to track children Smart appliances –Refrigerators that automatically create shopping lists –Ovens that know how to cook pre-packaged food Smart products –Clothing, appliances, CDs tagged for store returns Smart paper –Airline tickets that indicate your location in the airport –Library books –Business cards Recycling –Plastics that sort themselves
SMUCSE 7349 RFID Viability Expensive tags were OK for high tickets Price has to go below 0.05$ –A recent purchase involved 500 million tags purchased by retialer Once viable (as predicted) RFID could be the most widely deployed chip Promise is to replace the 5 billion barcode scans/day
SMUCSE 7349 Basic Components RFID Tag –Transponder –Located on the object to be identified RFID Reader –Transceiver –Can read and write data to Tag Data Processing Subsystem –Connects to reader
SMUCSE 7349 Security Issues Privacy –Business –Personal Denial of service Incorrect information Forgeries
SMUCSE 7349 Cost-Security Trade-off Low cost –Low intelligence (up to 5000 gates) –Low storage (few hundred bits) –Low range (few meters) Security –AES needs 20-30 thousand gates –Hash such as SHA-1 also needs similar order –TEA algorithm still not feasible
SMUCSE 7349 Anti-Collision Algorithms Probabilistic –Tags respond in randomly generate times –Slotted Aloha scheme Deterministic - Binary tree-walking scheme –Space of k-bit identifiers –k-bit identifiers leaves in a tree of depth k –Reader sorts through tags based on tag-ID Traverses tree asking subsets of tags to broadcast a single bit at a time. –RFID reader broadcasts tag serial numbers over very large distances May introduce vulnerability to eavesdropping.