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R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 Victoria Transport Policy Institute 1250 Rudlin Street, Victoria, BC, V8V 3R7, CANADA Phone & Fax 250-360-1560.

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Presentation on theme: "R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 Victoria Transport Policy Institute 1250 Rudlin Street, Victoria, BC, V8V 3R7, CANADA Phone & Fax 250-360-1560."— Presentation transcript:

1 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 Victoria Transport Policy Institute 1250 Rudlin Street, Victoria, BC, V8V 3R7, CANADA Phone & Fax Efficiency - Equity - Clarity Reinventing Transportation Exploring the Paradigm Shift Needed to Reconcile Transportation and Sustainability Objectives By Todd Litman Victoria Transport Policy Institute 27 June, 2003 Abstract

2 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 Write down one word that comes into your thought when you read the following word: Transport

3 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 Words contributed by the participants:

4 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 Improving transport What do you understand by that?

5 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 Why do people need transportation? Because it gives them the ability to move from one place to another. Is mobility a necessity in life? Yes, it is. Mobility give people access to……… So, transportation is all about accessibility and mobility?

6 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 How to improve the mobility and accessibility of people? = How to improve transport? Do they both mean the same? If not what is the difference?

7 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 Traffic: vehicle movement and speed where congestion or inadequate roads is a problem Source: Mobility: Efficient movement of people and goods where congestion or inadequate roads need not be a problem Accessibility: ability to reach opportunities where congestion or inadequate roads should not be a problem

8 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 In road-focused approach: access to services, goods and contacts requires a lots of mobility, as it is in the case of remote rural areas. Is it?

9 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 What are the problems associated with automobile dependent cities? Ecological problems Economic problems Social problems

10 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 Global transport greenhouse gas emissions by transport type (WBCSD, 2004) LDV means Light Duty Vehicles Gigatonnes CO 2 -equivalent GHGs emissions per year

11 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 BRT buses move quickly through the city transporting 2 million people daily, which is 70% of the cities population. GDP per capita of Curitiba increased from 10% to 65% above the national average during 1980 to Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) in Curitiba (in Brazil) which pioneered BRT technology in the 1970s - BRT system is different from conventional bus service - BRT run in dedicated lanes - BRT have signal priority so they spend less time stopped at red lights - BRT board passengers through all doors after paying fares at station platforms - Space for the busway is often re-allocated from existing traffic or parking lanes Investing in Sustainable Transport could lead to higher economic growth

12 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 BRT helps to reduce transport-related pollution, improves urban transport, improves accessibility, Improves traffic safety, improves public security, and boosts the quality of public spaces in the City. The existing 20 km BRT line (is being extended to 220 km in five years) already carries more than 260,000 passengers each day and has shortened commute times by up to an hour Source: Mexicos BRT system

13 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 Bogotá, Colombia built 70 miles of bicycle routes and closed several streets to cars (converting them into pedestrian malls). - The initial $350 million, 38 km TransMilenio system was introduced in less than 2 years. - The buses are able to carry 780,000 people a day at an average speed of 26 km per hr. - Unlike expensive subways or elevated trains, the TransMilenio actually runs at a profit.

14 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 The Transjakarta Busway in Indonesia, Asias biggest BRT, began operations in February 2004 amid stiff opposition - but its success silenced critics. Source: The system carries 100,000 passengers a day, three times the number when it started. It is so popular that six corridors will be added in the next 3 years.

15 R. Shanthini 12 Nov TransSantiago BRT system in Santiago, Chile failed catastrophically. Why?

16 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 September 22 World Carfree Day Source:

17 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010

18 How to access services, goods and contacts with less mobility?

19 Shanghai Overpass – a transport solution

20 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 Source: London is the largest city to adopt congestion pricing cutting traffic and air pollution, fighting climate change to create high- quality public spaces Congestion pricing is a superior gridlock and pollution solution because it has a financial incentive that discourages driving, encourages mass transit and funds it. - Michael Replogle

21 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 Congestion pricing works by shifting purely discretionary rush hour highway travel to other transportation modes or to off-peak periods, taking advantage of the fact that the majority of rush hour drivers on a typical urban highway are not commuters. Airline tickets and phone rates use congestion pricing Source:

22 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 Paris created an individualized mass transit system called Vélib (Freedom Bikes). People pay a low fee to use the bikes from one of the 1,200 bike parking stations located in the city and they can return the bikes to any station they wish. By the end of 2007, Vélib had more than 1,200 stations and 15,000 bikes in the system. As of November 2007, more than 11 million trips have been made on these bikes. cutting traffic and air pollution, fighting climate change to create high- quality public spaces Source:

23 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 $120 million

24 R. Shanthini 12 Nov Paris is revitalizing community life in public spaces - Paris is prioritizing pedestrians by renovating public squares and plazas, widening sidewalks, and adding new landscaping and raised crosswalks - Paris has built more than 314 km of bike lanes, and bicycling has increased 48% during the past 5 years - 3 corridors of the new BRT system also opened in private vehicle traffic is decreased by 20% - CO 2 emissions is reduced by 9% Source:

25 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 visit What about the terrain? Could you bicycle in Kandy with its high slopes? To experience an invention for cyclists on a slope in a country that gets very cold,

26 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 Isnt it risky to ride a bicycle on city roads? visit To experience cyclists lives on a busy Dutch intersection without any traffic controls,

27 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 Both the stop sign and stop light were invented in Detroit ca and 1920, respectively! Urban streets had been happily and safely shared by pedestrians, cyclists, horses, and whatnot. Traffic regulations only became necessary once cars began choking the streets, since cars size and speed make them nearly incapable of civilly sharing the road. Source:

28 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 Source: When everyone drives a car, there will be no space on the road to drive it.

29 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 Sustainable Transport, Not Highways Help Economic Growth In the past fears have been raised that investments and incentives to shift to more sustainable forms of transport would harm economic growth. Recent studies show this is not the case. A report to the World Bank prepared by researchers at Murdoch University is turning this way of thinking on its head. Source: The Natural Edge Project, Australia

30 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 Professor Peter Newman, states: Weve found that cities which emphasise walking, cycling and public transport are healthier financially and spend less of their wealth on transport costs. The land required to build the infrastructure and its subsequent requirements for parking; a single lane of railway can carry up to 50,000 persons per hour, a bus way can carry 7,000 persons per hour and a highway lane just 2,500 persons per hour. Kenworthy, J., Laube, F., Newman, P. and Barter, P. (1997) Indicators of transport efficiency in 37 cities, Report to World Bank, ISTP, Murdoch University, Western Australia.

31 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 Professor Peter Newman, states: The direct cost to households of owning a car is considerable, especially if it is a second or third car. A study in Australia showed that a household could save AUD$750,000 over a lifetime if a second car could be avoided. Kenworthy, J., Laube, F., Newman, P. and Barter, P. (1997) Indicators of transport efficiency in 37 cities, Report to World Bank, ISTP, Murdoch University, Western Australia.

32 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 Professor Peter Newman, states: The opportunity cost of such capital and land can be considerable if seen on a whole city basis. The difference between the most competitive cities, in terms of their transportation costs as a proportion of city wealth, and the least competitive (5-8% compared to 12-18%) can be equivalent to an extra day a week of work in car dependent cities. Newman, P. (1998) Transport, Interview transcript from Radio National Earthbeat, Available at Accessed 3 September 2007.http://www.abc.net.au/rn/science/earth/stories/s13083.htm

33 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 Sustainable Transport Checklist (1997 Engineers Australia Checklist for Sustainable Transport) 1)Ensure Access and Equity - Meet basic transport related needs of all people, including the poor, disabled, rural residents, women, young people and business. - Increase options for access. Greene, D. (1997) Engineering Frameworks for Sustainability: Sustainable Transport Checklist, Engineers Australia.

34 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 Sustainable Transport Checklist (1997 Engineers Australia Checklist for Sustainable Transport) 2) Make Cities more Efficient and Liveable - Give priority to residential development that encourages neighbourhoods with services and employment opportunities accessible by pedestrians and cyclists. - Develop transit-oriented urban villages. - Implement traffic calming measures to reduce speed, improve safety and improve amenity. See Traffic Calming at ttp://www.trafficcalming.org/index.html.ttp://www.trafficcalming.org/index.html Available 18 October 2007.

35 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 Sustainable Transport Checklist (1997 Engineers Australia Checklist for Sustainable Transport) 3) Integrate Transport Planning, Development and Operation - Integrate transport and land use planning. - Develop government structures which can consider all transport needs. - Design funding arrangements that can distribute funds in accordance with agreed strategic directions. - Ensure that transport planning and decision-making reflects commitments to sustainability. Source: The Natural Edge Project, Australia

36 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 Sustainable Transport Checklist (1997 Engineers Australia Checklist for Sustainable Transport) 4) Design and Operate Environmentally Sensitive Transport Systems - Ensure protection of ecosystems in design, construction and operation. - Reduce noise. - Ensure protection of historic and cultural sites. - Minimise air and water emissions from transport. Protect biodiversity. Source: The Natural Edge Project, Australia

37 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 Sustainable Transport Checklist (1997 Engineers Australia Checklist for Sustainable Transport) 4) - Ensure protection of ecosystems in design, construction and operation. - Reduce noise. - Ensure protection of historic and cultural sites. - Minimise air and water emissions from transport. Protect biodiversity. Source: The Natural Edge Project, Australia

38 R. Shanthini 12 Nov 2010 Source: The Natural Edge Project, Australia

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