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L ECTURE T WO : D EMAND Managerial Economics Lecturer: Jack Wu.

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Presentation on theme: "L ECTURE T WO : D EMAND Managerial Economics Lecturer: Jack Wu."— Presentation transcript:

1 L ECTURE T WO : D EMAND Managerial Economics Lecturer: Jack Wu

2 RISING GASOLINE PRICES Between September 2004 and September 2005, the monthly average retail price of gasoline jumped from $1.85 per gallon to $3.08 per gallon. Sales of full-size SUVs dropped 16.8% over the same time period (with a particularly sharp 42.5% drop for full-size GM SUVs).

3 GM V ICE C HAIRMAN : B OB L UTZ May 31, 2004: It sounds cavalier, but in any household budget, gasoline isn't a factor, Business Week. July 1, 2005: The demise of the full-size truck is a figment of the imagination of the popular press. Everybody assumes it is true but the market is still buying, Reuters. The effect will decrease over time as people adjust to the thought of $3 a gallon, just as they did when it was $2 a gallon and just as they did when it was $1 a gallon, New York Times.

4 MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS QUESTIONS How important are gasoline prices to the sales of SUVs and other types of automobiles? How should the auto manufacturers respond to the increasing price of gasoline? Are manufacturer incentives (i.e. price reductions) an effective response? What are the combined effects of incentives and increasing gas prices?

5 MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS TOOL: DEMAND We apply demand to show how the rising price of gasoline has caused decreases in large SUV sales, and how manufacturer incentives can offset these reductions.

6 I NDIVIDUAL D EMAND C URVE Definition: graph of quantity that buyer will purchase at every possible price Construction -- Other things equal, how many would you buy at a price of ….? vertical axis -- price horizontal axis -- quantity

7 I NDIVIDUAL D EMAND S CHEDULE Price Quantity ($ per movie) (movies per month)

8 individual demand curve Quantity (Movies a month) Price ($ per movie) INDIVIDUAL DEMAND CURVE

9 I NDIVIDUAL D EMAND S CHEDULE II Price Quantity ($ per movie) (movies per month) …. …

10 A NOTHER T YPE OF I NDIVIDUAL DEMAND C URVE

11 T WO V IEWS for every possible price, it shows the quantity demanded for each unit of item, it shows the maximum price that the buyer is willing to pay

12 D EMAND C URVE : S LOPE diminishing marginal benefit -- each additional unit of consumption/usage provides less benefit than the preceeding unit demand curve slopes downward

13 C ONSUMER D IFFERENCES individual preferences different demand curves changes in consumer's preferences, eg, age different consumers

14 H OOVER, 1992 A negative price case : Hoover s special promotion -- two free air tickets (worth more than £ 400) for purchase of appliance over £ 100. promotion attracted over 100,000 customers Hoover incurred £ 48 million loss

15 D EMAND AND I NCOME Changes in income normal product – demand increases with income inferior product – demand falls with income

16 D EMAND AND INCOME

17 D EMAND AND O THER F ACTORS prices of related products substitutes complements advertising

18 O THER DEMAND FACTORS : C OMPLEMENTS

19 R ECORDED M USIC ArgentinaCanada CD purchases cassette purchases GDP/capita$9,413$19,831 CD price$13.80$11.55 cassette price$ 7.80$ 6.06

20 R ECORDED M USIC Why the average Canadian bought more of both CDs and cassettes? Why the ratio of CD to cassette purchases was relatively higher in Canada?

21 R ECORDED M USIC Canadians enjoyed higher incomes Cassettes were a relatively inferior product compared to CDs Another possible explanation: difference in the relative prices of CDs and cassettes _ Canada: 11.55/6.06=1.9 _ Argentina: 13.80/7.80=1.77 * dont not explain why Canadians bought relatively more CDs than Argentines.

22 F OOTBALL : T O BROADCAST ? Live broadcasting of away games and attendance at home games are complements Live broadcasting of home games and attendance at home games are both substitutes and complements

23 O THER DEMAND FACTORS : D URABLE GOODS Expectations about future prices and income Financing costs Prices of used models substitute for new good future value of new good

24 U SED C ARS /98 avg car age7.5 yr8.7 yr median household income up 29.9% avg new car priceup 48.4%

25 U SED C ARS Reasons for the increasing demand for used cars: _ fast rising price of new cars _ increasing quality of used cars _ auto manufacturer reduced frequency of changing designs _ financial institutions began to offer more favorable rates.

26 M ARKET DEMAND Market demand = horizontal summation of individual demands

27 M ARKET DEMAND : C ONSTRUCTION

28 MARKET DEMAND: MACRO FACTORS Income Average Distribution Demographic Population Age structure Urban-rural Cultural-social

29 MARKET DEMAND: MICRO FACTORS Price Advertising R&D

30 B UYER S URPLUS individual buyer surplus: difference between consumer s benefit and price she must pay for the item market buyer surplus: sum of individual buyer surpluses.

31 c be h j g da individual buyer surplus at $2.50 price individual demand (marginal benefit) curve Quantity (Movies a month) Price ($ per movie) c f INDIVIDUAL BUYER SURPLUS

32 B UYER SURPLUS : I NDIVIDUAL

33 G AINS FROM PRICE CUT lower price on the quantity that he/she would have purchased at the original price (inframarginal units) he/she can buy more (marginal units) Case: Student discount price for movie

34 P ACKAGE D EAL charge buyer just a little less than her/his total benefit leave buyer with almost zero surplus

35 B UYER SURPLUS : T WO - PART PRICING fixed payment usage charge fixed payment

36 B UYER SURPLUS : T WO - PART PRICING BusinessProviderFixed FeeUsage Fee Broadband access, Hong Kong PCCW Netvigator 3M Single User Plan HK$298 per month (incl. 100 free hrs) HK$2 per additional hr Mobile telephone service, UAE Etisalat Corporation, GSM Standard Service 125 dirham connection fee; 60 dirham per qtr 0.24/0.18 dirham per min (peak/ offpeak)

37 D ISCUSSION Q UESTION 1 In 1998, the value of worldwide sales of recorded music in the form of singles, music cassettes, and CDs was $38.7 billion. Americans bought 3.1 CDs and 0.6 music cassette per capita, while Mexicans bought 0.5 CD and 0.3 music cassette per capita. Explain why per capita CD sales were relatively higher while per capita sales of music cassettes were relatively lower in the United States than in Mexico.

38 D ISCUSSION Q UESTION 1 CONTINUED On a suitable diagram, draw the U.S. demand for music CDs. Explain how the following changes would affect the demand curve: (i) increase in the price of CDs; (ii) rise in the ownership of CD players; and (iii) fall in the price of music cassettes.

39 D ISCUSSION Q UESTION 1 CONTINUED On another diagram, draw the demand for music CDs in Mexico. Explain how the following changes would affect the demand curve: (i) fall in advertising by music publishers such as Sony and Time Warner; (ii) reduction in the penalty for copyright infringement; and (iii) increase in the price of hamburgers.


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