Problems – Crumbling Books Many books made in the mid-19 th century deteriorate while they are sitting on the bookshelves of libraries. Several of these books are costly because the books were once made from rag paper. The reason why the pages of these books are so breakable is because of the acidity of the paper which begins from the chemical Aluminum Sulfate. In the 1850s, the request for books went even higher, so they used wood pulp since it was cheaper to make the paper for the books.
The Solution – Mass Deacidification The chemists came up with a way to stop the books from decaying, the process walled called mass deacidification. This is done in a vacuum chamber. The books are put inside the chamber and the air gets pumped out of the chamber. The moistness is then confiscated from the books and presented as a gas. The gas infiltrates the pages of the books and it counteracts the acid. Then it creates a new gas that shields the books from any other upcoming acid occurrences.
Chemical Usages Diethyl Zinc This chemical is used to counterbalance the acids in the pages of the crumbling books. This became a gas when the moisture was removed from the books. Zinc Oxide This is another gas that is formed after the acids were removed from the book pages. This gas defends the books from the acids that might form in the impending.
Problems – Classes of Fires Class A Fire This class fire contains a solid fuel. Class B Fire When the substance that is burning is a liquid or a gas. Class C Fire Caused by an electrical source. Class D Fire Is triggered by metal burning.
The Solution – How to put out the fires Class A Fire One would use water to put out a Class A Fire. Class B and C Fire Carbon dioxide would be used to put out this fire because the carbon dioxide cuts off the oxygen source. This will cover the fire because it is more thick than air. In a Class C Fire water fire extinguishers cannot be used. Class D Fire Is put out by a water which can be a supply of oxygen. Halons These are a class of fire extinguishing agents that are used in automatic sprinkling systems. They put out fires quickly without leaving anything behind.
Chemicals – Chemicals Used in the Chemistry of Firefighting Dry Chemicals can be dropped from airplanes on forest fires. The chemical, sodium hydrogen bicarbonate, produces carbon dioxide and when its exposed to heat, it shuts off the oxygen source to the fire. 2NaHCO 3 (s) + heat Na 2 CO 3 + H 2 O(g) +CO 2 (g)
What are Composites? Composites: Composites are material that are used in the creation of cars. Composites can be made by implanting fibers in a plastic base. The fibers may be glass, graphite, or a synthetic fiber. Composites are low in density and strong. They are also non-corrosive and they absorb vibrations. Because of these properties, composites are unique and valuable materials. Scientists today are finding new uses for composites and different kinds of composites to use.
What are the Advantages of Composites? Since the composites have low density, when they are used to build cars, the cars weigh less, thus less fuel, which benefits us in many ways. The cars would also be tougher and be able to protect the travelers in the vehicle better. Because one of the properties of composites is that it absorbs vibrations, the cars would be more quieter and easier riding than the steel-framed versions. They would also not rust or decompose.
What Things Today are Made with Composites? Sports Cars Many cars now have been substituted with some steel and chrome parts with composites in their latest models. Used to build Satellites, Military Aircrafts, and Private Airplanes. Tennis Racquets, Baseball Bats, and Golf Clubs Due to their shock-absorbing properties, they are ideal for sport equipment. Artificial Limbs Can be stronger but weigh less due to composites.
What class of fire is a forest fire in? A.Class AClass A B.Class BClass B C.Class CClass C D.Class DClass D E.Class EClass E How can you put it out? I. Use Halons II. Use Chemicals III. Use Water IV. Use Fire Blanket V. Use McDonald's Ketchup A.II B.I & IIII & III C.I & II & IIII & II & III D.IV & VIV & V E.All of the aboveAll of the above
WEBSITES TO GO TO: Chemistry of Crumbling Books-Mass Deacidification http://www.archives.gov/preservation/conservation/ mass-deacidification.html http://www.archives.gov/preservation/conservation/ mass-deacidification.html Chemistry of Fires-Classes of Fires http://www.uncg.edu/sft/extinguisher2.html http://www.uncg.edu/sft/extinguisher2.html Materials Science-Composites http://www.engr.sjsu.edu/WofMatE/Composites.htm http://www.engr.sjsu.edu/WofMatE/Composites.htm
FUN FACTS! In the process of making composites, when you embed fibers into the plastic base, that is the Matrix Phase. Since Halons damage the ozone layer,the halon fire- extinguishers are now required to be taken out of use. Mass deacidification, the process of stopping decaying books is also called "slow fires.
List three things that are made with composites or can be improved by using composites.