Presentation on theme: "Emotion Regulation of Others and Self Physiological correlates of emotion self-regulation during prolonged cycling performance."— Presentation transcript:
Emotion Regulation of Others and Self Physiological correlates of emotion self-regulation during prolonged cycling performance Andy Lane University of Wolverhampton
Emotion Regulation of Others and Self Introduction Goal-pursuit activities such as athletic competition are associated with intense emotions (Terry & Lane, 2000)
Emotion Regulation of Others and Self Introduction Prolonged intense exercise associated with perceived exertion (Crewe et al., 2008) Athletes competing in prolonged endurance events experience intense emotions (Baron et al., 2009; Linderman et al., 2003).
Emotion Regulation of Others and Self Figure 2 is a graph of a female explorer completing an expedition to the South Pole. Vigour and fatigue fluctuate during repeated bouts of hard exercise; endurance athletes should expect to feel intense fatigue and learn strategies to cope. Both athletes report fatigue, but one athlete is fatigued and happy and the other is fatigued and angry
Emotion Regulation of Others and Self Emotions and emotion regulation If emotions experienced in sport influence the goal attainment, then strategies to manage emotions during competition become important (Terry, 1995).
Emotion Regulation of Others and Self Glucose (mg/dL) Control AttentionWatch Normally Using self-control lowers blood glucose (Gailliot et al., 2007) Regulating emotions is effortful (Baumeister & Muraven, 2000)
Emotion Regulation of Others and Self Hypothetical relationship between resource depletion, exercise and regulation Use of resources Time to exhaustion
Emotion Regulation of Others and Self Two athletes working at the same intensity Time to exhaustion Use of Resources (arbitrary values) Key point Individuals who regulate emotion use physiological resources to a greater extent
Emotion Regulation of Others and Self Key point If emotion regulation is an effortful process (Muraven & Baumeister, 2000), then it uses the same physiological resources that are required for performance.
Emotion Regulation of Others and Self Purpose In this study, we hypothesized that cyclists who experience unpleasant emotional states during performance would concurrently experience a depletion of physiological resources due to unsuccessful regulatory efforts.
Emotion Regulation of Others and Self Method Participants –Well-trained cyclists (N= 28) Age range 18 – 35 years Weekly training hours; M = 14.23, SD =1.23 hours VO 2 Max. M = 65.6 (SD = 7 ml/kg/min.) Threshold wattage (SD = 28.3 watts)
Emotion Regulation of Others and Self Emotions Emotion was assessed using the Brunel Mood Rating Scale (Terry et al., 1999, 2003). A short version of the Profile of Mood States (McNair et al, 1971) The Brunel Mood Rating Scale assesses Anger, Confusion, Depression, Fatigue, Tension and Vigour Terry et al. (1999, 2003) reported a rigorous validation procedure for use in sport. –Confirmatory factor analysis –Criterion validity A right now response timeframe was used.
Emotion Regulation of Others and Self Method Participants completed a 100-mile cycle performance in laboratory conditions at an speed equivalent to lactate threshold. Lactate threshold was determined a week earlier using an incremental cycling test. –A stationary cycle ergometer rig (Kingcycle, High Wycombe, UK) was used.
Emotion Regulation of Others and Self Results Emotion data indicated significant changes over time. All athletes reported fluctuations in vigour and fatigue. 14 cases reported increases in anger, confusion, depression, and tension. Data divided into two groups; unpleasant emotion group and no symptoms of unpleasant emotion group (Lane & Terry, 2000)
Emotion Regulation of Others and Self Results
Emotion Regulation of Others and Self By contrast, among individuals reporting positive mood, ventilation rates were lower during exercise and increased sharply before exhaustion. Unpleasant mood was associated with a significant increase in ventilation rate during the middle and later stages and reduction shortly before volatile exhaustion, suggesting that earlier emotion-regulation efforts were costly. ANOVA to assess the effect of unpleasant mood on changes in physiological variables indicated a significant interaction effect for changes in ventilation rate: F 6,21 =3.09,P =.03, Partial Eta 2 =.47
Emotion Regulation of Others and Self
Emotion Regulation of Others and Self Discussion Regulating unpleasant emotions during intense exercise appears effortful (Gaillot et al., 2007). –This appears to contribute to using physiological resources also used for performance. Athletes who maintained positive emotions states during performance were able to increase efforts toward the end of performance
Emotion Regulation of Others and Self Unpacking unpleasant emotions An emotional state of high fatigue coupled with feeling angry, anxious and downhearted is different to feeling fatigued only (Lane & Terry, 2000). Increased fatigue and decreased vigour is the typical response to long-duration exercise (Baron et al., 2009; Crewe et al., 2008; Eston et al., 2007)
Emotion Regulation of Others and Self cont. Athletes learn to expect to feel increasing sensations of fatigue (Baron et al., 2009). Vigour and fatigue most likely index to usage and replenishment of physiological resources Athletes who carbohydrate feed during exercise typically report lower perceived exertion, or can exercise at a higher intensity for longer (Atkinson et al, 2007) Experienced athletes use affective responses to judge pacing strategies (Micklewright et al., 2009).
Emotion Regulation of Others and Self cont. Intentionally slowing down to regulate fatigue can evoke unpleasant emotions such as downhearted due to anticipating failure to attain performance goals (Baron et al., 2009; Carver & Scheier, 1990). Athletes regulate unpleasant emotions by focusing on the task at hand (Stevinson & Biddle, 1998). –In the present study, this involved in increasing effort by increasing rate of breathing.
Emotion Regulation of Others and Self Conclusions Findings offer preliminary support for the notion that emotion regulation during exercise is effortful Future research is needed to investigate this effect with stricter experimental control.